A market is any one of a variety of systems, institutions, procedures, social relations and infrastructures whereby businesses sell their goods, services and labour to people in exchange for money. Goods and services are sold using a legal tender such as fiat money. This activity forms part of the economy. It is an arrangement that allows buyers and sellers to exchange items. Competition is essential in markets, and separates market from trade. Two persons may trade, but it takes at least three persons to have a market, so that there is competition on at least one of its two sides. Markets vary in size, range, geographic scale, location, types and variety of human communities, as well as the types of goods and services traded. Some examples include local farmers' markets held in town squares or parking lots, shopping centers and shopping malls, international currency and commodity markets, legally created markets such as for pollution permits, and illegal markets such as the market for illicit drugs.
In mainstream economics, the concept of a market is any structure that allows buyers and sellers to exchange any type of goods, services and information. The exchange of goods or services for money is a transaction. Market participants consist of all the buyers and sellers of a good who influence its price. This influence is a major study of economics and has given rise to several theories and models concerning the basic market forces of supply and demand. There are two roles in markets, buyers and sellers. The market facilitates trade and enables the distribution and allocation of resources in a society. Markets allow any tradable item to be evaluated and priced. A market emerges more or less spontaneously or is constructed deliberately by human interaction in order to enable the exchange of rights of services and goods.
Historically, markets originated in physical marketplaces which would often develop into — or from — small communities, towns and cities.
A market can be organized as an auction, as a private electronic market, as a commodity wholesale market, as a shopping center, as a complex institution such as a stock market, and as an informal discussion between two individuals.
Markets of varying types can spontaneously arise whenever a party has interest in a good or service that some other party can provide. Hence there can be a market for cigarettes in correctional facilities, another for chewing gum in a playground, and yet another for contracts for the future delivery of a commodity. There can be black markets, where a good is exchanged illegally and virtual markets, such as eBay, in which buyers and sellers do not physically interact during negotiation. There can also be markets for goods under a command economy despite pressure to repress them.
Соотнесите слова и их определения.
|a. a public meeting where things are sold to the person who offers the most money for them
|b. a group of shops together in one area, often in one large building
|c. a situation in which organizations try to be more successful than other organizations
|4. shopping center
|d. the business of buying and selling stocks and shares
|5. stock market
|e. the basic systems and structures that a country or organization needs in order to work properly, for example roads, railways, banks etc
Переведите следующие слова и выражения на английский язык.
|1. распределение ресурсов
|6. фондовая биржа
|2. бумажные деньги
|7. участники рынка
|3. рынок товаров
|8. спрос и предложение
|4. оптовый рынок товаров
|9. повышать торговлю
|5. черный рынок
|10. виртуальный рынок