Прочитайте и переведите текст. The process of calculating the costs of starting a small business begins with a list of all necessary purchases including tangible assets (for example



The process of calculating the costs of starting a small business begins with a list of all necessary purchases including tangible assets (for example, equipment, inventory) and services (for example, remodeling, insurance), working capital, sources and collateral. The budget should contain a narrative explaining how you decided on the amount of this reserve and a description of the expected financial results of business activities. The assets should be valued with each and every cost. All other expenses are like labour factory overhead all freshmen expenses are also included into business budgeting.

The budget of a company is often compiled annually, but may not be. A finished budget, usually requiring considerable effort, is a plan for the short-term future, typically one year. While traditionally the Finance department compiles the company's budget, modern software allows hundreds or even thousands of people in various departments (operations, human resources, IT, etc.) to list their expected revenues and expenses in the final budget.

If the actual figures delivered through the budget period come close to the budget, this suggests that the managers understand their business and have been successfully driving it in the intended direction. On the other hand, if the figures diverge wildly from the budget, this sends an 'out of control' signal, and the share price could suffer as a result.

A budget is a fundamental tool for an event director to predict with reasonable accuracy whether the event will result in a profit, a loss or will break-even. A budget can also be used as a pricing tool.

There are two basic approaches or philosophies when it comes to budgeting. One approach focuses on mathematical models, and the other on people.

The first school of thought believes that financial models, if properly constructed, can be used to predict the future. The focus is on variables, inputs and outputs, drivers and the like. Investments of time and money are devoted to perfecting these models, which are typically held in some type of financial spreadsheet application.

The other school of thought holds that it’s not about models, it’s about people. No matter how sophisticated models can get, the best information comes from the people in the business. The focus is therefore in engaging the managers in the business more fully in the budget process, and building accountability for the results. The companies that adhere to this approach have their managers develop their own budgets. While many companies would say that they do both, in reality the investment of time and money falls squarely in one approach or the other.


Соотнесите слова и их определения.

1. purchase a. property or other goods that you promise to give someone if you cannot pay back the money they lend you
2. collateral b. the things that a company owns
3. assets c. something you buy, or the act of buying it
4. budget d. the amount of money that you have to pay in order to buy, do, or produce something
5. costs e. the money that is available to an organization or person, or a plan of how it will be spent



Переведите следующие слова и выражения на английский язык.

1. материальные активы 6. переменная
2. подотчетность 7. курс (цена) акции
3. механизм ценообразования 8. расходы
4. выручка 9. финансовый отдел
5. оборотный (рабочий) капитал 10. составление бюджета



Переведите следующие слова и выражения на русский язык.

1. to predict with reasonable accuracy 6. financial models
2. overhead expenses 7. human resources department
3. business budgeting 8. financial spreadsheet
4. mathematical models 9. inputs and outputs
5. profit 10. compile budget


Выберите правильный вариант ответа.

1. The budget of a company is usually compiled ………..

a) every week b) every month c) annually


2. ……… is a fundamental tool to predict with reasonable accuracy whether the event will result in a profit, a loss or will break-even.

a) budget b) financial model c) overhead expense


3. Traditionally the ……….. compiles the company's budget.

a) manager b) accountant c) Finance department


4. When a company owns some material things they are called ………

a) liabilities b) tangible assets c) intangible assets



5. The managers involved in the budget process have …………….

a) responsibility b) duties c) accountability

Ответьте на вопросы.

1. What is a budget?

2. What should the budget contain?

3. Who compiles the budget?

4. What two basic approaches are used in budgeting?

5. How often is budget compiled?


6. Выполните КОПР №4 «Перфектная группа времен (Perfect Tenses)», подтемы «Настоящее совершенное время (Present Perfect Tense)», «Vocabulary».


Part 2


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