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Модальные глаголы для выражения предположения




Модальные глаголы (но не эквиваленты) могут также выражать предположение, уверенность в чем-либо.

may – а) выражает допускаемую возможность или б) выражает предположение, основанное на неуверенности; в этом значении употребляется только в утвердительной форме.

В этом значении могут также использоваться формы модальных глаголов might и could:

may/ might/ could = it is possible/ it is likely/ perhaps

а) He may come now. — Он может прийти сейчас.

You may be right. — Ты можешь быть прав.

б) They may arrive tomorrow or the day after. — Может быть, они прибудут завтра или послезавтра.

must – в утвердительных предложениях выражает предположение с большей степенью уверенности в совершении действия, чем глагол "may"

must = I’m sure/ certain

He must be home by now, he left an hour ago. – К этому времени он наверняка должен быть дома, он ушел час назад.

You must know her. – Ты должен ее знать.

They must be waiting for us already. – Должно быть, они уже ждут нас.

 

can – выражает невероятность в отрицательных предложениях, имеет значение «не может быть».

can’t = I’m sure/certain that sth. isn’t true/real/ etc.

It can’t be true. – Это не может быть правдой.

 

МОДАЛЬНЫЕ ГЛАГОЛЫ И ИХ ЭКВИВАЛЕНТЫ

(СВОДНАЯ ТАБЛИЦА)

Модальный глагол Эквивалент

Past Present

мочь, am/is/are able to

could ← can уметь, → be able to was/were able to

иметь shall/will be able to

возможность

am/is/are allowed to

might ← may мочь → be allowed to was/were allowed to

(разрешение, shall/will be allowed to

предположение)

have/has to (Do/does __ have to...?)

have to had to (Did __ have to...?)

обстоятельств shall/will have to

должен в силу

плана am/is/are to

must должен → be to was/were to

should только в Present

следует

(совет, рекомендация)

Ought to

следует, следовало бы

Need not

не нужно, не надо


II. УПРАЖНЕНИЯ ПО ГРАММАТИКЕ

ПРЕДЛОЖЕНИЕ (THE SENTENCE)

ПОРЯДОК СЛОВ (WORD ORDER)

 

Упражнение 1. а) Отметьте правильные предложения буквой С (Correct), а неправильные (т.е. те, в которых отсутствует подлежащее или сказуемое, или нарушен порядок слов) – буквой W (Wrong).

b) Исправьте неправильные предложения.

1. He late.

2. We are early.

3. Mary is at home.

4. John at work.

5. I am a manager.

6. He is late.

7. My name is Peter Brown.

8. I am British.

9. Tessa Italian.

10. Your new is great plan.

11. This our house.

12. Is where my book?

13. We in the central library are now.

14. Is your sister OK?

15. How old is she?

16. You are free on Sunday?

17. When are you usually home?

18. They not are my friends.

19. What colour your car is?

20. I not good at English.

 

Упражнение 2. Укажите вариант с правильным порядком слов.

1. My grandfather likes ______.

a) to work every day in his garden

b) in his garden to work every day

c) to work in his garden every day

2. We _____ this test at the last lesson.

a) didn’t write

b) not wrote

c) wrote not

3. ______ to the University by bus.

a) He goes usually

b) He usually goes

c) Usually he goes

4. ______ her homework in the evening?

a) Does she

b) She does

c) Does she do

5. _____ very tired after work.

a) I usually

b) Usually I’m

c) I’m usually

6. I was glad that _____ after his recent illness.

a) John looked such well

b) John so well looked

c) John looked so well

7. Let's go to another restaurant; _____ here.

a) are there too few vacant tables

b) there are too few vacant tables

c) there are few vacant tables too

8. The rain _____ that it was impossible to go out.

a) was so strong

b) so was strong

c) was strong

9. Sheila isn’t a good driver; she is _____.

a) enough not careful

b) not careful enough

c) careful not enough

10. There was a _____ forest near the village.

a) beautiful, large, old, pine

b) large, beautiful, pine, old

c) pine, old, beautiful, large

Упражнение 3. Напишите слова в правильном порядке, так чтобы получился вопрос.

1. fishing/ enjoy/ he/ does?

2. you/ at sports/ good/ are?

3. musical/ you/ do/ a/ instrument/ play?

4. next weekend/ here/ be/ you/ will?

5. a lot of/ there/ group / are/ in your/ students?

6. your/ the holidays/ plans/ are/ what/ for?

7. for the lesson/ come/ always/ do/ you/ late/ why?

8. last/ see/ a good film/ did/ when/ you?

9. the last/ how many/ passed/ examination/ well/ students?

10. to learn/ it/ will/ me/ how long/ French/ take?

 

Упражнение 4. Выберите правильный вариант.

1. Will you be here next weekend?

a) No, I shan’t.

b) No, I shalln’t.

c) No, I’m not.

2. Are there a lot of students in your group?

a) Yes, they are.

b) Yes, they do.

c) Yes, there are.

3. Did you go to bed late last night?

a) Yes, I do.

b) Yes, I did.

c) Yes, I was.

4. Do you receive letters from your friends?

a) Yes, they do.

b) Yes, I am.

c) Yes, I do.

5. He wasn’t good at mathematics, was he?

a) Yes, he wasn’t.

b) No, he was.

c) No, he wasn’t.

6. You like black coffee,

a) aren’t you?

b) don’t you?

c) do you?

7. There was nobody there,

a) was there?

b) wasn’t there?

c) were they?

8. Your friends entered the Medical Academy,

a) didn’t they?

b) did they?

c) weren’t they?

9. Sam doesn’t work hard,

a) doesn’t he?

b) does he?

c) is he?

10. I’m busy,

a) aren’t I?

b) don’t I?

c) am not I?

 

Упражнение 5. Задайте вопрос к пропущенному члену предложения.

1. I like eating … for breakfast.

What _________________?

2. We usually go to … for our holidays.

Where ______________________?

3. She played the … as a child.

What __________________?

4. … people applied for this vacancy.

How many _________________?

5. I will buy a ….

What ______________?

6. My mother can … really well.

What ____________________?

7. They were late for school … last week.

How many times _________________?

8. After lunch you phoned ….

Who __________________?

9. The … usually examines the student.

Who ______________________?

10. We will be free ….

When ___________?

 

АРТИКЛЬ (THE ARTICLE)

Упражнение 1. Выберите слово в предложении, которое является определителем выделенного существительного.

1. John Brown is our new English teacher.

a) John b) is c) our

2. He’s a nice person.

a) he b) is c) a

3. Look at that picture!

a) at b) look c) that

4. I like those beautiful red roses.

a) I b) like c) those

5. He’s a good doctor.

a) he b) is c) a

6. The man in the office is our new manager.

a) the b) our c) in

7. Is there a good supermarket near here?

a) there b) is c) a d) near

8. There are his school books on the shelf.

a) there b) are c) his d) the

9. Are there many new pupils in our class this year?

a) there b) are c) many d) our

10. Is there any fresh juice in the fridge?

a) there b) is c) any d) the

 

Упражнение 2. Вставьте нужную форму неопределенного артикля: a или an там, где он возможен. Если артикль ненужен, вставьте знак пропуска (-).

1. What _____ good weather!

a) a b) an c) -

2. Let’s have ______ good time!

a) a b) an c) -

3. My ______ house is not very big.

a) a b) an c) -

4. This is ______ expensive car.

a) a b) an c) -

5. ______ good teacher is never boring.

a) a b) an c) -

6. Smoking is ______ habit.

a) a bad b) bad a c) an bad

7. This lake is so ______ beautiful.

a) a b) an c) -

8. This is ______ sad news.

a) a b) an c) -

9. I buy ______ pair of jeans once a year.

a) a b) an c) -

10. They are _____ old friends.

a) a b) an c) -

11. I often listen to ____ music.

a) a b) an c) -

12. They are _____ nice people.

a) a b) an c) -

13. I like ____ chocolate.

a) a b) an c) -

14. It's ____ new car.

a) a b) an c) -

15. He likes _____ tennis.

a) a b) an c) -

Упражнение 3. a) Отметьте правильные предложения словом Correct, а неправильные словом Wrong. б) Исправьте грамматически неверные предложения.

1. I like the Brazilian coffee very much.

2. The Mr. Smith is our favourite teacher.

3. Women like expensive cars.

4. We usually go to work by a car.

5. Dogs are very loyal friends.

6. I don't want to go to school every day.

7. It is rather dangerous to travel by plane.

8. Small children don't always want to go to the bed early.

9. It is very healthy to go on foot.

10. I usually don't have a breakfast in the morning.

Упражнение 4. Выберите правильный вариант.

1. Close ____ window, please. It is cold here.

a) a b) the c) -

2. I have _____ dog. I like it very much.

3. Paris is ____ next stop.

a) a b) the c) -

4. I love ____ cats. They are such graceful animals.

a) a b) the c) -

5. We want to improve our marks. Let's find ____ teacher.

a) a b) the c) -

6. All ____ children in our class play sports.

a) a b) the c) -

7. Moscow is ____ capital of Russia.

a) a b) the c) -

8. We usually have _____ dinner at 6pm.

a) a b) the c) -

9. It is _____ last time when I ask for your help.

a) a b) the c) -

10. She is ____ old friend of mine.

a) an b) the c) -

11. My granny often goes to _____ hairdresser's.

a) a b) the c) -

12. _____ Russia is _____ big country.

a) a b) the c) -

13. We like to have picnics in _____ country.

a) a b) the c) -

14. My native language is _____ Russian, now I study _____ English language.

a) a b) the c) -

 

Упражнение 5. a) Отметьте правильное употребление артиклей словом Correct, а неправильное - словом Wrong. б) Исправьте грамматически неверные предложения.

1. The children usually have good imagination.

2. Now, push a left button.

3. I think it is the wrong time and the wrong place.

4. It is always so nice to walk in forest.

5. Goat milk is very good for health.

6. There are the many mistakes in your test.

7. The clothes shop is near our house.

8. The apple a day keeps a doctor away.

9. What is a right answer?

10. Look, the place is free!

 

Упражнение 6. Заполните пропуски артиклями, где это необходимо.

Petrov works at 1) _____ office. He lives near 2) _____ office. He usually walks there. He only works five days 3) _____ week. He works on 4) ____ Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday and Friday. He doesn’t work at 5) _____ weekend. His working day lasts 6) _____ eight hours. He receives 7) _____ many letters and telegrams in 8) _____ morning and always answers them. He sometimes translates 9) _____ articles from 10) _____ foreign newspapers and journals. He often receives 11) _____ engineers from 12) _____ factory in 13) _____ afternoon. They discuss 14) _____ lot of questions with him. He usually finishes work at six o’clock in 15) _____ evening.

 

Упражнение 7. а) Повторите правила употребления артиклей в английском языке, обращая внимания на устойчивые выражения и употребление артиклей с именами собственными. б) Употребите, где необходимо, артикль a, an, the или нулевой артикль.

1. ____ car was riding at ___ speed of 30 m.p.h.

2. We lived at ___ distance of 40 miles from ___ city.

3. We saw several people in ____ distance.

4. They told us ____ truth.

5. The zebra is ____ African animal resembling ____ horse.

6. ____ zebras are not to be found in ____ Europe.

7. ____ cow is ____ domestic animal.

8. ____ cows give ____ milk.

9. This is one of ____ most beautiful monuments created by man.

10. In ____ old Russia _____ woman did not have the same rights as _____ man.

11. ‘Is Jack feeling better?’ – ‘I’m afraid not. He is still in ____ hospital.’

12. ____ big hospital was built near ____ post-office.

13. Are you going to _____ country on _____ Saturday?

14. Does _____ Mark speak ______ Spanish?

15. Did you visit the exhibition of ____ modern French art at ____ Pushkin Museum?

16. ____ Albert Hall is one of ____ biggest concert halls in ____ London.

17. In ____ Tate Gallery one can see ____ British paintings, ____ modern sculpture and ____ modern paintings.

18. _____ Trafalgar Square is dominated by Nelson's Column.

19. Although the north of ______ Scotland is called the Highlands the mountains aren’t high there. ______ Ben Nevis (1343m) is ______ highest peack.

20. ______ USA is ______ fourth largest country in ______ world after _____ Russia, ______ Canada and ______ Republic of ______ China.

 





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