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What is economics?




The word economics comes from the Greek word oikonomos which means С to manage resources of a householdТ. As the resources are often limited economics deals with their rational use. All economic questions arise from the fundamental fact of scarcity. Nature does not provide all the things people want. Since human and material resources are scarce, everybody Ц individuals, business firms, and governments Ц needs to make choices from among the things needed or wanted. Economics is the social science that describes and analyses choices from among scarce resources to satisfy peopleТs wants and needs.

Economics studies human activities which can be grouped under three broad headings: production, consumption and exchange. Production creates supply, that is, the ability of producers to provide goods and services to individuals at various prices. Consumption characterizes demand, that is, the desire of individuals to consume goods and services at various prices. The interrelationships between supply and demand are often referred to as exchange.

There are two ways of looking at economics and the economy: microeconomics and macroeconomics. Microeconomics is the study of individual consumers and the business firm. Microeconomics deals with the decisions made by individuals in determining how to get income and how to spend it. With regard to business firms microeconomics determines, first, how to use inputs in the production of output, and, second, how much output to produce. Macroeconomics is the study of the economy as a whole. It deals with the problems of economic growth, unemployment and inflation. Each of these factors is an indicator of the overall state of the economy.

Exercise 3. Answer the following questions:

1. What language does the word economics come from?

2. Why does everybody need to make choices?

3. What does economics describe and analyze?

4. What human activities does economics study?

5. What is the connection between production and supply?

6. How are consumption and demand interrelated?

7. How can you define exchange?

8. What is microeconomics?

9. What is macroeconomics?

10. What economic problems does macroeconomics deal with?

Exercise 4. Translate into English.

—усп≥льна наука; постачати товари та послуги; виникають питанн€; окрем≥ особи; оск≥льки ресурси часто Ї обмеженими; що стосуЇтьс€/стосовно; взаЇмозвТ€зок м≥ж попитом ≥ пропозиц≥Їю; €к отримати прибуток; €к витрачати прибуток; вивченн€ економ≥ки в ц≥лому; кожен з цих фактор≥в; показник.

Exercise 5. Translate into Ukrainian.

Fundamental fact of scarcity; since; to make choices from; peopleТs wants and needs; which can be grouped under three broad headings; ability; at various prices; individual consumers; two way of looking at economics and the economy; how much output to produce; overall state of the economy.

Exercise 6. Match and learn the synonyms.

A: scarce, various, income, heading, want, provide, broad, deal with, consume;

B: supply, concern, wide, different, limited, title, use, earnings, desire.

Exercise 7. Match and learn the opposites.

A: scarce, broad, employment, input, income, ability;

B: spending, narrow, plentiful, disability, output, unemployment.

Exercise 8. Choose the proper word to complete the sentence.

1. Economics deals with the (broad/narrow) spectrum of economic problems. 2. Materials that go into the production of goods or services are called (input/output). 3. Nature does not provide people with all they want since the material resources are (plentiful/scarce). 4. Demand characterizes the (ability/ disability) to consume goods and services. 5. When the (income/spending) of a household increases, it can consume more goods and services.

Exercise 9. Read the definitions below, learn the difference in meaning of the following words and translate the sentences.

Economics Ц science of the production, distribution and using up of goods.

Economy Ц system of the management and use of economic resources.

Economic Ц connected with trade, system of production.

Economical Ц careful in the spending of money, time, etc and in the use of goods.

1. ≈коном≥ка вивчаЇ економ≥чн≥ проблеми сучасного св≥ту. 2. ћи повинн≥ бути економними у використанн≥ газу, води, електроенерг≥њ. 3. Ќизька ≥нфл€ц≥€ Ц це показник стаб≥льноњ економ≥ки.

Exercise 10. Read the verbs and their explanation. Add suffix Цer/-or to form a corresponding noun denoting a profession/occupation of a person. Use the model to explain what these people do.

Model: to manage Ц to control a business. A manager is a person who controls a business.

To produce Ц to create goods and services.

To provide Ц to give or supply what is needed or useful.

To consume Ц to use up (food, energy, materials, etc).

To distribute Ц to give or send out (goods or services).

Grammar point: The plural of nouns(p.118). Possessive Case (p.119)

Classes of pronouns (p. 120-126)

Degrees of comparison of adjectives (p. 127)

Exercise 11. Supply the corresponding plural form and group the words according to the pronunciation of the ending: [s], [z] or [iz]. Mind special cases!

Ability, business, businessman, businesswoman, choice, individual, good, income, economy, demand, input, supply, price, fact, resource, analysis, family, index, foot, datum.

Exercise 12. Paraphrase the following using the PossessiveCase where possible.

Activity of man, production of goods, factor of economy, needs of people, supply of services, ability of producers, demand of consumers, choice of individuals.

Exercise 13. Use the adjective in brackets in the proper degree of comparison to complete the sentence.

1. This is the (good) choice you can make. 2. The (high) the income of a family, the (much) it spends on various goods. 3. To be economical we must use inputs in a (rational) way than before. 4. It is not always true that a (high) price means a (good) product or service. 5. Economic growth, inflation and unemployment are (important) indicators of the state of economy. 6. Energy resources become (expensive) with every year.

 

Exercise 14. Use the proper form of a pronoun in brackets.

1. (He/him) is our manager. 2. (We/us) always ask (he/him) questions and (he/him) tries to answer (they/them). 3. (I/me) donТt remember (she/her). 4. Where is (your/yours) notebook? 5. Make (your / yours) choice and then IТll make (my/mine). 6. (This/these) book is more interesting than (that/those) one. 7. All students are here. (You/your) can see (they/them) in the hall. 8. (This/these) are (our/ours) suppliers. 9. (They/them) provide good services to satisfy (their/theirs) customers. 10. There is a great demand for (our/ours) goods in (this/these) regions. 11. Please, show (we/us) the way to the nearest supermarket.

Exercise 15. Insert the proper pronoun.

a ) some, any, no, every:

1. Е business firm wants to be successful. 2. As there is Еsugar in the house we must buy Е 3. Do you have Е ideas how to deal with this situation?

b) somebody, anybody, nobody, everybody:

1. At elections Е must make a choice. 2. Е is waiting for you at the office. 3. This question is very difficult. Е can answer it. 4. Can we find Е to supply these goods?

c) something, anything, nothing, everything:

1. I want to be an expert in economics. That is why I need to know Е concerning this subject. 2. Here is your money. You can buy Е you want. 3. I am very hungry. Do we have Е to eat? 4. There is Е for you on your desk. 5. He is so demanding that Е can satisfy him.

d ) somewhere, anywhere, nowhere, everywhere:

1. Their products are so popular that you can buy themЕ 2. I think this firm is situated Е here. 3. He cannot find his notebook Е 4. I feel so tired that I want Е to go.

Exercise 16. Fill in the proper self -form.

1. She knows the language so well that she translates everything Е 2. I can answer this question Е 3. It is such a difficult problem that one cannot solve it Е 4. The project Е is very prospective. 5. Always make your choice Е





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