Reading comprehension plants or insects first.

Самостоятельная работа по английскому языку, 3 триместр 2016.

Which came first? The chicken or the egg? This age-old question touches, in another form, on the theory of evolution. Which came first, the plants or the insects, in particular the bees? If the plants came first, they would have had to be plants that could survive without pollination. If, however, they had no need for bees, then there was no need for bees to evolve. Further, if plants were able to survive without bees, there was no need for plants to have a particular colour or smell to attract bees, there being no bees to attract.

A bee cannot exist by itself. It needs to be part of a unit, sixty thousand strong. Did one bee originally evolve on his own? Evolution believes that before the bees there were bee-like creatures going through various changes, evolving into what finally and suddenly became a fully-developed nest with workers, drones* and one queen.

But the question here with regard to bees is the question of food. If the bees came first, what did they feed on? Perhaps on some other life form or, cannibalistically, on one another. If bees came before the plants, it is clear that they managed to survive until the appearance of plants, and that whatever their first or original food, they eventually transferred their needs to plants. Equally, if the plants came first they must have had some way of survival that did not require the help of bees.

*a type of male bee that does not do any work

I. Select the best of the four choices (a,b,c,d) after each question:

1.Which came first, the plants or the insects?
A. the plants, because the bees needed them
B. the insects, because the plants needed them
C. they both evolved at the same time
D. the passage doesn’t say

2. Without pollination means without:
A. help from the bees
B. fresh water
C. proper soil
D. enough warmth

3.Why might there have been no need for plants to have a particular smell or colour?
A. they were all alike
B. they were self-sufficient
C. insects couldn’t distinguish smells or colours
D. bees disliked the smell of plants

4.Particular smell or colour means a smell or colour that is:
A. fussy
B. individual
C. pleasant
D. exact

5.It needs to be part of a unit, sixty thousand strong. Strong means:
A. powerful
B. approximately
C. in number
D. in good health

6.Evolution believes that:
A. bees were always changing
B. the drones changed into queens
C. there were pre-bees
D. one bee evolved on his own

7.Feeding cannibalistically means feeding:
A. on plants
B. on each other
C. on some other life form
D. on some other insect


II. Write down the letter of every choice (a,b,c,d,e) that could fill the gap (……..) in each item. (The choices must be grammatically suitable and must correspond to the meaning in the passage.)


8. This age-old question has, in another form, __________ the theory of evolution.
A. to do for B. to get for C. to do with D. to touch with E. in touch with

9. A bee cannot exist __________________ its own.
A. on B. by C. with D. for E. to

10. If bees came before the plants it is clear that they succeeded ________until the appearance of plants.
A. survive B. to survive C. surviving D. in surviving E. for surviving



I. Choose the correct answer and cross it out

1. He was left alone, with _________ to look after him.
A. someone B. anyone C. not one D. no one
2. He _________ lives in the house where he was born.
A. already B. yet C. still D. ever

3. I didn’t know what to do but then an idea suddenly _____________ to me.
A. happened B. entered C. occurred D. hit

4. When they arrived at the crossroads, they went the wrong _____________.
A. direction B. way C. route D. street

5. I’ve often __________ at this hotel
A. remained B. rested C. stayed D. passed

6. We played tennis _____________ the rain.
A. although B. instead C. even though D. in spite of
7. He is the most _____________ singer in his country.
A. preferred B. known C. favourite D. POPULAR

8. It’s too expensive for me. I can’t ______________ it.
A. spend B. pay C. afford D. cost

9. I have classes _____________ day, Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays.
A. each other B. every other C. this and the other D. all other

10. There’s no one here who can ___________ the problem
A. deal with B. treat with C. deal D. treat

II. Complete the sentences with the most suitable form of the word related to the one in brackets

1. Although they separathed (SEPARATION), he maintained a friendly (FRIEND) relation with Mary.
2. If you tried again you would succeed (SUCCESS) in your business (BUSY).
3. I believe (BELIEF) that they have found treatment (TREAT) for this new kind of flu.
4. The situation was hopeless (HOPE); his patient was going to die (DEATH).
5. Dr. Audlin has sense of discouragement (DISCOURAGE) as was always the case when he met with failure (FAIL).



1 ……. I wait here?

a. May b. Have to с Am to

2. It was dark, we … see nothing.

a. may b. can c. could

3. The doctor says I….. not go out.

a. might b. could с may

4. ….. I have some more bread?

a. Should b. Could c. Must

5. …. I do anything for you?

a. May b. Must с. Can

6. Nobody….. to park in front of the theatre.

a. must b. may с. is allowed

7. They…….. know about it. They are too young.

a. needn't b. can't c. must

8…… you lend me a dictionary?

a. Should b. Must с. Can

9. Sorry, sir, you….. not smoke here.

a. might b. needn't с. may

10. It's very late. You …… phone them now.

a. shouldn't b. haven't to с can't

11. You……. to visit your parents.

a. should b. ought с have to

12. Like any top sportsman she ….. to train very hard.

a. had b. must с. should

13. The train isn't late. It….. come in time.

a. should b. ought с. is to

14. The policeman said: 'No one….. leave the room'

a. is allowed to b. has to с. could

15. The water is cold, you…. swim.

a. haven't to b. must с. can't

16. I... to cover the whole distance on foot.

a. can b. have с. must

17. Must I come to the university on Sunday? No, you….

a. mustn't b. can't c. needn't

18. I'm afraid the weather…. change for the worse.

a. must b. may с. should

19. You …….. to come here again.

a. have b. must c. should

20. You ……. work hard at your English if you want to know it.

a. must b. is to с may

21. You …… not go out, the lesson is not over yet.

a. have b. may с. can

22. Somebody will'…. to meet her.

a. ought b. need c. have

23. I …. to help you tonight.

a. shan't be able b. shan't be allowed c. shan't have

24. He ……. speak three foreign languages.

a. can b. may с. is to

25. The sky is dark. It ……. rain soon.

a. may b. should с. has to

26. The lights are on. They …… be at home.

a. may b. must с. are to

27. The weather ….. change tomorrow.

a. may b. must с. should

28. She …… to finish school in a year.

a. may b. has с. is



Соотнесите английские предложения с русскими:

1) b) Не may come. а) Ему можно не приходить.

2) e) Не couldn't come. ' b) Он может прийти.

3) d) Не must come. с) Ему не следует приходить.

4) h) Не had to come. d) Он должен прийти.

5) c) Не shouldn't come. е) Он не смог прийти.

6) f) He'll be able to come. f) Он сможет прийти.

7) a) He needn't come. g) Ему не разрешают прийти.

8) g) Не isn't allowed to come. h) Ему пришлось прийти.




Choose the right modal verb.

1. Mum,... I buy an ice cream?

A. may В. need

2. You... hear this tune everywhere, it's very popular

A. can В. may

3. What... I do to help you?

A. need B. must

4. You... not pay. It's free.

A. need B. must

5.... you believe it? I'm sure it's nonsense.

A. can В. may

6. You... not read in bed.

A. must B. need

7. You... not worry. All is going to be fine.

A. may В. need

8. If you... afford this book, buy it.

A. can B. may

9. He... give up smoking after a heart attack.

A. can B. must

10.... I help you with this heavy box?

A. May B. Need



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