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Agriculture of Great Britain



 

Grammar: неличные формы глагола: герундий; повторение неличных форм глагола

Словарный минимум

Существительные:  
breed порода
cattle крупный рогатый скот
cereals хлебный злак
demand потребность, спрос
egg яйцо
enclosure огораживание
fertilizer удобрение
fruit фрукт
herd стадо
livestock домашний скот, поголовье
market рынок
meat мясо
milk молоко
pasture пастбище, выгон
peasant крестьянин
poultry домашняя птица
rent арендная плата
supply снабжение, поставка
tenant фермер-арендатор
variety сорт, вид, разновидность
vegetable овощ
yield урожай
   
Глаголы:  
account for отвечать за
achieve достигать, добиваться
aim at стремиться к
boost поднимать, повышать
compete for состязаться, соревноваться
depend on зависеть
derive from происходить, извлекать
employ нанимать
grow расти, выращивать
increase возрастать, увеличиваться
obtain получать, достигать
pay платить
sell продавать
undergo испытывать, подвергаться
use использовать
   
Прилагательные:  
arable пахотный
average средний
consumer потребительский
dairy молочный
pedigree племенной
rapid быстрый
   
Словосочетания:  
to meet the requirements удовлетворять потребности
to be satisfied with быть удовлетворённым чем-либо

 

Vocabulary Exercises

Упражнение 1. Определите значения следующих английских слов:

structure, social, productivity, industry, programme, method, leader, historical, tomato, total, prize, collection, computer, information, technique, conference, centre, popular.

 

Упражнение 2. Вставьте соответствующие предлоги:

1. In Britain medium-sized farms (from 10 to 50 hectares) account ... some 40 % of the total agricultural output.

2. Landlords in Great Britain derive their incomes ... rents.

3. Farming depends ... many physical factors, such as relief, climate and soil.

4. Sometimes the landowners are not satisfied ... the rents.

5. The farmers are constantly aiming ... improving the quality of agricultural products.

 

Упражнение 3. Образуйте причастие II от следующих

а) правильных глаголов:

to shape, to appear, to turn, to produce, to employ, to involve, to aim, to develop, to allow, to cross, to boost, to cultivate, to increase

б) неправильных глаголов:

to pay, to lead, to put, to become, to loose, to rise, to undergo, to sell, to grow, to feed, to give.

 

Упражнение 4. Переведите следующие словосочетания, обращая внимание на перевод:

а) причастия I:

the existing social structure of agriculture; following a long tradition; improving farming methods; selling throughout the year; new varieties giving higher crops, the Show attracting everybody's attention

б) причастия II:

research projects aimed at improving machinery; arable crops grown in Britain; million hectares of cultivated land; increased production; plants fed by water rich in nutrients; held annually.

 

Text. Agriculture in Britain

 

The existing social structure of agriculture in Britain has been shaped by its historical development. By the end of the 15th century there appeared a peasantry paying rent to their landlords. But many lords and landowners were dissatisfied with the rents, and they tried to get rid of tenants who could not pay more. It led to enclosures – the separation of land from common ground by putting walls or fences or hedges round it. Arable land was turned into pastures for sheep, as wool produced high profits. Wool became Britain’s most important export for several centuries after this. The direct result of the enclosures movement was the loss of land and jobs for many thousands of peasants that eventually led to the disappearance of peasantry in Britain in the 18th century. Britain became dependant for its food supply on imported agricultural produce.

But nowadays British agriculture is noted for its high level of efficiency and productivity. Employing less than 3% of the population, the agriculture produces nearly two-thirds of Britain’s food requirements. Britain today is self-sufficient in milk, eggs, potatoes, barley and oats. Also a large proportion of meat and vegetables is home-produced. Home-produced flour, cheese, bacon and ham meet half of the country’s needs.

Following a long tradition of innovation, Britain is currently involved in a comprehensive programme of research projects aimed at improving farming methods, machinery and the genetic quality of livestock and crops.

British livestock farmers have developed many of the cattle, sheep and pig breeds with world-wide reputations, such as Aberdeen Angus beef cattle, Romney sheep and Large White pigs. Expertise in this field has allowed Britain to become a world leader in the export of high quality genetic material from donor animals.

In the last 10 years the average milk yield per cow has risen by approximately 1000 litres and stands at more than 5000 litres per year.

About 80% of home-produced milk and 65 % of beef production derive from the national dairy herd, in which the Friesian breed is predominant. Friesian cows are often crossed with other breeds to obtain high – quality meat. Beef exports have risen steadily in recent years and now account for 17 % of total production. The country has a long tradition of sheep production, with more than 40 breeds. Britain’s progressive pig industry is responding to consumer demands by producing leaner meat achieved by crossing such breeds as the native Large White and the Landrace. The market for poultry meat - predominantly chicken, turkey and duck - has undergone rapid expansion. Improvements in breeding and husbandry techniques have boosted output, and turkey production, once aimed mainly at the Christmas market, now totals over 25 mln birds selling throughout the year.

Arable crops grown in Britain include cereals (wheat, oats), potatoes, sugar beet and fodder crops (turnip, swede, kale). There are 12 mln hectares of cultivated land under crops (37%) and grass (40%). Britain is now the world’s sixth largest exporter of cereals. Increased production has been achieved by the introduction of short-stemmed varieties giving higher yields, an increased growing area and a major more into autumn-sown crops.

Horticultural crops (fruit, vegetable and flowers) are largely grown on specialized holdings, but some are produced on arable farms. Also popular are English strawberries and Scottish raspberries.

Tomatoes form the most important glasshouse crop, and, together with lettuce and cucumbers, represent some 95% of the total value of glasshouse vegetable output. Glasshouse technology includes the use of automatically controlled heating, ventilation and watering. A recent innovation is hydroponics – a soil-less system of cultivation in which plants are fed by water rich in nutrients.

As a member state of the European Economic Community (EES), or Common Market, Britain applies the Common Agricultural market within the EES with its own prices.

Text Exercises

 

Упражнение 1. Скажите, в каком абзаце текста говорится о:

1) политике правительства Великобритании в области сельского хозяйства;

2) занятости населения Великобритании в сельском хозяйстве;

3) доле Великобритании в мировом экспорте зерновых культур;

4) успехах британских фермеров в выведении новых пород сельскохозяйственных животных;

5) факторах, влияющих на повышение урожайности зерновых.

 

Упражнение 2. Скажите, какие абзацы текста можно озаглавить следующим образом:

1. Home Food Supply.

2. Cattle Farming.

3. Short History.

4. Arable Farming.

5. The Government’s Agricultural Policy.

6. Glasshouse Crops.

7. Horticulture.

 

Упражнение 3. Найдите эквиваленты:

а) следующим английским словосочетаниям

1. Specialized holding 1) мясо птицы
2. Varieties of strawberries 2) экспорт говядины
3. Poultry meat 3) высокие урожаи
4. Food supply 4) сорта земляники
5. Glasshouse crops 5) фуражные культуры
6. Arable land 6) поставка продуктов питания
7. Beef export 7) специализированное хозяйство
8. Native breed 8) пахотная земля
9. Folder crops 9) местная порода
10. High yields 10) тепличные культуры

б) следующим русским словосочетаниям

1. Скрещивать породы 1) develop breeds
2. Завозить фрукты 2) respond to consumer demand
3. Продавать мясо индеек 3) produce high profit
4. Повысить надои молока 4) cultivate plants
5. Давать высокую прибыль 5) import fruit
6. Выводить породы 6) cross breeds
7. Отвечать спросу потребителя 7) meet needs
8. Возделывать растения 8) use fertilizers
9. Удовлетворять потребности 9) increase milk yields
10. Использовать удобрения 10) sell turkey meat

 

Упражнение 4. Закончите следующие предложения в соответствии с содержанием текста:

1. At present British agriculture is characterized by high level of …

2. Today Britain is self-sufficient in …

3. This country has become a world leader in the export of high quality genetic material from …

4. The average milk yield per cow is more than …

5. Friesian cows are often crossed with other breeds to obtain …

6. Arable crops cultivated in Britain include …

7. Horticultural crops are largely grown on specialized holdings and on …

8. Glasshouse technology includes the use of …

 

Упражнение 5. Согласитесь или опровергните следующие утверждения:

1. 40 % of the population of Britain is occupied in agriculture.

2. The aim of British agricultural research projects is to improve farming methods, machinery and the genetic quality of livestock and crops.

3. British livestock farmers have developed many breeds of cattle, sheep and pigs.

4. 20 breeds of sheep are bred in Britain now.

5. The Friesian breed is predominant in the national dairy herd.

6. Short-stemmed varieties of cereals are not cultivated in Britain.

7. Sugar beet is not grown in this country.

8. Britain is known to be one of the largest exporters of cereals in the world.

 

Упражнение 6. Ответьте на вопросы по тексту.

1. The existing social structure of agriculture in Britain has been shaped by its historical development, hasn’t it?

2. When did peasantry appear in Britain?

3. Why was arable land turned into pastures?

4. When did peasantry disappear in this country?

5. Britain became dependant on imported agricultural produce in the 18th century, didn’t it?

6. Is British agriculture characterized by high level of efficiency and productivity now?

7. What agricultural products does Great Britain produce?

8. What are the aims of British agricultural research projects?

9. British livestock farmers have developed many breeds of farm animals with world-wide reputations, haven’t they?

10. What can you say about beef export in this country?

11. How many breeds of sheep are bred in Britain?

12. What fodder crops are cultivated in this country?

13. What kinds of poultry are kept in Britain?

14. What horticultural crops are grown on specialized holdings and arable farms?

15. What is hydroponics?

 

Упражнение 7. Сделайте сообщение по теме “Agriculture in Britain”.

 

Упражнение 8. Аудирование. Прослушайте, о чём Айэн, владелец фермы в Уэльсе, говорит с Полом, Сью и Мэри, показывая скотный двор. Воспроизведите диалог в парах, ответьте на вопросы к нему и выполните задание.

Farm Animals

Ian: Those fields are ours and those are, too.

Sue: What animals do you keep?

Ian: Just about everything.

Mary: It’s just like a farm in a story book.

Ian: Is it?

Mary: Yes, there are so many different animals.

Ian: Yes, you are right. Here in the farmyard we have ducks, chickens and a few pigs. Then in that field, we have a few sheep.

Mary: And some lambs, too.

Ian: Yes. And in this field, as you can see, we have cows.

Mary: Can you tell me why they are making that noise?

Ian: They need milking.

Paul: Is it true that cows enjoy being milked?

Ian: No, that’s not quite true. Some cows enjoy it, but some don’t. Would you like to help me to milk the cows?

Mary: Yes, I’d love to.

Sue: And I’d like to watch you milk the cows!

 

Вопросы.

1. What does Ian do for a living?

2. What animals does Ian keep at his farm?

3. What does Mary think about Ian’s farm?

 

Задание. Подберите названия детёнышей животных, данных в левой колонке.

 

horse calf
cow kid
hen puppy
sheep gosling
goat foal
pig kitten
duck chicken
dog duckling
cat piglet
goose lamb

 

Упражнение 9. Прослушайте продолжение диалога и подготовьте сообщение по-английски о ферме Айэна.

 

Crops

Sue: What are your main crops?

Ian: We grow wheat, barley and some oats.

Paul: Am I right in thinking that it is harder to grow wheat than oats?

Ian: No, I don’t think that’s correct. In fact, in my experience, the opposite is true.

Paul: Oh.

Mary: When do you plant the crops?

Ian: We sow in the spring, then we harvest in the late summer, early autumn.

Mary: What is the man in the tractor doing?

Ian: He’s harvesting the wheat. Actually, it’s not a tractor. It’s called a combine harvester.

Paul: I think we’ve all got a lot to learn about the country.

 

Grammar Exercises

Упражнение 1. Переведите следующие предложения на русский язык, определите функции причастия I и причастия II:

1. The Lord Chancellor sits in the House of Lords on a large cushion stuffed with wool.

2. During the Industrial Revolution in Britain foodstuffs imported from overseas (Australia, New Zealand and Canada) became more profitable.

3. Large farms having over 50 hectares of land and employing 4 or more fulltime workers produce about half of the total agricultural output.

4. Landowners having large estates and deriving income from rents are called landlords or landed aristocracy.

5. The increasing use of intensive methods of production in agriculture has led to greater specialization.

6. Wheat and barley are the main cereals grown in the eastern part of the country.

 

Упражнение 2. Заполните пропуски причастиями I или II от глаголов, данных в скобках. Предложения переведите.

1. The only force (to act) on a freely falling body in vacuum is gravity.

2. Scientists have (to develop) different types of lasers.

3. When (to place) over the fire, a substance becomes hot.

4. The results (to obtain) with a digital computer are more accurate, than the results (to obtain) with an analogue computer.

5. A person can travel by car through any country in Europe (to know) international road signs.

6. The first practical telephone was (to invent) by the American scientist in 1876 and was further (to improve) by Edison.

7. In 1876 he was (to work) in Paris.

8. When (to heat) to a certain temperature, water increases in volume.

9. The man (to make) a report is the dean of our department.

10. Tests are usually (to write) at the end of the term.

 

Упражнение 3. Переведите предложения на английский язык.

1. Завод, выпускающий комбайны, находится в нашем городе.

2. Используя этот передовой метод, фермеры могут значительно повысить урожаи картофеля.

3. Подготавливая почву под посев, мы должны вносить удобрение.

4. Работа, выполненная этими молодыми специалистами, обсуждалась на конференции.

5. В данной статье опубликованы результаты экспериментов, проведённых на полях этого хозяйства.

6. Сельскохозяйственные машины, купленные хозяйством в прошлом году, используются для уборки культур.

7. Деревья, растущие в нашем саду, старые.

8. Нам рекомендовали сорта пшеницы, дающие более высокие урожаи.

 

Упражнение 4. Выделите герундий и герундиальные обороты в следующих предложениях и переведите их:

1. Selection is a simple but important method of improving plants.

2. She insisted on her method being applied o the farm.

3. Farmers are sure of obtaining high yields of tomatoes this year.

4. The use of electric power for mechanizing jobs in various production processes is steadily being extended.

5. A part of that income is used for developing and improving production.

6. We know of these production complexes ensuring high labour productivity.

7. Plowing is carried out in spring and autumn.

8. They insisted on buying this new equipment.

9. You heard of his being sent to Moscow.

10. Their having made those experiments is very important.

11. Protecting the environment from pollution is the most important problem today.

12. She translated the text without using a dictionary.

13. Our having applied the necessary fertilizers resulted in higher potato yields.

 

Упражнение 5. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на – ing формы.

1. We know of the development of agriculture being closely connected with the development of mechanization and electrification.

2. Our scientists work at finding more efficient ways to increase crop yields.

3. Using selection we can improve plants.

4. She is fond of dancing.

5. He began working at the problem of soil protection a year ago.

6. Applying the necessary fertilizers, we can improve soil fertility.

7. British livestock farmers achieved great success in improving cattle breeds.

8. They could solve this difficult problem having made a lot of experiments.

9. In solving this problem we must take into consideration many factors.

 

Упражнение 6. Найдите предложения, содержащие инфинитивные обороты, и переведите их.

1. We expect this crop to be grown in our region.

2. Electric power is known to be transformed into light energy in the electric lamp.

3. We expect thousands of new jobs to be created in this field.

4. Deliveries of the equipment for atomic power stations are reported to grow.

5. To get those data we had to make numerous experiments.

6. The housing problems are known to rank first in today’s countryside.

7. It is necessary to raise the efficiency of the use of both irrigated and drained lands.

8. To get this magazine they were to go to the library.

9. We discussed the methods to be used in our work.

 

Упражнение 7. Переведите предложения на английский язык, используя инфинитивные обороты.

1. Многие сельскохозяйственные процессы, как известно, механизированы.

2. Сообщают, что делегация приезжает завтра в 9 часов.

3. Говорят, он работает на нашем факультете.

4. Агроном хочет, чтобы новые сорта картофеля выращивались в нашем регионе.

5. Эти растения, как известно, широко используются для кормления крупного рогатого скота.

6. Вы считаете, что эти удобрения вносятся осенью?

7. Мы хотим, чтобы новое оборудование было установлено в нашей лаборатории.

8. Декан хочет, чтобы студенты первого курса приняли участие в конференции.

9. Фермеры полагают, что данные сорта огурцов будут хорошо расти в теплице.

Test № 9





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