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Task I. Study the Language reference.




 

1 law [lͻ:] Ц ѕраво, закон

Law is a system of rules.

2 rule Ц закон; правило; норма; постановление; предписание; приказ

3 regulation (regulations) Ц инструкци€, правило

4 a legal system Ц законодательство; правова€ система, система законов; судебна€ система

5 judicial system - судебна€ система, система судебных органов, судоустройство

6 crime - преступление; злоде€ние, нарушение, правонарушение; криминальность, преступность

 

crime = transgression [trænz΄greʃәn], offence [ә΄fens], violation [͵vaiә΄leiʃәn], delinquency [di΄liŋkwensi], wrongdoing [΄rͻŋdu:iŋ]

 

7 to punish - наказывать; карать; налагать взыскание

Punishment - наказание, взыскание

 

Task II

 

Read and translate the text.

 

LAW

 

1. citizen [΄sitizən] - 1) гражданин; гражданка (законный житель какого-л. государства); городской житель

2. to obey [o΄bei] - подчин€тьс€, слушатьс€, повиноватьс€ (to obey the law / rules Ч подчин€тьс€ закону, правилам)

3. Common Law - общее право (традиционное некодифицированное право ¬еликобритании); неписаный закон, об€зательность которого основываетс€ на всеобщем признании; прецедентное право; англосаксонское право

4. Roman Law - римское право

5. Civil Law - гражданское право

6. Canon Law - каноническое, церковное право


7. Martial Law - военное право, военное положение

8. custom - обычай, традици€ (в масштабах одного народа, культуры)

9. judge Ц судь€

10. jurisprudence - законоведение, право, правоведение, юриспруденци€

11. codify [΄kəudifai] - кодифицировать; приводить законы в систему

12. affair [ə΄fεə] Ц дело

13. statute law [΄stætʧu:t] - право, выраженное в законах; законы, статутное право, "писаный закон"

14. to establish - устанавливать

15. to maintain - поддерживать, сохран€ть

 

Law is the whole system of rules that citizens of a country or place must obey.

There are different types of law. They are Common Law, Roman Law (Civil Law), Canon Law, and Martial Law.

Common Law(in England) has developed from old customs and from past decisions made by judges, not created by Parliament.

Roman Law is Civil Law. Roman Law is another term for Civil Law.

Roman Law is the system of jurisprudence of ancient Rome. The law was codified and formed the basis of many modern legal systems.

Civil Lawis any system of law based on the Roman system to distinguish from the Common Law, Canon Law, and International Law. Civil Law (Roman Law ) deals with the affairs of private citizens rather than with crime. Roman Law (Civil Law) can be called Statute Law. Statute Law isthe whole group of written laws.

Canon Law is the laws of Christian Church.

Martial Lawis the law established and maintained by the military in the absence of civil law. The army controls an area instead of the police.

 

Read the text once again and decide if the sentences are true (T) or false (F).

1. Law is the rules that citizens must obey.

2. There is a unique type of law.

3. Common Law is a written law.

4. Roman Law and Civil Law are different types of law.

5. Roman Law is a modern legal system.

6. Civil Law is codified.

7. Canon Law is Martial Law.

 

Match each word or phrase in column A with a meaning in column B.

 

A B

1. law a) the body of law based on judicial decisions and custom
2. rule b) an authoritative regulation or direction
3. citizen c) the system of jurisprudence of ancient Rome, codified, and forms the basis of many modern legal systems
4. obey d) to carry out instructions or orders
5. Common Law e) an inhabitant of a city or town
6. Roman Law f) the rule of law established and maintained by the military in the absence of civil law
7. Canon Law g) the science or philosophy of law
8. Martial Law h) any system of law based on the Roman system
9. jurisprudence i) the law governing the affairs of a Christian Church
10. Civil Law j) a rule or set of rules

 

Task III

Read and translate the text.

 

THE RUSSIAN SYSTEM OF LAW

1. Constitutional [͵kͻnsti΄tju:ʃәnәl] Law - конституционное право, государственное право

2. Administrative [әd΄ministrәtiv] Law Ц административное право

3. Criminal Law Ц уголовное право

4. International Law Ц международное право

5. Financial Law Ц финансовое право

6. Employment Law Ц трудовое законодательство

7. leading Ц ведущий, главный

8. principal Ц главный, основной, ведущий

9. source - источник, ключ

10. state system Ц государственна€ система

11. state power Ц государственна€ власть

12. legal status - правовой статус; правовое положение, правовой режим

13. legal form - юридическа€ форма

14. executive [ig΄zekjutiv] Ц исполнительный, принадлежащий к структурам исполнительной власти

15. activity Ц де€тельность, меропри€тие

16. define - определ€ть

17. criminal responsibility - уголовна€ ответственность

18. individual type of crime Ц правонарушение, совершенное физическим лицом

19. apply to - использовать, примен€ть

20. criminal - преступный; криминальный, уголовный; злоумышленник, правонарушитель, преступник

21. criminal code - уголовный кодекс

22. budget [΄bʌʤit] - бюджет; финансова€ смета

23. taxation [tæk΄seiʃin] - обложение налогом; налогообложение; взимание налога

24. state credit - государственный кредит

The system of law in Russia consists of different categories of law.

They are Constitutional Law, Administrative Law, Criminal Law, International Law, Financial Law, Civil Law, Employment Law, and others.

Constitutional Law is a leading category of the whole system of law. Its principal source is the country's Constitution. It deals with social structure, the state system, organization of state power and the legal status of citizens.

Administrative Law is closely connected with constitutional law but it deals with the legal forms of concrete executive and administrative activity of a government and ministries.

Criminal Law defines the general principles of criminal responsibility, individual types of crimes and punishment applied to criminals. Criminal law takes the form of a criminal code.

International Law regulates relations between governments and also between private citizens of one country and those of another.

Financial Law regulates the budget, taxation, state credit and other spheres of financial activity.

Civil Law is connected with relations in the economic sphere of life, with relations involving property, its distribution and exchange. The right in property is the central institution of civil law.

Employment Law includes the legislation on the employment of industrial and office workers. It regulates matters arising from employment relations.

 





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