Vocabulary Notes. 1. To curlυt/i. 1. Завивать(-ся), закручивать(-ся), E. G

1. to curl υt/i. 1. завивать(-ся), закручивать(-ся), e.g. She has curled her hair. The old man was curling his long moustache.

2. виться, клубиться, е.g. Does her hair curl naturally or does she curl it in curlers? The smoke from our camp-fires curled upwards among the trees.

to curl one's lip презрительно кривить рот, е.g. I don't like the way she curls her lip when talking to me.

to curl up свертывать(-ся), е.g. The child curled up in the arm-chair and went to sleep.

curling adj вьющийся (о волосах)

Cf. curled adj завитой and curly adj кудрявый, е.g. I don't like curled hair. But I liked this plump curly-headed little boy.

curl n 1. локон, завивка; 2. все, что имеет форму завитка, е.g. The girl had long curls over her shoulders. How do you keep your hair in curl? Soon we saw the curls of smoke rise upwards.

2. to break (broke, broken) υt/i 1. ломать(-ся), разбивать(-ся), е.g. Не fell and broke his leg. Who broke the window? Glass breaks easily.

to break (smth.) in two (three, etc.) разбить(-ся), разломать(-ся), разорвать(-ся) на две (три и т.д.) части, е.g. The mother broke the bread in two and gave each child a piece.

to break to pieces разбить(-ся) вдребезги, е.g. The vase fell and broke to pieces.

2. чувствовать себя разбитым (морально, физически), разориться, usu. to be broken, е.g. Не was completely broken as the result of the failure of his business. She was broken after her husband's death.

3. нарушать, as to break the law, a promise, one's word, an appointment

Ant. to keep, е.g. She broke the appointment. = She did not keep it

to break with smb. or smth. (old habits, traditions, etc.) порвать с.., покончить с..., е.g. Не can't break with his bad habits.

to break off прекратить внезапно (разговор, беседу), е.g. When she came in he broke off. He broke off in the middle of a sentence.

N o t e: No object after break off. Cf. in Russian: прекратить разговор.

to break out начинаться внезапно, вспыхнуть (об эпидемии, пожаре, войне), е.g. A fire broke out during the night.

to break through (smth.) прорывать(-ся), е.g. The partisans broke through the enemy's line.

to break the record побить рекорд

break n перемена, перерыв (в работе, учебе и т.д.), е.g. I feel tired, let's have a break. We're working since nine o'clock without a break.

3. to stick (stuck, stuck) υt/i 1. приклеивать(-ся), наклеивать; липнуть; прикреплять, as to stick a stamp on a letter, to stick a notice on a board. These stamps won't stick. The nickname stuck to him.

2. оставаться; держаться, придерживаться? стоять на своем, е.g. Friends should stick together. You must stick to your promise. Though Tom saw that nobody believed him, he stuck to his words. Stick to business! (He отвлекайтесь!)

3. втыкать, затыкать; засовывать, е.g. The girl stuck a flower in her hair. He stuck his hands in his pockets.

4. застрять, завязнуть, е.g. The splinter stuck in my finger. The car stuck in the mud. The key stuck in the keyhole.

4. to drive (drove, driven) υt/i 1. гнать (скот); преследовать (неприятеля), е.g. Не drove the horses into the forest.

2. править, управлять (машиной, автомобилем), е.g. He's learning to drive.

3. ехать (в автомобиле, экипаже), е.g. Shall we drive home or walk?

N o t e: With reference to travelling on a bicycle, on a horse or other animal the verb to ride is used, е.g. He jumped on his horse and rode away. He rode over on his bicycle to see me yesterday.

to drive up (away) подъезжать (отъезжать), e.g. We drove up to the house.

to drive at (colloq.) клонить к чему-л., намекать на что-л., е.g. I could not understand what he was driving at.

to drive smb. mad сводить с ума

drive n катание, езда, прогулка (в автомобиле, экипаже), е.g. We had a nice drive.

to go for a drive прокатиться, совершить прогулку в автомобиле, е.g. Shall we go for a drive round the town?

driver n шофер, водитель, машинист, as a bus-driver, tram-driver, taxi-driver, engine-driver

5. pause n пауза, перерыв; передышка, е.g. There was a short pause while the next speaker got on to the platform. A pause is made because of doubt or hesitation or for the sake of expressiveness when speaking, singing, reading, etc.

Syn. break

to make a pause делать паузу, останавливаться, е.g. The speaker made a short pause to stress his words.

to pause υi делать паузу, останавливаться, е.g. Не paused to collect his thoughts. He went on without pausing.

Syn. stop

N о t e: to stop is usually used when the action is not supposed to continue; to pause is used when there is only a temporary break in the action, especially in speech or writing, е.g. He paused until the noise stopped.

6. to nod υi/t 1. кивать головой, е.g. I asked him if he could ring me up and he nodded. She nodded to me as she passed.

Syn. bow

N о t e: to sod refers lo a quick motion of the head only, and is less formal than to bow, which is a slower, formal bending, usually of the body as well as the head, е.g. The servant bowed and left the room.

Ant to shake one's bead

2. дремать, клевать носом, е.g. She sat in the armchair nodding over her book.

nod n кивок, е.g. She passed me with a nod. She gave me a nod.

7. ruin n 1. гибель, крушение, разорение, е.g. The death of Davy's mother was the ruin of his hopes.

to bring smb. (smth.) to ruin разорить, погубить, е.g. Не brought his family to ruin.

2. развалины (often pl), руины, е.g. The ruins of Rome. The enemy left the city in rains.

rain υt губить, разрушать, разорять

to ruin one's life (hopes, business, constitution), е.g. He knew that he himself had ruined his life by stealing the money.

to rain oneself разориться, е.g. The fellow rained himself by card-playing.

ruinous adj разорительный, губительный, разрушительный

8. to rub υt/i тереть(-ся), натирать, е.g. The gymnast rubbed hishands with talc. The dog rubbed its nose against my coat.

to rub smth. dry вытирать насухо, е.g. Не rubbed Ms face (hands) dry.

to rub in втирать (мазь и т. д.), е.g. Rub the oil in well.

to rub off стирать (удалять с поверхности), е.g. Rub the words off the blackboard.

to rub out стирать (написанное чернилами, карандашом), в. д. She rubbed all the pencil marks out.

to rub one's hands (together) потирать руки от удовольствия, е.g. His manner of rubbing bis hands gets on my nerves.

rub n, е.g. She gave the spoons a good rub.

9. vacant adj незанятый, свободный; вакантный, пустой, е.g. The telephone booth was vacant and I was able to telephone at once. She gazed into vacant space.

N o t e: The Russian words свободный and пустой have different English equivalents:

1. свободный may be translated by vacant, free, not engaged, spare, loose.

vacant means "not occupied," as a vacant seat (room, house, flat); a vacant post (position); a vaсant mind

free means "independent," as a free person; a free state; free will

not engaged means "not occupied, not busy," е.g. You are not engaged now, are you?

Ant. engaged, busy

Spare means "additional to what is usually needed," е.g. I have spare time today. I've got spare cash about me and can lend you 3 or 5 roubles.

loose means "not tight or not fitting close," е.g. He had loose clothes on. All the window frames in my flat are loose.

Ant tight

2. пустой has the following English equivalents: vacant, empty, blank, shallow.

(See the notes to the word blank on p. 164.)

vacancy n вакантная должность, е.g. We have a vacancy on our staff. We advertised for a secretary to fill the vacancy.

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