Лекции.Орг
 

Категории:


Перевал Алакель Северный 1А 3700: Огибая скальный прижим у озера, тропа поднимается сначала по травянистому склону, затем...


Как ухаживать за кактусами в домашних условиях, цветение: Для кого-то, это странное «колючее» растение, к тому же плохо растет в домашних условиях...


Расположение электрооборудования электропоезда ЭД4М

Types of houses in England



АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК

Электронный учебник

для студентов специальности «Дизайн» колледжа

 

Алматы 2012

УДК 81.2 Англ.я. 7

У 808

 

Составители: Мангазина Ж.Р., Молдабаева М.К., Минаева А.Ж.

Ассистенты профессора ФОГП

 

«Английский язык». Электроный учебник для обучающихся колледжа специальности «Дизайн» - Алматы: КазГАСА, 2012г.-30 с.

 

Данный электронный учебник содержит тексты и упражнения к ним, связанные с дизайном домов. Также представлена познавательная информация о дизайне цвета. Учебник позволит учащимся глубже познакомиться с будущей специальностью, овладеть новой лексикой. После каждого текста следует глоссарий. В конце даются английские идиомы, связанные с цветом.

 

 

Электронный учебник предназначен для студентов 2,3 курсов специальности «Дизайн» колледжа КазГАСА.

 

Рецензент: Карыбаева Г.А., ассист. проф. проф. КазГАСА

© Казахская головная

архитектурно – строительная

академия, 2012

 

Предисловие

 

В интерьере любого жилого помещения присутствуют оригинальные черты. Найти совершенно идентичный интерьер попросту нереально. Если не задаваться четкой целью создания квартир-клонов, разумеется. Бесспорно, авторские дизайнерские решения способны до неузнаваемости преобразить любые квадратные метры.

Особенно впечатляющих результатов можно добиться, если при планировании интерьера помещения основополагающим мотивом внесения изменений в планировку и внешний облик квартиры выступает решение практических задач, а не просто выбор декоративных элементов.

Данный учебник познакомит вас с неординарными видами дизайна, которые вы, возможно, используете при подготовке дипломных проектов, а в дальнейшем и в профессиональной деятельности. Также вы узнаете интересную информацию о дизайне цвета, познакомитесь с английскими идиомами, связанными с цветом. Желаем успехов!

 

Content

 

1. Types of houses in England. …………………………2-3

1. Single-detached house.………………………………3-4

2. Semi-detached house. ………………. ………………..5

3. Terrace housing. …………………………..…………..6

4. Flats or apartment. ………………………….………. 7-8

5. Everything about colours……………………………9-26

6. Meaning of colours in graphic design………………27-36

7. Idioms with colours…………………………………36-38

8. Grammar reference………………………………….39-63

 

 


Types of houses in England

 

England has many types of homes. In the large cities, people often live in apartments, which are called flats. In most towns, there are streets of houses joined together in long rows. They are called terraced houses.

More and more land in the UK is being converted to urban areas. In England alone, about 7,000 hectares of farmland was converted to urban areas on a yearly basis from the year 1985 to 1998. Today about 2/3 of England own their own homes or about to buy their own homes. For the rest if UK, renting seems to be the option for the basic pay of a common employee cannot catch up with the rising cost of buying a house. The average salary in the UK today is £24,000 while the average house cost about £224,000 and is still rising. Most individuals rent their homes from private landlords or from the local council or from a housing association.

There are many types of houses all over the world. Whatever their styles are, the type still boils down to four categories. There are four basic types of housing in the UK. There is the detached, the semi-detached, the terraced and the flats. Most people in England live in urban areas. Towns and cities are spreading into their surrounding environment to cope with the increase populations. In England, an average of 7,000 hectares of farmland, countryside and green space were converted to urban use every year between 1985 and 1998. This is almost the equivalent size of 9,600 international football pitches!

Houses in all shapes and sizes and vary from one part of the country to the next. We have houses which are more than 500 years old as well as brand new houses.

More people are buying their own homes than in the past. About two thirds of the people in England and the rest of Britain either own, or are in the process of buying, their own home. Most others live in houses or flats that they rent from a private landlord, the local council, or housing association.

People buying their property almost always pay for it with a special loan called a mortgage, which they must repay, with interest, over a long period of time, usually 25 years.

Most houses in England are made of stone or brick from the local area where the houses are built. The colours of the stones and bricks vary across the country.


Answer the questions:

1. What are houses in England like?

2. How many types of houses are there in England?

3. What are most houses in England made of?

4. Do most people live in urban areas?

5. How old are some houses?

Glossary

English Russian Kazakh
cope покров жабын
landlord владелец иесі
mortgage ипотека ипотека
detached отдельный жеке
row ряд қатар
semi-detached двухквартирный екі пәтерлі
terraced террасный террасалық

Single-detached House

 

 

A detached house is a single free standing residential unit built on a lot. The lot is larger than the house for an area for a yard or a garden. The detached house can either have a built-in garage or a detached one. It must be understood that a detached house can take on any form or style. It does not matter if the house is a bungalow or a cottage or a mansion. It also does not matter if the house is Victorian or Tudor or Minimalist. As long as no walls of the structure are connected to another dwelling, the house remains to be a detached house.

One advantage of a detached house is the fact that the free space surrounding the building is private to the owner and his family. Depending on local regulations and codes, you can do whatever allowable extensionor modification you would like to be done in your house. You would not have to worry about getting a permit from a landlord to do renovations. You would not need to pay propertymanagement fees like those paid by condominiums and townhouse dwellers.

The disadvantage is that all repairs of the house and the lot are at the expense of the owner. Every site improvement like adding a patio or a pool or a garden is at the expense of the owner too.

 

1. Say true (T), false (F) or doesn’t say.

a) Detached house is a single free standing residential unit.

b) The walls of the structure are connected to another dwelling.

c) The disadvantage is that all repairs of the house and the lot are at the expense of the owner.

d) There are four types of a detached house.

e) Ancient houses were built to protect people from stormy weather, wild animals and human enemies.

2. Guess the meaning of the highlighted words.

 

Glossary

English Russian Kazakh
expense расход шығын
patio внутренний дворик ішкі аула
dwellers обитатели мекендеушілер
extension расширение аумақтау
condominium кондоминиум кондоминиум
upkeep содержание мазмұны
maintenance обслуживание кызмет көрсету

Semi-detached house

A semi-detached house is a pair of housing units that shares one common wall. The two houses are built to mirror each other. Interestingly enough this type of housing is called a duplex in other parts of the world. This type of housing became in the UK and Ireland in the 1920s to the 1930s. This type of housing became popular to middle-income families who preferred this type to the terrace houses. Presently the semi-detached is still the most popular type of housing in England. Sometime in 2004, a group of very enterprising realtors thought to old semi-detached homes and built in its place two detached homes with inches of space between them.

One advantage of living in a semi-detached house is that there is still a level of privacy even if one wall is shared by the two houses. A glaring disadvantage is that the upkeep of your side of the still falls solely on you. Another disadvantage is that you cannot just plan extensive renovations and extensions as you have to consider your house.

 

Give the definitions of the following words:

 

popular property
income twin
advantage share
demolish old

 

 

Glossary

English Russian Kazakh
middle-income средний доход орта табыс
duplex двухквартирный дом екі пәтерлі үй
demolish уничтожить жою
solely исключительно тек қана, мүлде
glaring ярко светить ашық жарық түсу
fall on падать құлау
property собственность жеке меншік

Terrace Housing

Terraced housing is also known as row housing or townhomes. The origin of this type of dwelling was in the 17th century in Europe. A row of identical looking houses sit side by side forming a long row of housing that share side walls. The end units of this row of housing are called end terrace and are far larger than the units in between the said two end units.

Terrace housing used to be only associated with the working class for this type of housing was cheap, small and has very little privacy. The Great Fire of London brought about the building of terrace housing that had façade reminiscent of columnar fronts. Terrace housing, dependent on its location and design, was either for the working class or the wealthy class. As time went by, terrace housing evolved and became known as townhomes or townhouses which were more associated with wealthy people buying properties in less affluent communities.

One of the major advantages of terrace housing is that it is relatively cheaper than a semi-detached built in the same location. One great disadvantage is that there is no typically no yard or garden that comes with a unit. As two walls are shared, there is less privacy too. However in today's terrace housing, most are enclosed in an area complete with gates and guards to check entries and exits to the compound. This makes a current middle class or high class terrace housing (townhome) very much secured.

Match the phrases:

1. terrace cheaper

2. wealthy advantages

3. columnar housing

4. major class

5. relatively fronts

Answer the questions:

1. When did this type of housing appear?

2. Are terraced houses expensive or cheap?

3.What is the major advantages of terrace housing?

4.What is the disadvantage of terrace housing?

5. How do the today’s terraced houses look?

Glossary

English Russian Kazakh
reminiscent напоминающий ескертетін
evolve развиться даму
affluent приток тарау
columnar колоночный колонналы
wealthy богатый бай
dwelling жилье мекен жай, тұрғын үй
compound состав құрамы

Flats or Apartment

A flat or an apartment is a unit of a self-contained housing that is a part of a larger building. Such building is called an apartment building since it usually consists of several apartments for rent. The apartment is owned by the owner or occupier and may be rented out to tenants. In the UK, some flat owners have a share in the company that owns the freehold (ownership of land and the building). The freehold company has the legal capacity to charge the flat owners ground rent. The freeholder also has the right to develop or sell the building. A flat can be a studio unit, a one- bedroom, two-bedroom or three-bedroom unit.

The main disadvantage of renting out a flat is that the unit will never be yours. You do not have the right to make improvement on the premises to suit your needs unless you ask permission from the landlord. The one advantage of renting a flat is that you don't have sole responsibility on the property as you are only renting. In case you feel like changing locations, you can just finish your lease term and leave after. Interior design describes a group of various yet related projects that involve turning an interior space into an effective setting for the range of human activities that are to take place there.

An interior designer is someone who conducts such projects. Interior design is a multifaceted profession that includes conceptual development, liaising with the stakeholders of a project and the management and execution of the design.

Interior design as carried out in the US is an almost entirely different practice to that carried out in the UK. What follows relates mainly to the US.

Colors play an important role in interior design.

 

Mark the sentences T (true) or F (false).

1. Colors don’t play an important role in interior design.

2. The freeholder also has the right to sell the building.

3. A flat can’t be a studio unit.

4. A flat or an apartment is a part of a larger building.

5. Interior design is a multifaceted profession.

Glossary

English Russian Kazakh
freehold безусловное право собственности меншіктің зайыр құқығы
premise предпосылка алғышарт
conceptual концептуальный тұжырымдылық
entirely полностью толықтай
stakeholders заинтересованные лица мүдделі адамдар
range диапазон диапазон

 


 

Everything about colours

Red

Red is the color of extremes. It’s the color of passionate love, seduction, violence, danger, anger, and adventure. Our prehistoric ancestors saw red as the color of fire and blood – energy and primal life forces – and most of red’s symbolism today arises from its powerful associations in the past.

Red is also a magical and religious color. It symbolized super-human heroism to the Greeks and is the color of the Christian crucifixion. Red was almost as rare and as expensive as purple in ancient days – a fact that may explain its magic and power. Paradoxically, today’s intense red dyes come from crushed insects.

Red’s global similarities are significant:

1. Red is one of the top two favorite colors of all people.

2. Red is the most popular color used on flags in the world. Approximately 77% of all flags include red.

3. Red is the international color for stop.

The history of languages reveals that red is the first color after black and white. (All languages have words for black and white. If a third hue exists, it is red.)

 





Дата добавления: 2016-04-03; просмотров: 2153 | Нарушение авторских прав


Рекомендуемый контект:


Похожая информация:

Поиск на сайте:


© 2015-2019 lektsii.org - Контакты - Последнее добавление

Ген: 0.012 с.