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ѕереведите предложени€ на русский €зык, обраща€ внимание на врем€, выраженное формой модального глагола или его эквивалента

1. You must come to the Institute in time. 2. You may send the documents to the University. 3. All the students are allowed to make experiments in the laboratory. 4. This plant is to begin its work at the end of the month. 5. You should read the text once more. 6. YouТll have to do this work again. 7. We were to meet at the station.
8. If you cannot make the experiment yourself, you should consult your teaching assistant. 9. You could go there yesterday. 10. They might take the books when they were at the library. 11. I shall be able to read your paper tomorrow. 12. First you must study the laboratory instruction and only then you can begin the experiment. 13. We can produce heat by burning oil, gas or any other fuel. 14. He had to pass his last exam once again, because he couldn`t write the test.


¬ставьте пропущенную форму модального глагола или эквивалента.

1. Е I consult the dictionary? 2. You Е not do this work alone. 3. I Е swim well. 4. The plant Е be built in time. 5.We Е notЕ to stay here for a long time.
6. You Е not be late. 7.Does he Е to come there? 8. Е we leave already? 9. Е we cross the street here? 10. Е they write the words in their work- books? 11. Е you begin the tests last week?

17. ѕрочтите и переведите текст:


Natural gas either occurs together with crude oil or forms separate deposits of gas alone. Decomposition of both animal and vegetable remains over a period of many centuries without air is the source of natural gas. A great volume of gas accumulates and penetrates into porous beds of sand, sandstones and limestones. In these beds gas can form natural deposits under great pressure. When a borehole reaches such a deposit the gas rushes up. This gas has to be collected from several boreholes with the help of pipelines over long distances. Russia has a gigantic network of pipelines.

Natural gas is an inflammable gas and consists of hydrocarbons with a very low boiling point. Methane (CH4) makes up approximately 85 per cent of the typical natural gas. Ethane (C2 H6) can be present up to 10 % and propane (C3 H8) up to 3 %.

Butane, pentane, hexane, octane and a few other gases may also be present. In contrast to crude petroleum natural gas has no distinct odour.

Little of natural gas we may use chemically,most of it we use as a fuel for the production of both heat and energy. Like all gaseous fuels natural gas gives a great amount of heat. Natural gas is valuable also as an important chemical raw material for industry, as chemical technologists are able to obtain hydrogen, acetylene, carbon black and various chlorine derivatives.

Natural gas occurs mainly in Russia and some other CIS countries and in the United States where most of the extraction and utilization takes place. Before the war we utilized gas only at Baku and in the Carpathian Mountains. Since then they have discovered numerous new sources, for example, in the Ukhta (Russia) and Emba regions (Kazakhstan), near Saratov, Fergana (Uzbekistan), Samara,Volgograd and Grozny. In Europe they found rich deposits in Rumania and Italy, smaller ones in Austria and France. Germany also has several small but intensively worked fields.


18. ќтветьте на следующие вопросы:

1. Does natural gas occur together with crude oil or does it form separate deposits? 2. What is the main source of natural gas? 3. In what beds can gas form natural deposits? 4. What happens when a borehole reaches a deposit of natural gas under great pressure? 5. What network of pipelines has Russia? 6. Is natural gas an inflammable gas? 7. What does natural gas consist of? 8. What is the main component of natural gas? 9. Has natural gas any distinct odour? 10. Do we use natural gas mainly as a fuel? 11. Is natural gas an important chemical raw material for industry? 12. What countries are the main producers of natural gas? 13. In what areas of Russia and CIS is natural gas produced at present? 14. What countries of Europe are rich in natural gas?

ѕерескажите текст, использу€ вопросы упражнени€ 18.

20. «апомните слова:

combustible Ц горючий manifestation Ц про€вление

ancient Ц древний supernatural Ц сверхъестественный

legend Ц легенда force Ц сила

B.C. Ц before Christ Ц до н.э. to worship Ц поклон€тьс€, почитать

to observe Ц наблюдать still Ц до сих пор, все еще

eternal Ц вечный in the Caucasus Ц на  авказе

to burn Ц гореть to exist Ц существовать

flame Ц плам€, огонь remains Ц остатки

various Ц различный temple Ц храм

to regard Ц рассматривать, right to the end of the 19th century Ц вплоть до

считать конца 19 столети€


ѕрочтите смысловой кусок.  ратко ответьте на вопросы.

Natural combustible gas has been known since ancient times. There is a legend that several thousand years B.C. people observed Уeternally burning flamesФ in various parts of the world. These flames were regarded as manifestations of a supernatural force and were worshipped. In the Caucasus there still exist the remains of a temple. In this temple an eternal flame burned right to the end of the 19th century.

1. Natural combustible gas has been known since ancient times, hasnТt it?

2. Did people observe Уeternally burning flamesФ several thousand years B.C.?

3. Were these flames regarded as manifestations of a supernatural force?

4. Did people worship burning flames?

5. In the Caucasus there still exist the remains of a temple, donТt they?

6. Did an eternal flame burn in this temple right to the end of the 19th century?

«апомните слова:

To form Ц образовывать limestone Ц известн€к

decomposition Ц разложение surround Ц окружать

to penetrate Ц проникать rock Ц порода

crack Ц трещина side Ц сторона

bed Ц слой sandstone Ц песчаник

ѕрочтите смысловой кусок. »з предложенных заголовков выберите правильный вариант.

Natural gases were formed by the decomposition of animal and vegetable remains over a period of many centuries. The gases that accumulated penetrated through cracks into porous beds of sand, sandstone and limestone. In these beds surrounded on all sides by compact rock, they formed natural deposits.


a) The use of natural gas

b) The main components of natural gas

c) The origin of natural gas

«апомните слова:

mysterious Ц таинственный to ignite Ц загоратьс€, воспламен€тьс€

nothing but Ц не что иное как lightning Ц молни€

to break out (broke, broken) - вырватьс€ to pipe Ц пускать по трубам

bowels of the earth Ц недра земли to serve Ц служить

deposit Ц месторождение


ѕрочтите смысловой кусок. ¬ыберите предложение, наиболее точно передающее содержание прочитанного отрывка.

Nowadays everyone knows that there is nothing mysterious about such flames. УEternal flamesФ are nothing but combustible gases. They have broken out of the bowels of the earth into the atmosphere and have been ignited, say, by lightning. People today do not worship such flames. They pipe the natural gas to their cities Ц to factories and homes. They make it serve their needs.


1. There is nothing mysterious about Уeternal flamesФ.

2. Instead of (вместо) worshipping Уeternal flamesФ people today make them serve their needs.

3. Combustible gases have broken out of the bowels of the earth into the atmosphere and have been ignited.


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