Лекции.Орг


Поиск:




Match each word or phrase in column A with a meaning in column B.




A B

1. judicial system a) a public official with authority to hear cases in a court of law and pronounce judgment upon them
2. court b) verdict
3. judge c) put an end to
4. decision d) legal system
5. abolish e) an authority having power to adjudicate in civil, criminal, military, or ecclesiastical matters

Answer the questions.

1. What is the judicial system connected with?

2. What kind of institutions are there in all legal systems?

3. What is the role of each court?

4. When can a person appeal to a higher court?

5. May all the courts sit as courts of the first instance?

 

 

Task VI

 

Read and translate the text.

 

Courts in Russia

 

1. constitutional court - суд, существующий по установлению конституции


2. ensure = insure - гарантировать, обеспечивать

3. normative act = standard act нормативный акт

4. to consider laws – рассматривать законы

5. to pass laws – принимать законы

6. supreme [su:΄pri:m ] – верховный, высший

7. legislative branch - законодательная власть

8. The Supreme Court – Верховный суд

9. judicial body - судебный орган

10. court practice – судебная практика

11. legal case - судебное дело, судебный прецедент

12. try a case - рассматривать дело в суде

13. arbitration court = court of jurisdiction - третейский суд, арбитражный

14. settle = settle up - урегулировать, разрешить (спор, конфликт); положить конец (разногласиям)

15. dispute [di΄spju:t] – (судебное) разбирательство, спор

16. district court - 1) федеральный суд; 2) окружной суд

17. in public - открыто, публично

18. trial - судебный процесс

19. prosecutor [′prͻsikju:tə] -1) а) обвинитель, прокурор; Syn: accuser; б) истец; Syn: plaintiff

20. plaintiff – истец; Syn: complainant, prosecutor

21. defendant - ответчик; обвиняемый, подсудимый

 

The Constitutional Court ensures that the laws and other normative acts are constitutional. Laws and normative acts are passed or considered by the supreme and local legislative branches.

The Supreme Court is the highest judicial body for civil, criminal, business and other cases. It has the power to supervise the activities of all the judicial bodies of the state. It interprets the issues of court practice. It tries the most important criminal and civil cases and hears appeals.

The Supreme Arbitration Court is the highest judicial body. The Court settles economic disputes and other cases examined by courts of arbitration.

The basic judicial body is the district court. District courts try both criminal and civil cases.

In all courts cases are tried in public. The participants in a trial are the prosecutor, lawyers, the plaintiff, the judge, the defendant, and others.

The hearing of cases in closed session is allowed only in exceptional cases. Closed sessions are only allowed if it is in the interests of both sides or for the necessity to keep state secrets.

Trial without participation of both sides is not allowed. The judges are independent and they must obey the law.

 


Read the text once again to find the answers to the questions.

 

a. What is the role of each court?

b. Who passes and considers laws?

c. What is the basic judicial body of state?

d. What are the participants of the trial?

e. When is trial not allowed?

 

3. These words from the text can be verbs or nouns. Read the text and decide which they are:

act practice appeal dispute trial judge interest

 

Task VII

 

Read and translate the text.

Courts in UK

 

1. Justice of the Peace = Magistrate - судья, магистрат, мировой судья

2. the Magistrates' Court – магистратский суд, мировой суд

3. to judge - судить, рассматривать дело

4. minor cases - дела о малозначительных правонарушениях

5. to pass – передавать (дело)

6. a higher court - вышестоящий суд; суд вышестоящей инстанции

7. Crown Court - Суд короны (уголовное отделение Высокого суда правосудия)

8. jury [΄ʤuәri] - коллегия присяжных (суд присяжных, присяжные)

9. divorce [di΄vͻ:s] - расторжение брака, развод

10. bankruptcy [΄bæŋkræptsi] – банкротство

11. County [΄kaunti] court – суд графства

12. High Court (of Justice) - Высокий суд (правосудия) (входит в состав Верховного суда в Великобритании)

13. Court of Appeal - апелляционный суд

14. House of Lords - палата лордов

15. the highest court – суд высшей инстанции

16. lay justice - мировая юстиция

17. sheriff [΄ʃerif] - шериф Административно-судебное должностное лицо округа [county], начальник окружного полицейского управления, выборное лицо, срок полномочий 2-4 года

18. High Court of Justiciary - Суд юстициария, Высший уголовный суд (в Шотландии)

19. justiciary [ʤʌs′tiʃəri] 1) судейский чиновник; 2) уголовный суд

20. Court of Session - Сессионный суд (верховный гражданский суд Шотландии = высший гражданский суд Шотландии)

21. European Court of Justice ECJ - Европейский суд (рассматривает дела о нарушении законов Европейского сообщества)

22. petition - петиция; прошение, ходатайство

23. European Court of Human Rights (the European Court of Human Rights in Strasbourg) Европейский международный суд по правам человека (находится в г. Страсбург, Франция)

24. juvenile court - суд по делам несовершеннолетних

25. coroner's court - коронерский суд

26. investigate [in΄vesti͵geit] – расследовать

27. violent[΄vaiәlәnt] death – насильственная смерть

28. sudden [΄sʌdәn] death – внезапная (скоропостижная) смерть

29. unnatural death – противоестественная смерть

30. administrative tribunal - орган административной юстиции; административный трибунал (ООН)

 

The lowest court in England and Wales is the Magistrates' Court.

The Magistrates' Court judges minor cases and passes more serious cases to higher courts. In the Magistrates' Court there are three magistrates called 'Justices of the Peace’. They are specially trained members of the public.

The more serious cases are heard in the Crown Court by a judgeand a jury. Minor civil cases such as divorce and bankruptcy are dealt with in County courts.

More serious civil cases are heard in the High Court of Justice.

Appeals against decisions from the Crown Court or the High Court go to the Court of Appeal. When a question of law is in doubt the case is passed to the House of Lords. The House of Lords is the highest court of appeal in England and Wales.

In Scotland criminal cases are heard in district courts by members of the public called lay justices. More serious cases go to regional sheriff courts and are heard by the sheriff and a jury. Appeals go to the High Court of Justiciary in Edinburgh. Civil cases begin in the sheriff court and may go on appeal to the Court of Session.

Certain cases may be referred to the European Court of Justice in Luxembourg. Some individuals have made the British Government change its practices in a number of areas as a result of petitions to the European Court of Human Rights.

The legal system also includes juvenile courts. They deal with offenders under seventeen. There are coroners' courts. They investigate violent, sudden or unnatural deaths. There are administrative tribunals which make quick, cheap and fair decisions with much less formality. Tribunals deal with professional standards, disputes between individuals, and disputes between individuals and government departments (for example, over taxation).

 

 






Поделиться с друзьями:


Дата добавления: 2016-11-23; Мы поможем в написании ваших работ!; просмотров: 731 | Нарушение авторских прав


Поиск на сайте:

Лучшие изречения:

Лучшая месть – огромный успех. © Фрэнк Синатра
==> читать все изречения...

600 - | 562 -


© 2015-2024 lektsii.org - Контакты - Последнее добавление

Ген: 0.012 с.