I. The formation of the Future Continuous.

The Future Continuous is formed by means of the Future Indefinite of the auxiliary verb to be and Participle I of the notional verb.


1. In the interrogative form the first auxiliary verb is placed before the subject.


In the negative form the negative particle not is placed after the first auxiliary verb.


Affirmative Interrogative Negative

I shall (will) be working Shall I be working? I shall not be working

He will be working Will he be working? He will not be working

She will be working Will she be working? She will not be working

We shall be working Shall we be working? We shall not be working You will be working Will you be working? You will not be working

They will be working Will they be working? They will not be working


3. The contracted negative forms are:


I`ll be working

He`ll be working

They `ll be working


The contracted negative forms are:

I shan`t be working

He won`t be working


4. The negative-interrogative forms are:

Shall I not be working? Will he not be working?

Shan`t I be working? Won`t he be working?



II. The use of the Future Continuous.


1. The Future Continuous is used to denote an action which will be going on at a definite moment in the future.

I wonder whether we shall ever arrive at a decision. I am sure the next time you call we shall still be wavering.

This time tomorrow I’ll be skiing.

Good luck with the exam. We’ll be thinking of you.


The definite moment is indicated either by another future action expressed by a verb in the Present Indefinite or by an adverbial phrase.

I shall already be working when you return.

At 12 o’clock I shall still be working.


The definite moment is often not expressed, but is understood from the situation.

I am sure you won’t be able to speak to him, he will be working.

2. The Future Continuous is very often used in modern English in the same meaning as the Future Indefinite, i. e. to denote a future action.

But my dear Ann Veronica, you will be getting into debt.

Give my love to Lady Mont, shan’t be seeing her again.

If you don’t take care, he’ll be getting transferred to China and marrying a purser’s daughter.



3. To talk about things which are already planned or decided


I shall be going to the shop later.Do you want me to get anything?

In this meaning it is similar to the Present Continuous


I am going to the shop later.


4. To ask about people’s plans, especially when we want something or want someone to do something


- Will you be using your car this evening?

-No, you can take it.





I. The formation of the Present Perfect Tense

The Present Perfect is built by means of the auxiliary verb to have in the Present Indefinite and Participle II of the notional verb (with regular verbs the Participle is formed by adding the suffix –ed, irregular verbs are used in the form of Participle II according to the list of irregular verbs).


In the interrogative form the auxiliary verb is placed before the subject.


In the negative form the negative particle not is placed after the auxiliary verb.


Affirmative Interrogative Negative
I have worked Have I worked? I have not worked
You have worked Have you worked? You have not worked
He/She/It has worked Has he/she/it worked? He/She/It has not worked
We have worked Have we worked? We have not worked
They have worked Have they worked? They have not worked


II. The contracted affirmative forms are:


I’ve worked

He’s worked

You’ve worked


The contracted negative forms are:


I haven’t worked

He hasn’t worked

You haven’t worked


The negative-interrogative forms are:


Has she not worked?

Hasn’t she worked?


Have you not worked?

Haven’t you worked?

III. The use of the Present Perfect


In English we usually use the Present Perfect to talk about actions in the past when we are not thinking or talking about the exact time that they took place. The time is not important. However there may be results or effects now.


Have you met Peter?

(We are not interested in when you met him, only if you have or not.)

Vicky has already eaten her lunch.

(We are not interested in when.)

I’ve broken the window.

(It doesn’t matter when I broke the window. What matters is that now I’m in trouble!)


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