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I. The formation of the Future-Continuous-in-the-Past

The Future-Continuous-in-the-Past is formed by means of the Future-Perfect-in-the-Past of the auxiliary verb to be and Participle I of the notional verb.


In the interrogative form of the first auxiliary verb is placed before the subject.


In the negative form the negative particle not is placed after the first auxiliary verb.


Affirmative Interrogative Negative
I should have been working Should I have been working? I should not have been working
You would have been working Would you have been working? He would not have been working
He/she/it would have been working Would he/she/it have been working? He/she/it would not have been working
We should have been working Should we have been working? We should not have been working
They would have been working Would they have been working? They would not have been working

II. The contracted affirmative forms are:


IТd have been working

HeТd have been working


The contracted negative forms are:


I shouldnТt have been working

He wouldnТt have been working


The negative-interrogative forms are:


Should I not have been working?

ShouldnТt you have been working?

Would he not have been working?

WouldnТt he have been working?

III. The use of the Future-Perfect-Continuous-in-the-Past

The Future-Perfect-Continuous-in-the-Past denotes an action lasting during a certain period of time before a definite moment which was future from the point of view of the past.


I wondered how long they would have been packing by the time I returned.






The verbs in roman type are verbs which are not very common in modern English but may be found in literature. When a verb has two possible forms and one is less usual than the other, the less usual one will be printed in roman.

Compounds of irregular verbs form their past tenses and past participles in the same way as the original verb:

come came come  
overcome overcame overcome  
set set set  
upset upset upset  
  1. Present and infinitive
Simple past Past participle
  1. abide
abode abode
  1. arise
arose arisen
  1. awake
awoke/awaked awoken/awaked
  1. be
was been
  1. bear
bore borne/born*
  1. beat
beat beaten
  1. become
became become
  1. befall
befell befallen
  1. beget
begot begotten
  1. begin
began begun
  1. behold
beheld beheld
  1. bend
bent bent
  1. bereave
bereaved bereaved/bereft*
  1. beseech
besought besought
  1. bet
betted/bet betted/bet
  1. bid (= command)
bade bidden
  1. bid (ї offer)
bid bid
  1. bind
bound bound
  1. bite
bit bitten



  1. bleed
  2. blow
  3. break
  4. breed
  5. bring
  6. broadcast
  7. build
  8. burn
  9. burst
  10. buy
  11. сап
  12. cast
  13. catch
  14. chide
  15. choose
  16. cleave
  17. cling
  18. clothe
  19. come
  20. cost
  21. creep
  22. crow
  23. cut
  24. dare
  25. deal /di:l/
  26. dig
  27. do
  28. draw
  29. dream
  30. /dri:m/
  31. drink
  32. drive
  33. dwell
  34. eat
  35. fall
  36. feed
  37. feel
  38. fight
  39. find
  40. flee
  41. fling
  42. fly
  43. forbear
  44. forbid
  45. forget
  46. forgive
  47. forsake
  48. freeze
  49. get
  50. gild
  51. gird
  52. give
  53. go
  54. grind
  55. grow
  56. hang
  57. have
  58. hear /hiэ(г)/
  59. hew
  60. hide
  61. hit
  62. hold
  63. hurt
  64. keep
  65. kneel
  66. knit**
  67. know
  68. lay
  69. lead
  70. lean
  71. /li:n/
  72. leap
  73. /li:p/
  74. learn
  75. leave
  76. lend
  77. let
  78. lie
  79. light
  80. lose
  81. make
  82. may
  83. mean /mi:n/
  84. meet
  85. mow
  86. must
  87. ought
  88. pay
  89. put
  90. read /ri:d/
  91. rend
  92. rid
  93. ride
  94. ring
  95. rise
  96. run
  97. saw
  98. say /sei/
  99. see
  100. seek
  101. sell
  102. send
  103. set
  104. sew
  105. shake
  106. shall
  107. shear
  108. shed
  109. shine
  110. shoe
  111. shoot
  112. show
  113. shrink
  114. shut
  115. sing
  116. sink
  117. sit
  118. slay
  119. sleep
  120. slide
  121. sling
  122. slink
  123. slit
  124. smell
  125. smite
  126. sow
  127. speak
  128. speed
  129. spell
  130. spend
  131. spill
  132. spin
  133. spit
  134. split
  135. spread
  136. spring
  137. stand
  138. steal
  139. stick
  140. sting
  141. stink
  142. strew
  143. stride
  144. strike
  145. string
  146. strive
  147. swear
  148. sweep
  149. swell
  150. swim
  151. swing
  152. take
  153. teach
  154. tear
  155. tell
  156. think
  157. thrive
  158. throw
  159. thrust
  160. tread
  161. understand
  162. undertake
  163. wake
  164. wear
  165. weave
  166. weep
  167. wet
  168. will
  169. win
  170. wind
  171. wring
  172. write
bled blew broke bred brought broadcast built burned/burnt burst bought could cast caught chid chose clove/cleft clung clothed/clad came cost crept crowed/crew cut dared/durst dealt /delt/ dug did drew dreamed/dreamt /dri:md, dremt/ drank drove dwelled/dwelt ate fell fed felt fought found fled flung flew forbore forbade forgot forgave forsook froze got gilded/gilt girded/girt gave went ground grew hanged/hung had heard /h3:d/ hewed hid hit held hurt kept knelt knit knew laid led leaned/leant /li:nd, lent/ leaped/leapt /li:pt, lept/ learned/learnt left lent let lay lighted/lit lost made might meant /ment/ met mowed had to ---------- paid put read /red/ rent rid rode rang rose ran sawed said /sed/ saw sought sold sent set sewed shook should sheared/shore shed shone shoed/shod shot showed shrank shut sang sank sat slew slept slid slung slunk slit smelled/smelt smote sowed spoke speeded/sped spelled/spelt spent spilled/spilt spun spat split spread sprang stood stole stuck stung stank/stunk strewed strode struck strung strove swore swept swelled swam swung took taught tore told thought thrived/throve threw thrust trod understood undertook waked/woke wore wove wept wetted/wet would won wound wrung wrote   bled blown broken bred brought broadcast built burned/burnt burst bought be able cast caught chidden chosen cloven/cleft* clung clothed/clad come cost crept crowed cut dared/dmst dealt /delt/ dug done drawn dreamed/dreamt /dri:md, dremt/ drunk driven dwelled/dwelt eaten fallen fed felt fought found fled flung flown forborne forbidden forgotten forgiven forsaken frozen got gilded/gilt girded/girt given gone ground grown hanged/hung* had heard /h3:d/ hewed/hewn hidden hit held hurt kept knelt knit known laid led leaned/leant /li:nd, lent/ leaped/leapt /li:pt, lept/ learned/learnt left lent let lain lighted/lit lost made meant ment met mowed/mown   --------- paid put read /red/ rent rid ridden rung risen run sawed/sawn said /sed/ seen sought sold sent set sewed/sewn shaken sheared/shorn shed shone shoed shod shot showed/shown shrunk shut sung sunk sat slain slept slid slung slunk slit smelled/smelt smitten sowed/sown spoken speeded/sped spelled/spelt spent spilled/spilt spun spat split spread sprung stood stolen stuck stung stunk strewed/strewn stridden struck strung striven sworn swept swelled/swollen swum swung taken taught torn told thought thrived/thriven thrown thrust trodden/trod understood undertaken waked/woken worn woven wept wetted/wet ---------- won wound wrung written





I. Doubling the final consonant.

Rule 1. A final single consonant letter is doubled before a suffix beginning with a vowel (-able, -ing, -er, -est, etc.) if

a) the last syllable of the word is stressed, and

b) the final consonant is preceded by a short vowel represented by a single letter,

e.g. red-redder, redden, reddish; begin-beginning; thin-thinned, thinner. But: repeat-repeated, repeating; develop-developed, developing.

Note 1. The words handicap, kidnap, outfit, worship are exceptions:

handicapped-handicapping; kidnapped-kidnapping; outfitted-outfltting-ouifitter; worshipped-worshipping-worshipper.

Note 2. Final r is doubled if preceded by a letter representing a stressed vowel, no matter if it is long or short (but not a diphthong): e.g. occur-occurred

refer-referred But: differ-differed


Note 3. Final l is doubled if it is preceded by a short vowel (stressed or

unstressed). It is not doubled if preceded by a long vowel or a diphthong: e.g. travel-travelling

expel-expelled But: reveal-revealed

Rule 2.

A final single consonant is not doubled if

a) preceded by an unstressed vowel: e.g. open-opened, opening


b) preceded by a vowel sound represented by two letters: e.g. look-looked-looking


c) the suffix begins with a consonant: e.g. hot-hotly (but: hottest)

forget-forgetful (but: unforgettable).


II. Mute Final e.

Rule 1.

Final mute e is usually dropped before a suffix beginning with a vowel letter; otherwise it would make two consecutive vowels: guide-guidance; amuse-amusing; fame-famous; refuse-refusal.

But: age-ageing.

Note 1. e is retained to show pronunciation in such words as: courage-corageous; advantage-advantageous; service-serviceable.

Note 2. e is also kept after o: toe-toeing; shoe-shoeing; canoe-canoeing; tiptoe-tiptoeing.

Note 3. Verbs ending in -ie change the ie into у before -ing to avoid a double i: die-dying; tie-tying; lie-lying.

Note 4. Double e (ее) is retained before all suffixes except those beginning with e (Х ed, -er, -est): agree-agreeable; see-seeing.

Note 5. Rule 1 is not strictly observed in the case of monosyllabic words when they are likely to be misread: likeable; seatable or likable, seatable.

Rule 2.

Mute e is retained before a suffix beginning with a consonant (to keep the pronunciation): safe-safety; nine-nineteen; whole-wholesome; care-careful. Exceptions to the rule: due-duly; true-truly; whole-wholly; argue-argument; nine-ninth.

III. Final -y and Its Modifications.

Rule 1. Words ending in -y preceded by a consonant change -y into -;' before all endings except -ing: dry-dries; forty-fortieth; cry-cried; carry-carriage; clumsy-clumsier; pity-pitiful; happy happily; merry-merriment. But: drying, crying, frying, applying.

Note 1. Words ending in -y preceded by a consonant drop the -y before suffixes beginning with -4: -ic, -ical, -ism, -ist:

economy-economic, economical;

history-historic, historical;

geology-deological, geologist

Note 2. Final -y is retained:

a) in personal names: Mary-Marys, Gatsby-the Gatsbys;

b) in some words before the suffixes -hood, -ish, -1st, -like, -thing: babyhood, copyist, ladyship, ladylike, anything, everything;

c) in some monosyllabic words before -er, -est, -ly, -ness: shy-shyer, shyest, shyness; sly-slyer, slyest, slyly, slyness; dry-dryly, dryness (both forms are possible in dryer-drier, flyer-flier).


Note 3. Final -y changes to -e before -ous: piteous, beauteous, plenteous, duteous.


Rule 2. Final -y preceded by a vowel letter is retained before all suffixes: day-days, play-playful, pay-pays, payment; enjoy-enjoyable.

Exceptions: gay-gaily, gaiety; day-daily.


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