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IX. Read and translate the text




OINTMENTS

Ointments are semisolid preparations intended for external application to the skin or mucous membranes.

Ointment bases recognized for use as vehicles fall into four general classes: the hydrocarbon bases, the absorption bases the water-removable bases, and the water-soluble bases. Each therapeutic ointment possesses as its base a representative of one of these four general classes.

Hydrocarbon Bases Ч These bases, which are known also as "oleaginous ointment bases", are represented by White Petrolatum and White Ointment. Only small amounts of an aqueous component can be incorporated into them. They serve to keep medicaments in prolonged contact with the skin and act as occlusive dressings. Hydrocarbon bases are used chiefly for their emollient effects, and are difficult to wash off. They do not "dry out" or change noticeably on aging.

Absorption Bases Ч This class of bases may be divided into two groups, the first group consisting of bases that permit the incorporation of aqueous solutions with the formation of a water-in-oil emulsion (Anhydrous Lanolin) and the second group consisting of water-in-oil emulsions that permit the incorporation of additional quantities of aqueous solutions (Lanolin). Some medications are absorbed better from these bases than from the hydrocarbon bases'. Absorption bases are useful also as emollients.

Water-removable Bases Ч Such bases are oil-in water emulsions (Hydrophilic Ointment), and frequently are called "creams". They are discribed also as "water-washable", since they may be readily washed from the skin or closing with water, an attribute that makes them more acceptable for cosmetic reason. Other advantages of the water-removal bases are that they may be diluted with water and that they favor the absorption of serious discharges in dermatological conditions.

Water-soluble Bases Ч This group of so-called "grease- less ointment bases" is comprised of water-soluble constituents. Polyethylene Glycol Ointment is the only Pharmacopeial preparation in this group. The formula of this ointment is modified by the inclusion of stearil alcohol where water, or a water solution, is to be prepared in order to minimize the resultant softening effect. These bases may in some instances be irritating to inflamed tissue.

Choice of Base Ч The choice of ointment base depends upon many factors, such as the action desired, the nature of the medicament to be incorporated and its bioavailability and stability, and the requisite shelf-life of the finished pro≠duct. In some cases, it is necessary to use a base that is less than ideal in order to achieve the stability required. For example, drugs that hydrolyze rapidly are more stable in hydrocarbon bases than in bases containing water, even though they may be more effective in the latter.

X. Answer the questions.

1. What are ointments?

2. What are the main general classes of ointment bases?

3. What do hydrocarbon bases serve to?

4. Why are hydrocarbon bases chiefly used?

5. What groups of absorption bases can you name?

6. Where are absorption bases used?

7. What is the only Pharmacopeial preparation in the group of water-soluble bases?

8. What does the choice of ointment base depend upon?


 

 

II тема: ќсобиста ≥нформац≥€.
II тема: ќсобиста ≥нформац≥€.

Personal information. Biography of the student.

ќсобиста ≥нформац≥€. Ѕ≥ограф≥€ студента.

I. Active Vocabulary.

name Ц ≥м'€;

family name / surname Ц пр≥звище;

patronymic -по батьков≥;

full name Ц повне ≥м'€;

children Ц д≥ти;

profession Ц профес≥€;

occupation Ц прац€, робота;

engineer Ц ≥нженер;

technician Ц техн≥к;

clerk Ц службовець;

driver Ц шофер;

shop-assistant Ц продавець;

book-keeper Ц рах≥вник;

accountant Ц бухгалтер;

cashier Ц кассир;

housewife Ц домогосподарка;

turner Ц токар;

doctor Ц л≥кар;

worker Ц роб≥тник;

teacher Ц вчитель;

student Ц студент;

postgraduate Ц асп≥рант;

laboratory-assistant Ц лаборант;

plant Ц завод;

office Ц контора, заклад;

hospital Ц л≥карн€;

comprehensive secondary school Ц загальноосв≥тн€ середн€ школа;

specialized school Ц училище;

technical school Ц техн≥кум;

institute Ц ≥нститут;

University Ц ун≥верситет;

married Ц одружений(а);

single Ц неодружений(а);

divorced Ц розлучений(а);

an orphan Ц сирота.





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