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ќпределите функции Participle II и переведите предложени€ на русский €зык

1. The damaged parts were immediately examined and repaired by a specialist. 2. Installed, the wire may be used as a conductor. 3. The engine tested required further improvement. 4. When broadly used, the term УalloyФ may include mixture of metals. 5. The results obtained proved to be right. 6. The instruments get spoilt if left in the open air. 7. The amount of calculations carried out depends on the quality of the electronic computer used. 8. The gas mixture ignited quickly produces more force if first compressed.


ќпределите функции герунди€ и герундиального оборота и переведите предложени€ на русский €зык.

1. Protecting the personnel against radioactive radiation holds an important place at the atomic power plant. 2. The first alloys were formed by mixing metals with other substances. 3. The engineer insisted on these reservoirs being used for holding aviation gasoline. 4. There were other ways of applying high voltage. 5. By working hard you can make up for the time lost. 6. The engineer insists on those devices being a new step in the development of technique. 7. The constructor informed us of establishing a new record of a non-stop flight. 8. His main occupation was washing reflectors with soapy water. 9. The turbulent flow of gases produces cooling. 10. There is no hope of our getting a complete analysis of measurement within 10 days.

ќпределите функции инфинитива в следующих предложени€х и пере-ведите их на русский €зык.

1. To build good roads is one of the most important tasks of our engineers.
2. Under such conditions dust can get into the interior. 3. To give the necessary output the plant needed new techniques. 4. The main purpose is to design modern equipment and establish new methods of operation. 5. When ionised the electrons do not remain free but attach themselves to neutral atoms to form negative ions. 6. To understand the action of batteries let us examine a very simple sort of cell. 7. We tried to minimize the old disadvantages. 8. In an effort to overcome these difficulties a great deal of experimental work has been carried out by the specialists. 9. So they have found a new type of tape possible to work with. 10. Attempts to design a steam turbine with a special form of the nozzle were made by numerous inventors.


16. ѕрочтите и переведите текст:


There are many ways of discovering the underground oil, but the only way to get it is to make a deep hole called a borehole, or a well, through the rock, earth and sand. The steel framework over the well is called a derrick. From this the machinery that drills the hole is raised and lowered.

The technique of well drilling goes far back into history. It is first mentioned in ancient Chinese manuscripts, which describe wells drilled as early as the third century A.D. to tap underground strata for brine. The wells were drilled with a heavy bit, which hung from a rope and was raised up and down by several of men jumping on a spring board.

The petroleum industry is traditionally considered to have been born in 1859 near Titusville, Pennsylvania where Drake drilled the first well. In Russia the first oil well was drilled in 1856 by a Russian engineer A.F. Semenov. At around the same time oil wells were also being drilled in other places, notably at Oil Springs, Ontario, Canada and Wietze near Hanover, Germany and there is some doubt as to which country should be credited with having drilled the first commercial oil well. All these wells were drilled by the cable tool methods.

The cable tool system was essentially a method of making a hole by repeated blows with a bit attached to a Уdrill stemФ, a heavy length of steel suspended from a wire rope. The hole was kept empty except for a little water at the bottom. After drilling a few feet, the bit was pulled out and the cutting removed with a УbailerФ, an open tube with a valve at the bottom. Steel pipes known as casing, of progressively smaller diameter, were run from time to time to prevent the hole from caving and to keep back any water flow.

Cable tool drilling was cheap, simple and effective for shallow wells, but progress was slow and no means was provided for stemming the flow of oil and gas when encountered under pressure. In such cases the wells blew out and spewed quantities of oil and gas over the countryside. The УgushersФ of these early days were spectacular but wasted a lot of oil and gas, and were a serious fire hazard.

The present-day method of drilling, known as the Уrotary methodФ was introduced at around the turn of the century. With this method, the bit, instead of moving up and down, is attached to the bottom of a string of steel pipes and rotated by means of a rotary table which turns the uppermost pipe or УkellyФ. УDrilling fluidФ or Уdrilling mudФ is continuously circulated down through the hollow drilling string, through the bit and back up to the surface through the annular space between drilling string and borehole wall. The drilling fluid flushes the cuttings out of the hole and, by the weight of its column, holds the fluids under pressure in formations penetrated by the bit, thus greatly reducing the risk of blowout.

A variant of rotary drilling is known as Уturbo-drillingФ. With this method the pipe is not rotated but is kept stationary and the bit is rotated on bottom by means of a fluid motor or turbine powered by the mud stream. Although the rate of penetration of the bit can be faster with this method than with conventional rotary drilling the bit wears out much faster, so that the overall efficiency is lower. However, the method has some application where high-grade steel is difficult to obtain, and where rapid bit wear is unimportant.


17. ќтветьте на следующие вопросы:

1. What is the only way to get the underground oil? 2. When was well drilling mentioned for the first time? 3. How were the wells drilled then? 4. Which country should be credited with having drilled the first commercial oil well? 5. What is the cable tool system? 6. What advantages and disadvantages of cable tool drilling do you know? 7. WhatТs the difference between cable tool drilling and rotary method of drilling? 8. What variant of rotary drilling do you know? 9. Where is turbo-drilling applied?

18. ѕерескажите текст УDrillingФ по следующему плану:

1. The appearance and development of well drilling technique.

2. Cable tool method of drilling.

3. Rotary method of drilling.

4. Turbo-drilling.


19. ѕрочтите текст:

Superdeep Drilling

Our drillers have completed the stage of sinking a superdeep well. The drilling of a superdeep drilling well is of tremendous scientific interest because the majority of problems that interest researchers are still at the stage of hypothesis. It is very important to know the composition and physical state of interior spheres of the Earth, what physical and chemical transformations of matter are taking place there, or how these rocks move to cause the drift of continents and especially Ц the origin of the Earth.

Superdeep drilling is a very labour-consuming process. And all the more in arctic conditions. Each pipe coming to the drillers from the factory is subjected to electroscopic testing.

To reach the planned depth is a job so serious and so complex that the drillers must calculate literally every step. The geologists working on the superdeep well are using the latest methods of geological and geophysical research. They have obtained data which tend to change our concepts of the Уlower storeysФ of the EarthТs crust.


«апомните следующие синонимы:

oil (petroleum), underground (subsurface), discover (find), hole (bore-hole, well), raise (lift), drill (sink), tube (pipe).



«апомните следующие глаголы:

discover - открывать raise - поднимать

drill - бурить rotate - вращать

lower - опускать


ќзнакомьтесь с терминами из текста:

superdeep - сверхглубокий cross-out - разрез

origin Ц происхождение rock sample - проба породы

sink - бурить deviate Ц отклон€тьс€

hoist - поднимать electroscoping testing - электроскопические



Ќайдите утверждение, несоответствующeе тексту:

1. The drilling of a superdeep well is of tremendous scientific interest.

2. It is very important to know the composition and physical state of interior spheres of the Earth.

3. Superdeep drilling is not a labour Ц consuming process.

4. Drillers must calculate every step.

5. The geologists working on the superdeep well are using the latest methods of geological and geophysical research.


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