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The first private chemists shops in Russia




On November 22 (December 3) 1701 Peter I issued the highest Decree which stipulated foundation of eight private chemists shops in Moscow. New chemists shops were released from military billeting, while pharmacists - from military duty and paying taxes.

First chemists shops in Russia appeared in 17th century as a result of development of the public health service. In the 1620s a Pharmacy Prikaz (office) was founded, which became the central government body in charge of all medical affairs countrywide. Peter I attached a great importance to an organization of chemists shop. In 1699 in Moscow the Chief state-run chemists shop was established. Chemists shops in Germany seen by Peter I during his Grand Embassy of 1697-1698, served as a model for foundation of a new type of chemists shops in Russia - private chemists shops. In 1701 Peter I issued several decrees, which reformed chemists shop in Russia: on abolishment of highly developed out-of-pharmacy trade of medicines and on strengthening of the pharmacy monopoly. To chemists shops Peter I granted various privileges: released them from taxes, allowed to use the image of the State Emblem on documents. The decree read that every Russian or foreign citizen, willing to run a private chemists shop, with the states permission will be granted the place and a letters patent for a hereditary right of ownership on this institution.

The first private chemists shop in Russia was opened by the alchymist of the Pharmacy Prikaz Johann-Gottfried Gregorius (Gregory) in the New-German quarter of Moscow. A month later in Myasnitskaya Street a chemists shop of the court doctor Daniil Gurchin, who had a degree of Doctor of Medicine, was established. Later in different districts of Moscow other private chemists shops were founded as well: in 1703 - a chemists shop at Pokrov Gates which belonged to Gavriil Sauls, who studied pharmacy in Holland; in 1707 - a chemists shop owned by Jessin Arnikel at Varvarka Gates; in 1712 - chemists shops of Avraam Rut near Old Stone Bridge in Bely Gorod (White Town) and the one ran by Gavriil Byshevsky in Varvarka Street. And at last the eighth chemists shop was launched in 1713 by Albert Sander in the Sretensk Street. This number of chemists shops in Moscow remained unchanged almost within the whole 18th century.

 

Exercise 15. Answer the questions:

1. What is the main idea of the text?

2. When did the first chemists shop appear in Russia?

3. Who attached a great importance to an organization of chemists shops?

4. What did serve as a model for foundation of a new type of chemists shops in Russia?

5. Which privileges did the chemists shops get?

6. Who opened the first private chemists shop in Russia?

 
 

 


 

 

Exercise 16: Read the following text:

WHAT IS ADVERTISEMENT?

Advertisements are all around us, they are located everywhere. No one can go anywhere without seeing at least one advertisement. They are placed in television, radio, magazines, and can even be seen on billboards by the roadside. Advertising is defined as a paid, mass-mediated attempt to persuade. Advertising can be done for a product, service, idea, person, or an organization. Advertisers main purpose is to influence the consumer to purchase their product.

Here are the essential items you will need to write your copy:

Ø Description. Briefly, what is the product or service you are selling?

Ø Purpose. What does this product or service do for the customer? How does it work?

Ø Price. What is the suggested cost? What are you asking for it?

Ø Features. What are the most important facts and specifications about this product or service?

Ø Benefits. What do the features mean for the customer? What problems are solved? What needs are filled? Of all the benefits, which is the most important?

Ø Competition. From the customers point of view, why is this product or service better than what the competition is offering?

Ø Your Business. Do you have a special history, unique owner, awards?

Ø Guarantee. How strongly do you believe in the product or service? How will you back up your belief? 30 days free trial? Money back guarantee?

Ø Prospect. Who do you visualize as the ideal buyer? Male or female? Income? Job title? Interests? Concerns? Fears?

Ø Objections. Why would someone not want this product?

Ø Testimonials & Endorsements. Letters from happy users? Media coverage? Celebrity endorsements?

Ø Objective. What do you want prospects to do when they see this ad? Ask for more information? Buy immediately? Come to your website? Request a demo?

Ø Offer. What is the deal you are offering to prospects? Lower price for a limited time? Free information? Gift with an immediate order?

Ø Deadline. When does the offer expire?

Ø Required Copy Points. What information or legal copy must be included?

Ø Taboos. What can never be said or promised?

Ø Method of Payment. Credit card? PayPal? Installment Billing?

Ø Method of Ordering. How should a buyer place an order? Phone? E-mail? Web form?

Examples of printed advertisement:

 

Exercise 17: What kinds of advertisement do you know? Chose one of the points and make an advertisement. It may be in printed form or as a video.

1. Youve opened your own chemists shop and now you want to attrect customers.

2. Youve created a new drug and it need to become famous.

3. You are looking for a job and give an advertisement to a newspaper.






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