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Exercise 8. Insert articles before nouns where necessary.

1. _____ importance of _____ scientific research and _____ discoveries is growing with every _____ year. 2. Due to _____ achievements of _____ world science _____ lot of _____ things are brought to _____ life. 3. Science opens broad _____ opportunities for _____ development of _____ country's productive force. 4. All _____ scientists of _____ world value _____ our scientists for their brilliant discoveries. 5. _____ state should provide scientific and educational institutes with all necessary _____ equipment and facilities. 6. _____ role of _____ science increases in all spheres of our _____ life because it became _____ direct productive force.


Study the following words and word combinations

acceleration (n) Ц прискоренн€, розг≥н

at rest (adv) Ц у стан≥ спокою

contribute (v) to Ц робити внесок, спри€ти

direction (n) Ц напр€м

external (adj) Ц зовн≥шн≥й

friction (n) Ц терт€, сила терт€

gravitation (n) Ц т€ж≥нн€, сила т€ж≥нн€

inversely (adv) Ц зворотно, у зворотному напр€мку

magnitude (n) Ц величина, розм≥р, значенн€

motion (n) Ц рух, перем≥щенн€

nature (n) Ц природа

notice (n) Ц зазначати, в≥дм≥чати

to set in motion Ц приводити до руху

resultant (adj) Црезультуючий, Е що виникаЇ

resultant force (n) Ц р≥внод≥юча сила

surface (n) Ц поверхн€


Exercise 9. Translate the following word combinations int Ukrainian.

Under acceleration, free fall acceleration, an object at rest, to contribute little to our understanding of the subject, to contribute to good health, the external walls of the building, friction between moving parts, to cause the overheat of the engine,

law of universal gravitation, to arrange in order of magnitude, to set in motion, chaotic motion, resultant force, plane surface, flat surface.


Exercise 10. Match the words (1−10) with their definitions (a−l).

  acceleration a connected with or located on the outside of sth/sb
  contribute b caused by the thing that has just been mentioned
  external c in opposition to sth
  friction d the act or process of moving or the way sth moves
  gravitation e the size of sth
  inversely f the rate at which an object increases speed
  magnitude g the action of one object or surface moving against another
  motion h a force of attraction that causes objects to move towards each other
  resultant i the outside or top layer of sth
  surface j to give sth to help sb/sth
    k a force by which one object attracts another
    l to continue in existence after something happened

Read the following text

Text 1


Sir Isaac Newton discovered our current laws of motion. There is a belief that Sir Isaac Newton started to think about the nature of motion and gravitation after a falling apple had struck his head

Newton discovered 3 laws describing motion:

First Law. Definition: Every object will remain at rest or in uniform motion in a straight line unless it is made to change its state by the action of an external force.

For example, a cement block isn't going to move unless you push it. A rocket in space is not going to speed up, slow down and change direction unless the engines are switched on. Newton's First Law may seem rather surprising to you when you first meet it. If you roll a ball along a surface it always stops, but Newton's First Law says that an item will remain in uniform motion in a straight line unless a force acts upon it. It doesn't seem like there is any force that acts on the ball once you let it go, but there is! In real life (unlike many physics problems) there is usually friction acting. Friction is the external force acting on the ball causing it to stop.

Notice that Newton's First Law says that the force must be external. For example, you can't grab your belt and pull yourself up to the ceiling. Of course, you could get someone else to pull you up, but then that person would be applying an external force.

Second Law. Definition: The resultant force acting on a body results in an acceleration which is in the same direction as the resultant force and is directly proportional to the magnitude of this force and inversely proportional to the mass of the object.

In mathematical form this law states:

→ →

F Res = m a

So if a resultant force FRes acts on an object with mass m it will result in an

acceleration a. It makes sense that the direction of the acceleration is in the direction of the resultant force. If you push something away from you it doesn't move toward you unless of course there is another force that acts on the object towards you!

Third Law. Definition: For every force or action there is an equal but opposite force or reaction.

Newton's Third Law is easy to understand but there are some difficulty in applying it. An important thing to realize is that the action and reaction forces can never act on the same object and hence cannot contribute to the same resultant.


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