.


:




:

































 

 

 

 


We can use the Present Perfect for longer actions which started in the past and are still happening.




 

I have lived in Vienna for two years.

(I was in Vienna two years ago. I am still in Vienna now.)

 

I have worked for this company for over two years.

We use the present perfect to show that an action happened during a period of time up to now.

 

Ive only seen six tigers.

(In my life up to now.)

 

Have you been to Denmark?

(In your life up to now.)

This means that we can use the present perfect for actions where the time has not yet finished.

 

Thursday: Ive seen two films this week.

(The week has not finished yet.)

 

We use the Present Perfect for an action that happened in the past and may happen again. We can show that something will not happen again by using the past simple.

 

I have been to the Moscow State Circus.

(And may go again.)

Compare:

I went to the circus last year.

(Now it has left and I cant go again.)

 

◆BEEN and GONE

 

He has gone to Spain. (He has left and is still there.)

He has been to Spain. (He has visited and come back.)

He has been in Spain for a week. (He left a week ago and is still there.)

 

5. We can use the Present Perfect with the following time guides: just, already, yet, always, ever, never, often, lately, of late, recently, so far, up to now, repeatedly.

Hello, have you just arrived?

I have already started my new job.

We havent seen George recently.

They havent had any problems so far.

6. We use the Present Perfect after a superlative.

 

What a boring film! Its the most boring film Ive ever seen.

 

7. We use the Present Perfect with This is the first time, Its the first time.

Ron is driving a car. Its his first time behind the wheel of a car. This is the first time he has driven a car.

Is this the first time youve been in hospital?

 

8. We use the Present Perfect with for + length of time and since + a time in the past. We use the Present Perfect to ask or say how long something has been happening up to now. We use the Past Indefinite to say when something happened.

 

How long have you been here? - I have been here for two weeks.

I have been here since Monday.

We do not use for in expressions with all (all day / all morning / all week / all my life etc.)

Ive lived here all my life.

In the clause introduced by since the Past Indefinite is used to indicate the starting point of an action.

 

Your daughter has become a real beauty since I saw her last.

Note the structure How long is it since?

-How long is it since you had a holiday?

-Its two hours since I had a holiday. (I havent had a holiday for two years.)

Its ages since Tom visited us. (He hasnt visited us for ages.)

THE PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE

I. The formation of the Present Perfect Continuous Tense

 

The Present Perfect Continuous is formed by means of the Present Perfect of the auxiliary verb to be and Participle I of the notional verb. Participle I is formed by adding the suffix - ing to the stem of the verb.

 

In the interrogative form the first auxiliary verb is placed before the subject.

 

In the negative form the negative particle not is placed after the first auxiliary verb.

 

 

Affirmative Negative
I have been working I have not been working
You have been working You have not been working
He/she/it has been working He/she/it has not been working
We have been working We have not been working
They have been working They have not been working
  Interrogative  
  Have I been working?  
  Have you been working?  
  Has he/she/it been working?  
  Have we been working?  
  Have they been working?  
       

 

II. The contracted affirmative forms are:

 

Ive been working

Hes been working

Youve been working

 

The contracted negative forms are:

 

I havent been working

He hasnt been working

Youve been working

 

The negative-interrogative forms are:

 

Has he not been working?

Hasnt he been working?

Have you not been working?

Havent you been working?

 

III.The use of the Present Perfect Continuous

We use the Present Perfect Continuous for action that started in the past and is still happening. Usually if the action started a few minutes or hours ago, we use the Present Perfect Continuous, and if it has been happening for longer, we can use either the simple or continuous form.

 

I have been studying for three hours.

(I started studying three hours ago and I am still studying.)

They have been living in Paris for three years.

(They have lived in Paris for three years, and are still there.)

 





:


: 2016-11-23; !; : 903 |


:

:

: , , , , .
==> ...

2028 - | 1875 -


© 2015-2024 lektsii.org - -

: 0.013 .