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Правила чтения согласных букв и буквосочетаний



 

Таблица 7

Буква или буквосо-четание Звук Примечание Пример
g [g] 1. Перед гласными a, o, u 2. Перед согласными 3. В конце слов Game [geim] Glad [glæd] Big [big]
r [r] 1. В начале слов перед гласной 2. После согласной Red [red] Green [gri:n]
th [Ө] 1. В начале значимых слов 2. В конце слов Thin [Өin] Teeth [ti:Ө]
ve [v] В конце слов Twelve [twelve]
w [w] В начале слов перед гласными We [wi:]

Окончание табл. 7

wh [w] В начале слов White [wait]
[h] Перед o Who [hu:]
wr [r] В начале слов Write [rait]
j [d ] Перед гласными Jam [d æm]
g [d ] Перед e, i, y Page [peid ]
sh [∫] Перед гласными и в конце слов She [∫i:] Fish [fi∫]
ch [t∫] 1. В начале слов 2. В конце односложных слов после долгого гласного звука Chess [t∫es] Teach [ti:t∫]
tch [t∫] В конце односложных слов после краткого гласного звука Match [mæt∫]
ture [t∫ə] В конце слов Picture [‘pikt∫ə]

 

Правила чтения буквосочетаний

Таблица 8

Буквосо- четание Звук Примечание Пример
oi oy [כּi] В ударном слоге Voice [vכּis] Boy [bכּi]
ear eer ere [iə] В некоторых односложных словах и в ударном слоге многосложных слов Clear [kliə] Deer [diə] Here [hiə]
air are [εə] В некоторых односложных словах и в ударном слоге многосложных слов Chair [t∫εə] Care [kεə]
wor [wə:] В начале слов в ударном слоге Work [wə:k]
oor[2] [uə] В ударном слоге Poor [puə]
ur+гласная* [uə] [juə] В ударном слоге Sure [∫uə] Pure [pjuə]
qu+гласная [kw]+гл. В ударном слоге Quite [kwait]
ire yre [aiə] В ударном слоге ‘tired [‘taiəd] ‘tyre [‘taiə]
our ower [auə] В ударном слоге Our [‘auə] ‘flower [‘flauə]
tion sion ssion   [∫n] В конце слов ‘station [‘stei∫n] ‘tension [‘ten∫n] ‘session [‘se∫n]
sure [ ə] В конце слов ‘pleasure [‘ple ə]
sion [ n] В конце слов после гласных ’television [‘telivi n]

ФОНЕТИЧЕСКИЕ УПРАЖНЕНИЯ

 

Упражнение 1. Произнесите следующие слова. Следите за тем, чтобы звуки [s], [z] произносились у альвеол:

 

[s] [z]

 

sin side nice kites lies dimes pins

silk site miss bits dies lines bills

sick sit kiss sits ties miles sides

pies binds lids

 

Упражнение 2. Протранскрибируйте и произнесите следующие слова:

 

my mile in pies nice bits

by mild ill ties mice lips

die mind is lines miss kicks

tie kind it sides kiss sits

 

Упражнение 3. Произнесите следующие слова. Внимательно следите за тем, чтобы при произнесении звука [ð] кончик языка находился между зубами и чтобы между поверхностью языка и верхними зубами была щель:

 

than then this [ðis] lithe

that them ‘this is tithe

 

Упражнение 4. Протранскрибируйте и произнесите следующие слова:

 

Day, man, mail, than, kind, name, hе, sick, knelt, desks, ties, pay, him, his, lines, middle, kitten, that, them

 

Упражнение 5. Произнесите следующие слова. Не забудьте округлить и выдвинуть вперед губы при произнесении звука [w]:

 

way well why twin

we went when twenty

wine wife while twelve

win west white twist

 

Упражнение 6. Произнесите следующие пары слов. Обратите внимание на различия в артикуляции звуков [w] и [v]:

 

wain – vein wine – vine wise – vise

will – veil went – vent west – vest

 

 

Упражнение 7. Произнесите следующие слова. Следите за тем, чтобы кончик языка находился за альвеолами при произнесении звука [r]:

 

rain raise train write ‘marry

rail rag green wreath ‘carry

ran red French wrap ‘ferry

 

Упражнение 8. Произнесите следующие пары слов, содержащие звуки [u] и [u:]:

 

nook – noon foot – food

look – moon cook – cool

book – boot took – spoon

 

Упражнение 9. Произнесите следующие слова. Следите, чтобы после [η] не было гласного звука:

 

long ring ‘answering ‘morning

gong bring ‘doing ‘evening

song sing ‘playing ‘opening

throng thing ‘showing ‘closing

reading ‘writing ‘giving ‘sitting

standing ‘taking ‘asking ‘watching

 

Упражнение 10. Произнесите следующие слова. Следите за долготой звука [ə:]:

 

her turn nerve ‘certain world

sir term serve ‘curtain word

fur girl third nurse work

burn bird first curse ‘worker

 

Упражнение 11. Произнесите следующие пары слов. Обратите внимание на различия в артикуляции звуков [e] и [ə:]:

 

Ben – burn get – girl well – world

ten – turn set – serve wet – work

stem – tern bet – birth west – worst

 

Упражнение 12. Повторите следующие звуки. Обратите внимание на различия в артикуляции звуков [ə:] и [כּ:]:

 

burn - born world - warm word - ward

turn - torn curl - corn shirt - short

firm - form worm - warm third – thorn

 

Упражнение 13. Произнесите следующие слова. Следите за тем, чтобы второй элемент дифтонгов [uə ]и [juə]звучал кратко:

 

[uə ] [juə]

moor tour mure cure

poor sure [∫uə] pure 'mural

Упражнение 14. Произнесите следующие слова, обращая внимание на округление губ при произнесении согласного перед [w]. Звуки [k] и [t] должны произноситься отчетливо перед [w].

 

queen twin twill

quite twinned 'twilight

quest twirl twelfth

question twelve twice

quick 'twenty twist

 

Упражнение 15. Повторите гласные звуки [i:], [e], [æ], [כּ], [L], [ai] и [ou]. Следите за правильностью артикуляции.

 

[i:] [e]

me green ten well e'leven

he 'easy pen 'yellow 'texbook

she 'evening pencil French 'breakfast

tea 'please friend 'twenty 'question

 

[æ] [כּ] [L]

man 'absent on from son

jam match orange dog Sunday

thank 'factory sorry clock colour

lamp 'Saturday tomorrow what butter

 

[ai] [ou]

I time no 'Soviet

my 'minus go those

bye to'night show hope

tie write hello 'notebooks

 

Упражнение 16. Произнесите следующие слова. Помните, что звук [∫] мягкий:

 

shine shave shift fish 'Swedish

she shell sheep dash 'Danish

show shelf sheet dish 'Finnish

 

Упражнение 17. Произнесите следующие слова. Следите за тем, чтобы звук [L] звучал кратко:

 

run lunch bus cup 'funny son 'other

sun luck plus cut 'sunny month 'mother

fun puck fuss shut 'lucky 'London 'brother

 

Упражнение 18. Произнесите следующие слова. Буквосочетание er в конечном безударном слоге произносится как звук [ə]:

 

summer 'other 'teacher 'letter

number 'mother 'chatter 'better

winter 'brother 'matter 'butter

 

Упражнение 19. Произнесите следующие слова. Следите за тем, чтобы губы были округлены и слегка выдвинуты вперед при произношении звука [ כּ:]:

 

door wore born ball 'corner

floor tore corn wall 'former

more store torn tall 'border

bore score form small 'scorer

 

halt sort short north

salt port fork 'forty

talk sport forth 'shorter

 

Упражнение 20. Выпишите в колонки слова, в которых содержатся звуки [L], [כּ], [כּ:], [t∫] и [d ].

 

Child, fork, clock, class, jam, stage, cup, cheat, born, not, 'funny, chess, door, box, choose, juice, beech, 'summer, 'butter.

 

Упражнение 21. Произнесите следующие слова. Следите за тем, чтобы второй элемент звукосочетания [auə] не заменялся звуками [j] или [й]:

 

 

wire lyre tired

fire byre fired

hire tyre hired

 

Упражнение 22. Произнесите следующие слова; не выдвигайте вперед губы при произнесении звукосочетания [auə] – не заменяйте второй элемент звуком [w]:

 

our 'flower

flour 'power

sour 'tower

hour ['auə] 'vowel

 

 

Упражнение 23. Повторите гласные звуки [æ], [α:], [כּ:], [u:], [ju:], [ə:], [au], [ou], [iə]. Следите за изменениями в длительности гласных в зависимости от положения в слове, а также в зависимости от согласных, которые следуют за гласными.

 

[æ] [α:] [כּ:]

ran shall large glass raw re'corder

ban tank hard class all salt

can thank after last wall su'pport

stand happy article 'basket corner chalk

 

[u:] [ju:] [ə:]

do boom you early work

too pool new learn 'dirty

through [θru:] food pupil girl 'thirty

soon boot excuse word 'thirsty

 

[au] [ou] [iə]

how round low 'over near real

allow pound show smoke hear 'really

brown sound own 'yellow spear 'nearly

town out home 'window tear 'nearby

Lesson 1

My Family

 

Grammar: глаголы to be, to have в настоящем, прошедшем, будущем времени, личные, притяжательные и указательные местоимения, множественное число существительных, притяжательный падеж существительных, оборот there is/are, простое настоящее и настоящее продолженное время (Present Indefinite Tense, Present Continuous Tense)

 

Словарный минимум

Существительные:

wife жена
husband муж
house-wife домохозяйка
son (grandson) сын (внук)
daughter (granddaughter) дочь (внучка)
grandmother, grandfather бабушка, дедушка
cousin двоюродный брат, сестра (кузен, кузина)
aunt тётя
uncle дядя
brother брат
sister сестра
nephew племянник
niece племянница

 

Прилагательные:

rich богатый
tall высокий
casual случайный, нерегулярный, выходной (нерабочий), беззаботный, неформальный
attractive привлекательный
soft мягкий, нежный, тихий, спокойный
gentle мягкий, добрый, тихий, спокойный
common общий, обычный, простой, здравый
clever умный, ловкий, способный
outdoor находящийся вне дома, на открытом воздухе, наружный, не домосед
local местный
close близкий; близко (adv)
sociable общительный
quiet спокойный, тихий
bright яркий, способный, живой, весёлый
generous щедрый, великодушный
tolerant терпимый

 

Глаголы:

wear носить (одежду), быть одетым
get back вернуться
travel путешествовать
prefer предпочитать
study учиться, изучать
mend чинить, ремонтировать
entertain развлекаться
agree соглашаться

 

Словосочетания:

to see much of smb часто видеться с кем-либо
to be interested in smth быть заинтересованным в чём-то
to be full of smth быть полным чего-либо
to look after smth, smb присматривать за чем-то, кем-то
to go skating (skiing) кататься на коньках (лыжах)
to be fond of smth увлекаться чем-то, нравиться
to be going to do smth собираться что-то делать
to get married пожениться
to do well хорошо учиться
to be good at smth быть умелым, искусным в чём-то

 

Vocabulary Exercises

 

Упражнение 1. Подберите определения для каждого из родственников.

Grandmother, granddaughter, niece, aunt, great grandmother, cousin, uncle, grandfather

1. Your mother’s father

2. Your father’s sister

3. Your father’s brother’s son

4. Your sister’s daughter

5. Your father’s mother

6. Your daughter’s daughter

7. Your father’s brother

8. Your father’s grandmother

 

Упражнение 2. Заполните пропуски подходящими по смыслу прилагательными.

Tall, soft, common, clever, outdoor, local, close, quiet, bright, generous

1. There’s a bus-stop … to the school.

2. Tom is 6 foot … .

3. He is … at arithmetic.

4. The husband is French, the wife is German, and the lodger (жилец) is Italian, but they have English as a … language.

5. He is … with his money.

6. He leads an … life; so you can’t call him a home-lover.

7. A … boy learns quickly.

8. This is our … doctor; he treats patients of this district.

9. She likes a … pillow and a hard mattress.

10. It is impossible for her to live a … life in the country; she is a very bright girl.

 

Упражнение 3. Составьте подходящие словосочетания с глаголами:

wear a broken window
travel to proposal
study a nice dress
mend tea to coffee
prefer by one’s own car
agree a foreign language
get back oneself with playing the piano
entertain home

 

 

Text. An English Family

 

The Cornfords live in Rugby at 28 Coronation Street. John Cornford is a rich businessman of about fifty. He is tall and dark. He wears dark suits but at weekends he wears casual clothes. He usually gets up at six, does some exercises and goes to the office. He never gets back before ten o’clock at night, so he doesn’t see much of his family. He is interested in collecting pictures of horses. At the moment he is traveling on business in America because he is opening an office over there next year.

Sarah, Mr. Cornford’s wife, is forty-five. She is an attractive woman with blond hair and soft blue eyes. She is kind and gentle, very practical and full of common sense. Sarah is a house-wife. She looks after the house and the family.

The Cornfords have two children: a son and a daughter. Their son’s name is Steve. He is 22. He is a clever young man. He works at a design office. He is a very outdoor person. He is a member of the local yacht club. When he has a chance Steve and his friends get down to the coast for the weekend, camping there and sailing in competition. He plays football sometimes for a Rugby team, but prefers watching the game, either on television or at the local ground where he goes with his father sometimes.

Steve has a number of close friends and a beautiful girl-friend, Pauline, by name. Pauline studies at a teacher’s training college. Steve and Pauline often go out for the evening to the cinema or else they go skating at the Rugby skating rink. Pauline is a very good skater and she is trying to teach Steve how to skate well. Both Steve and Pauline are very friendly and sociable. Sometimes Steve takes Pauline to the pub where they meet some of their friends and sit and chat for an hour or so and sometimes they go dancing. Steve is very fond of Pauline. They are going to get married in a year.

Steve’s sister, Alice, is a lovely, quiet, serious girl. She goes to grammar school. She is a bright girl and does very well at school. Alice reads a lot, she is fond of music. She is good at drawing. She takes lessons in drawing at the local art school.

Sarah’s mother, Grandma, as the children call her, also lives with them. She is in late sixties. Her kind face is wrinkled, her hair is grey, but she is still quite young in spirit. She likes reading and gardening and she often goes for long walks. She’s a very active person. Either she’s making something or mending something or doing something to entertain herself. She’s extremely generous, but not very tolerant with the people who don’t agree with her.

 

Text Exercises

 

Упражнение 1. Ответьте на вопросы по тексту.

Is the Cornford family large? How many are they? Where do they live? What does Mr. Cornford do? What does he like? What is he interested in? What is he doing in America now? What is Mrs. Cornford like? What does she do? How old is Steve? What’s his job? Is Steve married? Do Steve and Pauline often go out? What is Alice like? What is she fond of? How old is Sarah’s mother? What does she look like? What kind of woman is she?

 

Упражнение 2. Согласитесь или опровергните следующие утверждения:

1. John Cornford is a driver. 2. John Cornford is married. 3. Steve isn’t a very outgoing person. 4. Steve is going to get married. 5. Steve is the only child in the family. 6. Sarah’s mother lives with the Cornfords, too.

Упражнение 3. Прочитайте следующий диалог и воспроизведите его в парах.

 

My Family

- What’s your name?

- My name is Richard Fulton.

- Where are you from?

- I’m from New York.

- How old are you?

- I’m twenty four. I was born on July 26, 1982.

- How many brothers do you have?

- I have two brothers. The elder one is twenty. He’s at the University. The younger one is seventeen. He’s in his last year of high school.

- How many sisters do you have?

- I have one sister. She is nine. She goes to grammar school.

- What does your father do?

- He is a doctor.

- Does your whole family live here?

- My whole family except my grandparents. They live on a farm near Milwaukee.

- Are you related to Mrs. Rayburn?

- She is my aunt.

 

Упражнение 4. Ответьте на вопросы ваших товарищей о вашей семье.

What is your name? How old are you? Are you married? Where do you study? Have you got any hobby? Is your family large? Have you got any brothers or sisters? Will you tell us some words about them? Where do your parents live? What are they? How old are they? What are they like? Are your grandparents alive? How old are they? What do they do? What are they like?

Grammar Exercises

 

Упражнение 1. Вставьте глагол to be в Present, Past или Future Indefinite.

1. My father … a teacher. 2. He … a pupil twenty years ago. 3. I … doctor when I grow up. 4. My sister … not … at home tomorrow. 5. She … at school tomorrow. 6. … you … at home tomorrow? 7. … your father at work yesterday? 8. My sister … ill last week. 9. She … not ill now. 10. Yesterday we … at the theatre. 11. Where … your mother now? – She … in the kitchen. 12. Where … you yesterday? – I … at the cinema. 13. When I come home tomorrow, all my family … at home. 14. … your little sister in bed now? – Yes, she … . 15. … you … at the Institute tomorrow? – Yes, I … . 16. When my granny … young, she … an actress. 17. My friend … in Moscow now. 18. He … in St. Peterburg tomorrow. 19. Where … your books now? – They … in my bag. 20. She … ill yesterday, but now she … fine.

 

Упражнение 2. Заполните пропуски соответствующими формами глаголов to have и to be.

1. I … married. 2. I … a miner. 3. I … a family. 4. My family … large. 5. She … two brothers. 6. We … a fine flat. 7. My wife’s mother … my mother-in-law. 8. This room … five desks. 9. Her husband … in the army. 10. Sally … green eyes. 11. He … a lot of problems. 12. This man … my uncle. 13. The car … a radio. 14. He … blue eyes and a bad memory. 15. What … you? 16. May … 31 days. 17. … your brother a bicycle? 18. … you married? 19. He … two sisters and a brother, but he … not any cousins. 20. She … strong and young.

 

Упражнение 3. Вставьте пропущенные личные местоимения в объектном падеже.

1. Ann and Pete are in class. I can see … . 2. He is in the house. Go to … . 3. She is at college. You can meet … there. 4. The text-book is on the desk. Take … . 5. We are late. Can you help … ? 6. Ann is at school. Meet … please. 7. They are at home. May I speak to … ? 8. Pete may be late. Tell … the time, please. 9. I have a lot of pencils. Let’s look at … . 10. Mary is at home. Tell … to come, please.

 

Упражнение 4. Вставьте пропущенные притяжательные местоимения.

1. We live in a little village. There are very many old houses in … village. 2. You take chemistry at University. Are there many students at … group? 3. They live in Kiev. Do they live in the centre of … city? 4. He teaches at school. Does he like … job? 5. I have got a large family. I spend every weekend with … family.

 

Упражнение 5. Перефразируйте следующие высказывания в соответствии с моделью:

e.g. These are our books. – These books are ours.

1. Those are their tickets. 2. Is this your pen? 3. That is our dog. 4. This is his typewriter. 5. Are those your gloves? 6. Is that my umbrella? 7. This is Mary’s hat. 8. That is my brother’s house. 9. This is his coat. 10. Are these my flowers? 11. Is that your car? 12. Is that her tape-recorder?

e.g. These pencils are hers. – These are her pencils.

1. Those gloves are yours. 2. Is that dictionary hers? 3. Is that bag mine? 4. That car is ours. 5. The dog isn’t mine. 6. Those glasses are his. 7. Are these pictures John’s? 8. Is that shirt his? 9. That newspaper is hers. 10. That house is my brother’s. 11. These newspapers are yours. 12. This car is theirs.

 

Упражнение 6. Поставьте следующие существительные во множественное число:

A star, a mountain, a tree, a shilling, a king, the waiter, the queen, a man, the man, a woman, the woman, an eye, a shelf, a box, the city, a boy, a goose, the watch, a mouse, a dress, a toy, a tooth, a child, the ox, the life, a tomato

 

Упражнение 7. Поставьте следующие словосочетания во множественное число:

this tea-cup, this egg, that wall, that picture, this foot, that mountain, this lady, that window, this man, that match, this knife

 

Упражнение 8. Поставьте следующие предложения во множественное число.

1. This is a star. 2. This is a boy. 3. This is a baby. 4. That is a plate. 5. That is a flower. 6. That is a bookshelf. 7. Is this a sofa? 8. Is this a bookcase? 9. Is this a man? 10. Is that a ball? 11. Is a window open? 12. Is the door closed? 13. Is the boy near the window? 14. This isn’t a mountain. 15. That isn’t a goose. 16. This isn’t a mouse. 17. It is not a cat. 18. It isn’t a tree. 19. This man is an engineer. 20. That woman is my sister. 21. That girl is my niece. She is a pupil. 22. This boy has a good coat. 23. I have a good pen. My pen is in the pocket. 24. Has this lady a knife? 25. This lady is that gentleman’s wife. 26. This shoe is too large for my foot. 27. My tooth is white. 28. This is my friend’s study. 29. Is this worker an Englishman or a German? – He is a Frenchman. 30. This strawberry is still green.

 

Упражнение 9. Перефразируйте следующие словосочетания и предложения, употребляя притяжательный падеж.

1. The room of my friend. 2. The questions of my son. 3. The wife of my brother. 4. The table of our teacher. 5. The poems of Pushkin. 6. The voice of this girl. 7. The new club of the workers. 8. The letter of Pete. 9. The car of my parents. 10. The life of this woman. 11. The handbags of these women. 12. The flat of my sister is large. 13. The children of my brother are at home. 14. The room of the boys is large. 15. The name of the girl is Jane. 16. The work of these students is interesting.

 

Упражнение 10. Переведите на английский язык, употребляя притяжательный падеж:

книга мальчика, адрес моего друга, машина Смита, кукла сестры, дом этого человека, сестра этой девушки, комната учителей, книги этих мальчиков, дом этих мужчин, дверь комнаты, конец фильма, чашка кофе, ваза с цветами, кувшин молока, бутылка вина, крыша дома, сад моего соседа, радио Попова, кусок мела, реки Сибири, мамина кошка, дом родителей, письмо его сестры, коньки её брата, тетради ваших учеников, вещи детей, птичье гнездо, отец моего друга, сумка Тома, словари студентов, книга нашего учителя.

 

Упражнение 11. Переведите на русский язык предложения.

1. There is a river in this forest. The river is in this forest. 2. There are books and magazines in my bag. The books and magazines are in the bag. 3. There is a copy-book on the table. The copy-book is on the table. 4. There is hot tea and cheese on the table. The hot tea and cheese are on the table. 5. There are pupils and a teacher in the classroom. The pupils and the teacher are in the classroom. 6. There is a museum in the street. The museum is in the street. 7. There is a book and two magazines on the shelf. The book and two magazines are on the shelf.

 

Упражнение 12. Поставьте глаголы в следующих предложениях в прошедшем и будущем временах:

1. There are many trees in our garden. 2. There is a trolley-bus stop near my office. 3. There are some mistakes in his dictation. 4. There is a piece of chalk on the table. 5. There is much snow in the street. 6. There are many flowers in the vase. 7. There are two pens in my bag. 8. There are three rooms in my flat. 9. There is an airport in our town. 10. There is a carpet in our bedroom.

 

Упражнение 13. Переведите на английский язык.

1. На этой улице много новых домов. 2. Что лежит на том столе? 3. В нашей аудитории нет карты. 4. Сколько стульев в вашем кабинете? 5. Рядом с моим домом есть небольшой парк. 6. На нашей улице скоро будет новый магазин. 7. Что находится на углу улицы? 8. На вечере будет много гостей? 9. В твоей контрольной были ошибки? 10. В вашей квартире есть спальня? 11. Словарь не на столе, он на полке. 12. У них нет книжного шкафа. 13. У меня нет этого журнала. 14. На столе нет этого журнала. 15. Этот журнал на столе. 16. Есть ли в этом журнале его статья? 17. Мой институт на проспекте Мира. 18. Слова этого текста в конце учебника. 19. В этом тексте нет новых слов. 20. В нашей группе было 23 студента в прошлом году, а в этом году их 25. 21. У моего друга очень хорошая библиотека. 22. На нашей улице будет новый магазин. 23. На столе горячий чай и сыр. 24. В этом тексте нет новых слов. 25. Времени нет. 26. В английском алфавите 26 букв. 27. В неделе семь дней. 28. В городке несколько маленьких парков. 29. У меня нет времени. 30. В комнате три окна.

 

Упражнение 14. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Present Continuous или в Present Indefinite:

 

1. I (to read) now. I (to read) every day.
2. We (to drink) tea now. We (to drink) tea every morning.
3. We (not to watch) TV now. We (not to watch) TV in the morning.
4. They (not to eat) now. They (not to eat) at the lesson.
5. You (to work) now? You (to work) every day?
6. He (to play) now? He (to play) in the afternoon?
7. What you (to do) now? What you (to do) every morning?
8. What you (to read) now? What you (to read) after dinner?
9. What they (to eat) now? What they (to eat) at breakfast?
10. What your brother (to drink) now? What your brother (to drink) in the evening?

 

Упражнение 15. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Present Continuous или в Present Indefinite:

1. I (to write) a composition now. 2. I (not to drink) milk now. 3. I (to go) for a walk after dinner. 4. I (not to go) to the theatre every Sunday. 5. He (not to read) now. 6. He (to play) now. 7. He (to play) now? 8. My mother (to work) at a factory. 9. My aunt (not to work) at the factory. 10. You (to work) at an office? 11. My friend (to live) in St. Petersburg. 12. My cousin (not to live) in Moscow. 13. The children (not to sleep) now. 14. You (to play) chess now? 15. Look at the sky: the clouds (to move) slowly, the sun (to appear) from behind the clouds, it (to get) warmer. 16. Listen! Who (to play) the piano in the next room? 17. It (to take) me forty minutes to get to the University. 18. Michael (to know) German rather well. 19. When your lessons (to begin) on Monday? 20. The dog (to lie) on the floor.

Test № 1

Family

 

Выберите правильный ответ.

1. Your … is a girl or a woman who has the same parents as you.

a) sister; b) cousin; c) aunt.

2. Your … is the brother of your mother or father, or the husband of your aunt?

a) cousin; b) uncle; c) nephew.

3. Your … is the daughter of your sister or brother.

a) cousin; b) niece; c) nephew.

4. Mr and Mrs. Brown are … .

a) brother and sister; b) husband and wife; c) cousins.

5. What is the secret of a happy … ?

a) wedding; b) marrying; c) marriage.

6. When you look after somebody you …

a) take care of them; b) travel with them; c) agree to them.

7. You should … children to be generous, not selfish.

a) wear; b) mend; c) bring up.

8. Group of parents and children is called … .

a) grandparents; b) family; c) aunts and uncles.

9. … is someone who you know well and like, but who is not related to you.

a) relative; b) friend; c) brother.

10. Someone’s … is the son of your sister or brother.

a) cousin; b) nephew; c) niece.

11. Your … are your brothers or sisters.

a) relatives; b) siblings; c) cousins.

12. Both parents should … their children.

a) take care; b) take care of; c) take care for.

13. A … is a man whose wife has died and who hasn’t married again.

a) widow; b) widower; c) widowed.

14. … is a child whose parents are dead.

a) an orphan; b) a foster child; c) an adopted child.

15. They are … each other.

a) with love to; b) in love with; c) in love to.

 

Lesson 2

Krasnoyarsk

 

Grammar: местоимения some, any, no и их производные; неопределённые местоимения much, many, little (a little), few (a few); порядок слов в предложениях; типы вопросов; предлоги времени и пространства; числительные; настоящее совершённое и настоящее совершённо-продолженное время (Present Perfect Tense, Present Perfect Continuous Tense)

Словарный минимум

Существительные:

fortress крепость
confluence слияние (рек), пересечение (дорог)
merchant купец
century век, столетие
spectator зритель, очевидец, наблюдатель
circus цирк, круглая площадь с радиально расходящимися улицами
lore знания (в определённой области)
exhibition выставка, показ, проявление
branch ветвь, отрасль; филиал, отделение
enterprise промышленное предприятие (фабрика, завод); предпринимательство
sight вид, зрелище; достопримечательности
tributary приток
chapel часовня, церковь
bridge мост
achievement достижение
contemporary современник, сверстник
reservation заповедник

 

Прилагательные:

whole весь, целый
outstanding выдающийся
ancient древний, старинный; античный
scientific научный
educational образовательный
(non)-ferrous (цветной) чёрный (металл)
rare редкий, необычный
main главный, основной
powerful мощный
municipal муниципальный, городской; самоуправляющийся
artificial искусственный
marvellous изумительный, удивительный
numerous многочисленный
craggy скалистый, крутой, отвесный
adroit ловкий, проворный, искусный, находчивый
true истинный, правдивый

 

Глаголы:

amaze изумлять, поражать
stretch простираться, тянуться, растягиваться
include включать, заключать, содержать в себе
construct строить, сооружать, воздвигать
preserve сохранять, охранять, оберегать
produce производить, выпускать
belong принадлежать, относиться к чему-то, происходить
depict изображать, рисовать, описывать
award награждать, присуждать
appear показываться, появляться, выходить, оказываться
surround окружать, обступать
attract привлекать, притягивать
carve резать, вырезать, высекать (из камня)

 

Словосочетания:

to pay attention to smth обращать внимание на что-либо
to date back to относиться к, восходить к, вести начало
to go without saying само собой разумеется
(not) by chance (не) случайно
to put into operation вводить в эксплуатацию
from time immemorial с незапамятных времён
a great number of много, большое количество
no wonder неудивительно

 

Vocabulary Exercises

Упражнение 1. По сходству с какими русскими словами можно догадаться о значении следующих слов:

Оstrog, August, Cossacks, steppe, taiga, status, cultural, bibliophile, opera, champion, professional, theatre, museum, concert, history, economy, gallery, complex, list, territory, memorials, intellectual, potential, academy, physics, chemistry, technical, metals, metallurgy, elements, ocean, hydroelectric, symbols, medal, grandiose, unique, traditional, motorcycle, tourism, hectares, fantastical, alpinist, guest.

 

Упражнение 2. Подберите определения к следующим словам:

a) fortress; b) exhibition; c) tributary; d) reservation; e) ancient; f) rare; g) municipal; h) artificial; i) stretch; j) preserve; k) surround; l) belong

1. Be the property of, be a member of, have as a right or proper place;

2. Belonging to times long past, very old;

3. Not natural or real, made by the art of man;

4. Collection of things shown publicly; display of goods, animals, plants, flowers, etc. shown in competition, for prizes;

5. Fortified building or town;

6. Of a town or city having self-government;

7. Keep safe from harm or danger; keep from decay, risk, loss; care for and protect land, rivers, lakes, etc with animals, birds, and fish;

8. Unusual, uncommon, not often happening, seen, etc;

9. Area of land reserved for a special purpose;

10. Make wider, longer or higher, by pulling; lie on at full length;

11. Be, go, all round, shut in on all sides;

12. (Of a river) flowing into another.

 

Text. Krasnoyarsk

 

The fortress (ostrog) near Krasny Yar was built in August of 1628. The Cossacks headed by Andrei Dubensky during their way along the Enisey paid attention to the place of confluence of the two rivers – the Enisey and the Kacha. The beauty of these places amazed them – steppes, mountains and the taiga stretched for miles around. The ostrog got its present-day name “Krasnoyarsk” at the end of the 17th century. The status of the city was got by Krasnoyarsk in 1690. In the 18th century the Moscow High Road went through the whole city.

Krasnoyarsk is a cultural center of Siberia. In its history there are many outstanding names among which you can find a painter Vassily Surikov, a merchant-bibliophile Gennady Yudin, an opera singer Dmitry Khvorostovsky, a choreographer Michail Godenko, a two times Olympic champion in wrestling Ivan Yarigin.

Five professional theatres function in the city: the House of Opera and Ballet, a drama theatre, a musical theatre, a puppet theatre and a theatre of young spectators. Besides there are two concert halls, the Organ Hall, a circus, the museum of local lore, history and economy, the Surikov house-museum, a picture gallery and a large exhibition complex. 62 libraries are open for readers in the city.

Krasnoyarsk is included into the list of historical places in the Russian Federation. The centre of ancient Krasnoyarsk and historical buildings constructed in the 19th – and at the beginning of the 20th centuries are rather well preserved. On the city territory there are some memorials dating back to the archeology of the Stone Age such as Afontova Hill, Bugach, Gremyachy Log and others.

Krasnoyarsk is rich in knowledge! The city is one of the largest Siberian scientific centers. Intellectual potential is consolidated under Krasnoyarsk Scientific Center, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Six large institutes, such as Kirensky Institute of Physics, the Sukachev Forest Institute, the Institute of Chemistry and the Computer Center are included in it. There are a great number of schools and 13 higher educational institutions in Krasnoyarsk. Among them State, Technical, Agrarian, Technological and Teacher training universities, Academy of non-ferrous metals and gold, Aerospace, Medical and Architectural-Constructing academies, Institute of Arts, Trade-Economic Institute.

The leading branch of industry in Krasnoyarsk is non-ferrous metallurgy. More than 30 heavy, light, alloyed, rare-earth metals and elements are produced in the city, and the most important are aluminum, platinum and gold. The largest industrial enterprises are the Krasnoyarsk Aluminum Plant, the Krasnoyarsk Plant of Non-ferrous Metals and Gold, the “Sibelectrostal” Plant, the Metallurgical Plant, the Software Plant and many others.

It goes without saying; the main sight of Krasnoyarsk is the Enisey. Its length is 3, 487 km. On the way to the ocean the great Siberian river takes more that 500 large tributaries. Not by chance it was the Enisey where the most powerful in Eurasia hydroelectric power-stations were built: the Sayano-Shushenskaya (built in 1980) and the Krasnoyarsk Hydroelectric Power-station (1972). The latter is one of the regional symbols: together with the railway bridge across the Enisey and the Chapel of Paraskeva Pyatnitsa the dam of the station is depicted on ten-ruble bank-notes.

Krasnoyarsk bridges also belong to the main sights of the city. The railway bridge across the Enisey built in 1899 by the engineer-mechanic E. K. Knorre was awarded a gold medal at the world exhibition in Paris in 1900 as the highest achievement of technical thought. A gold medal was also won by the world-known Eiffel tower. Unique bridges across the Enisey were built by our contemporaries, too. In 1961 a municipal bridge whose length is 2,100 meters was put into operation. But the Oktyabrsky road-transport bridge across the Enisey built in 1986 appeared to be even more grandiose; with 41 meters in width and its length is more than 5 kilometers.

Krasnoyarsk is a city of mass and professional sports. Twice it was the capital of All-Union Winter Spartakiads. It happened not only because of the unique sports centers in the city: there are three Palaces of Sports with artificial ice, 15 stadiums, 11 swimming pools, 12 skating rinks, 106 football fields, 208 sports halls, a complex of jumping-off places, among them there is a one hundred ski-jump, the biggest in Russia, but also because of a traditional interest of Siberians to sports. No wonder that such kinds of sports as wrestling and Greco-Roman one, judo, ice-hockey, rugby and motorcycle races on the ice are loved by the people of Krasnoyarsk.

Marvelous nature surrounding the city makes for the development of tourism. Next to the city there is a wonderful state reservation “Stolby” attracting numerous tourists. It was organized in 1925. Here craggy rocks tower above the taiga on the territory numbering 47,000 hectares. They are about one hundred. For million years rains and winds, the cold and the sun were carving fantastical figures from these wild rocks. People named them differently: “Devil’s Finger”, “Big Golden Eagle”, “Totem”, “Lion Gates”, “Gryphon”, “Feathers”, etc.

From time immemorial the reserve has been the favorite resting place of the Krasnoyarsk citizens. The most famous Krasnoyarsk alpinists the Abalakov brothers began their way to the peaks beyond the clouds from “Stolby”. Every generation of Siberian people were taught here, on “Stolby”, to be adroit and brave, to be a true friend and to love. And no wonder that Krasnoyarsk citizens always bring their dearest guest, the nearest man to “Stolby” “to run on the rocks together”.

 

Text Exercises

 

Упражнение 1. Что значат эти даты в истории Красноярска:

1900, 1961, 1986, 1925, 1690, 1628, 1972?

 

Упражнение 2. Ответьте на вопросы по тексту.

1) Who founded Krasnoyarsk and when?

2) Why did the Cossacks choose this place for the future town?

3) Why can one call Krasnoyarsk a cultural centre of Siberia?

4) Are there many historical buildings and monuments in Krasnoyarsk?

5) Where is knowledge and science consolidated in Krasnoyarsk?

6) What kinds of industries are leading ones in our city?

7) What is the connection between Krasnoyarsk and ten-ruble banknotes?

8) Why are the bridges over the Enisey called unique?

9) What kinds of sports are loved by people of Krasnoyarsk?

10) What can your say about the reservation “Stolby”? Have you been there?

 

Упражнение 2. Скажите, какая информация о Красноярске была вам неизвестна.

 

Упражнение 3. Прочтите предложения и скажите, о каких достопримечательностях и архитектурных сооружениях Красноярска идёт речь.

1. Before the revolution this building belonged to the Gadalovs. Children like to visit it.

2. This building is one of the most beautiful constructions of the city. It was built in 1978 when we celebrated the 350th anniversary of the city’s foundation.

3. In this building you can find any book you want. Besides, there are journals, newspapers, manuscripts and a large department of foreign literature.

4. Among the dark wooden houses there is an unusual structure in red bricks. It’s the former Roman Catholic Church built in 1911 according to the plan of the Krasnoyarsk architect Sokolovsky. One can find here all the features of South French Gothic of the middle ages.

5. It was founded in 1828 by order of the first Yeniseisk governor Stepanov on the territory of natural forest and is one of the most favorite places of rest of the citizens of Krasnoyarsk. In summer a children’s railway, one of the first in the country, is functioning here.

6. This building of oriental style was built in 1929 to the design of the Krasnoyarsk architect I. Chernishov. It looks very much like an ancient Egyptian temple.

7. It was built in 1855 on the place of the former watch tower on the hill overlooking the Katscha River. At the beginning of the 17th century day and night round there was a sentry-post with guards keeping watch over the environs and signaling with flash-lights in case of danger.

 

Упражнение 4. Переведите предложения на английский язык.

1. Красноярск расположен в очень красивом месте: вокруг тайга, горы и степи.

2. Наш город был основан казаками во главе с Андреем Дубенским в августе 1628 года на месте слияния Енисея и Качи.

3. Многие выдающиеся имена есть в его истории, например, художник Суриков, купец-библиофил Юдин, оперный певец Хворостовский, олимпийский чемпион Ярыгин.

4. В Красноярске есть пять профессиональных театров, органный зал, краеведческий музей, два концертных зала и выставочный комплекс.

5. Такие университеты, как государственный, технический, аграрный, технологический, педагогический, а также академии цветных металлов и золота, аэрокосмическая, медицинская и архитектурно-строительная позволяют студентам получить престижные профессии.

6. На производственных предприятиях Красноярска производят сплавы, тяжёлые, лёгкие и редкоземельные металлы.

7. Благодаря десятирублёвой банкноте вся страна знает, что в Красноярске есть гидроэлектростанция, часовня Параскевы Пятницы и железнодорожный мост через Енисей.

8. В Красноярске очень любят такие виды спорта, как вольная и греко-римская борьба, регби, мотогонки на льду, хоккей с мячом.

9. Самая главная достопримечательность Красноярска – заповедник «Столбы»; с незапамятных времён заповедник – это любимое место отдыха жителей города.

10. На территории в 47000 гектаров расположены удивительные скалы, многие из которых имеют имена: «Чёртов Палец», «Львиные Ворота», «Большой Беркут», «Перья» и другие.

11. Каждое поколение сибиряков училось здесь, на «Столбах», быть смелыми, храбрыми, любить и быть настоящим другом; неудивительно, что красноярцы всегда зовут своих гостей и друзей на «Столбы», чтобы «пробежаться по скалам вместе».

 

Упражнение 5. Аудирование. Прослушайте рассказ о небольшом городке неподалёку от Лондона.

 

An English Town

Dorking is a small town about 25 miles south of London. Most of the buildings in Dorking are at least 100 years old. The church is about 150 years old, and many of the houses are of that age. One street, West Street, is very old. It is full of antique shops, and many of them are in 17th-century buildings. There are also many old pubs in Dorking and one old hotel. But not all the buildings in the town are old; there is also a modern shopping centre and a very new sports centre. There are many restaurants in Dorking and a lot of shops; there are two supermarkets, but no department stores. Every Friday, there is a market in the town.

Dorking’s communications are very good. There are three railway stations, with lines going north to London, west to Guildford and east to Gatwick, London’s second airport. Dorking is also close to the M25, which is the motorway that goes around London. Another road, the A24, goes north to London and south to the coast.

 

Упражнение 6. Опираясь на содержание приведённого выше отрывка, подберите английский перевод этих слов на русском языке.

 

1. At least а) побережье
2. Full б) антикварные магазины
3. Antique shops в) пути сообщения
4. Pub г) рынок
5. Modern д) современный
6. Sports centre е) паб
7. Market ж) как минимум
8. Communications з) аэропорт
9. Airport и) спорткомплекс
10. Coast к) полный

 

Упражнение 7. Ответьте на вопросы, относящиеся к тексту о Доркинге.

1. How far is Dorking from London?

2. How old is the church?

3. Where can you find antique shops?

4. Is the town hall an old building?

5. How many supermarkets are there in Dorking?

6. How many department stores are there?

7. Which day is market day?

8. Where does the railway line north go to?

9. What is Gatwick?

10. Where does the A24 south go to?

 

Упражнение 8. По образцу описания Доркинга попробуйте написать небольшой рассказ о российском городе, который вам хорошо знаком.

 

Grammar Exercises

 

Упражнение 1. Вставьте some, any или no там, где это необходимо.

1. There are … schools in this street. 2. Are there … pictures in your book? 3. There are … flowers here in winter. 4. I can see … children in the yard. They are playing. 5. Are there … new buildings in your street? 6. Do you like … apples? 7. There are … people in the park because it is cold. 8. I see … boys in the garden, but Mike is not among them. 9. Give me … tea, please, I’m thirsty. 10. Do you want … milk in your coffee? 11. Have you got … time to spare? I’d like to ask you … questions. 12. My brother doesn’t like … carrots. 13. Is there … cheese on the plate? 14. My mother likes … music. 15. There is … ham on the plate. 16. There is … tea in the cup: the cup is empty. 17. Are there … sweets in your bag? – Yes, there are … . 18. Is there … paper on the table? 19. It is winter. There are … leaves on the trees. 20. People need … oxygen for breathing.

 

Упражнение 2. Поставьте следующие предложения в вопросительную и отрицательную форму:

1. They have done something. 2. He has given them some money. 3. You have brought something for us. 4. I have taken some English books from you. 5. She was reading something. 6. He has written a letter to somebody. 7. Somebody by the name of Petrov lives on the third floor. 8. They have some English books. 9. Peter has something in his box. 10. She has seen this man somewhere.

 

Упражнение 3. Вставьте одно из следующих слов:

a) something, anything, nothing, everything.

1. Give me … to read, please. – With pleasure. 2. I don’t know … about your town. Tell me … about it. 3. Please give me … warm: it is cold here. 4. I understand ... now. Thank you for your explanation. 5. There is … white in the bottle. What is it?

b) somebody, anybody, nobody, everybody.

1. Did he ask … to help him? 2. I have seen … I know at the lecture. 3. Do you really think that … visits this place? 4. … knows that water is necessary for life. 5. There is … in the next room. I don’t know him.

c) somewhere, anywhere, nowhere, everywhere.

1. You must go … next summer. 2. Did you go … on Sunday? 3. Let’s go … . The weather is fine. 4. I can find my glasses … . I always put them … and then look for them. 5. Today is a holiday. The streets are full of people. There are flags, banners and flowers … .

 

Упражнение 4. Переведите на английский язык следующие пары слов:

а) много тетрадей, много молока, много воды, много дней, много газет, много мела, много снега, много лет, много картин, много музыки, много девочек, много чая, много лимонов, много мяса, много комнат, много учителей, много работы, много воздуха, много птиц, много машин;

б) мало домов, мало чая, мало чашек, мало яблок, мало окон, мало бумаги, мало кофе, мало статей, мало радости, мало супу, мало деревьев, мало травы, мало детей, мало игрушек, мало света, мало парт, мало колбасы, мало сока, мало книг, мало цветов, мало соли, мало друзей, мало дворцов;

в) немного денег, мало денег, несколько стульев, мало стульев, несколько песен, мало песен, немного веселья, мало веселья, мало мальчиков, мало воды, немного воды, несколько человек, мало воздуха, мало столов, несколько минут, несколько кошек, немного удачи, несколько дней, мало работы, немного соли, несколько ложек, мало света, мало окон, несколько машин, немного сахару, мало яиц, мало сыра.

 

Упражнение 5. Из предложенных слов составьте:

а) повествовательные предложения

1. Spaghetti, likes, much, Janet, very.

2. On, work, can, Monday, we, start.

3. A, Jane, her, party, met, friends, at.

4. You, doesn’t, dance, to, she, with, want.

5. Winter, it, in, cold, isn’t, in, England.

6. To, radio, listen, I’d, to, like, the.

7. Has, on, my, flat, a, sixth, friend’s, got, the, family, floor.

8. Cinema, we, to, tonight, are, the, going.

9. Bus, we, excursion, are, by, going, an, on.

10. At, he, lunch, o’clock, always, has, 1.

 

б) вопросительные предложения

1. Moment, what, you, at, are, the, wearing?

2. Living, you, were, where, you, started, when, school?

3. Go, you, where, holiday, were, did, child, when, you, on, a?

4. Play, any, the, at, sports, weekend, you, do?

5. Up, time, morning, what, did, get, this, you?

6. Pyramids, Egypt, ever, to, to, been, the, have, see, you?

7. Mother, look, you, your, like, do?

8. Work, for, you, do, company, which?

 

Упражнение 6. Задайте общие вопросы к предложениям:

Example: My brother likes skating. – Does my brother like skating?

1. He translates a lot of letters into English. 2. Little children like to ask many questions. 3. Their classes will last till four of clock tomorrow. 4. You’ve already done this task. 5. My children are at college. 6. She can play the guitar very well. 7. There are many people in the library now. 8. He has already read a lot of English books. 9. She spends a lot of time on her English. 10. I will show you how to do it.

 

Упражнение 7. Задайте альтернативные вопросы к выделенным словам (число вопросов указано в скобках):

Example: My brother likes skating(3). –

Does your brother like skating or skiing?

Does your or his brother like skating?

Does your brother or Pete like skating?

1. The film was exciting(2). 2. Thousands of people have visited the exhibition(2). 3. He watches TV every day(3). 4. They can go to the country on Friday(3). 5. Shehas painted the walls(3).

 

Упражнение 8. Задайте разделительные вопросы:

Example: She has already come. – She has already come, hasn’t she?

1. They will return in a month. 2. Open the window. 3. I’m late. 4. There is a theatre in the centre of the city. 5. She has never been to the Zoo. 6. Don’t go there. 7. Peter and Ann know English well. 8. He didn’t do his homework. 9. Let’s go to the country. 10. Nobody has come yet. 11. She won’t be playing the piano at twelve. 12. They can’t speak German at all. 13. She knows him. 14. There weren’t any mistakes in his dictation. 15. It isn’t raining now.

 

Упражнение 9. Задайте специальные вопросы к предложениям (число вопросов указано в скобках):

Example: We are going to Moscow soon (3). –

Who is going to Moscow?

Where are we going soon?

When are we going to Moscow?

1. My working day lasts eight hours. (3) 2. I have read this book in the original. (3) 3. They were watching TV when I came. (4) 4. I was absent because I was ill. (2) 5. It takes me two hours to get there. (2) 6. They are going to travel by car. (3) 7. I always speak English to him. (3) 8. She will do the work in two days’ time. (3). 9. I can teach you to swim. (3) 10. We have known the Browns for twenty years already. (3)

 

Упражнение 10. Дополните предложения предлогами времени at, in, on, from … till, since, by, for:

1. We have been friends … childhood. 2. She will be at the Institute … 10 a.m. … 3 p.m. 3. She has lived in St. Petersburg … 1970. 4. I shall read this book … the end of the week. 5. I haven’t spoken to him … 2 months. 6. Do you think he is going to stay … ever? 7. He bought the car … August. 8. He never comes to class … time. 9. She arrived … five o’clock in a taxi. 10. Every morning I get on the bus … 8.30. 11. I won’t be back … several hours. You should eat without me. 12. Everyone finished dinner … seven o’clock. 13. Will you lend me your pen … a minute? 14. I have known Dan ... many years. 15. I have been working on this … two hours. 16. He gets up … seven o’clock … the morning and goes to bed … eleven. 17. His office hours are … ten … six. 18. The train will leave … two minutes. 19. I was not there … last summer. 20. Can you meet me … Friday afternoon? 21. She always visits me … Sundays. 22. It’s very cool here … the evening. 23. I met her … 1982. 24. She got many nice presents … her birthday. 25. They may stay in Europe … several months.

 

Упражнение 11. К предложениям (левая колонка) подберите их логические окончания (правая колонка).

 





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