The article is a structural part of speech used with nouns.
There are two articles in Modern English: the indefinite a/an used only with nouns in the singular & the definite the article used with nouns both in the singular & in the plural.
The indefinite article is used:
1. With countable nouns in the singular to show that the noun belongs to a certain class (has the meaning какой-то, один из, любой). In the plural no article is used in this case.Have you got a car?-Never.
2. With a countable noun mentioned for the first time. I’ve bought a hat. It is expensive.
3. To talk about somebody’s job. She is a doctor. He works as a pilot.
4. With a noun in general sense (has the meaning of every, any).A drawing man catches at a straw.
5. In the meaning of one. Wait a minute!
6. After the construction there is & it is, this is.There is a letter on the table. It is a book.
7. After the words such, rather, quite. What…!Ann is such a pretty girl. What a strange person!
8. With a noun modified by the adjective in the positive degree.Are you a good driver?
9. a/an+ordinal numerals has the meaning ещё один. She gave me a second cup of coffee.
10. Also with a dozen, a hundred, a thousand, a million, a week, an hour in the meaning “one”.We have English classes twice a week.
The definite article is used:
1. With a noun when it is clear in the situation which thing or person is meant, or with the noun mentioned before.Can you turn on the light please? We stopped at a village. The village was old but nice.
2. When the noun is modified by a particularizing attribute (an of-phrase or an attributive clause, always used in post position).He knocked at the door of the nearest house. This is the flat that Ann bought. The apples I’d bought were not ripe.
3. With the nouns modified by the adjective in the superlative degree & the ordinal numbers. But: a most- in the meaning весьма, крайне. It’s a most interesting film!
4. With the nouns in the singular used in the generic sense.The tragedy & the comedy first appeared in Greece.
1. Before the nouns modified by the pronouns: possessive: my, his, her, its, our, your, their; demonstrative: this, that, these, those; interrogative: what, which, whose; indefinite: some, any, each, every, many, much, no; cardinal numerals. My friend & I would like to spend our holidays in some quiet place. I’d like to read this book. What question have you discussed? Take any book you like. Platform 2, size 42, page 5, room 49.
2. Before plural countable nouns in general sense. Children learn a lot from playing. I like pets.
3. most+ noun (without article)- the noun is used in general sense. Most+of+the- definite objects are meant. Most children like ice-cream. Most of the streets in London are not wide.