Comparative Chart of Vowel Phonemes in Canadian English, General American and RP


CE GA RP Examples
i i Seat
e, e e e, e set
  & sat
i i i sit
3r a: bird, Hurry
, a centre, data
a a dot
a, & (ar)ae : dance
  : sort, shawl
V book
ei er ei bake
SI ai ai bike
au au now
ou ou ou go
  DI   boy
(ir) (ir)1 1 here
(er) (6) there
(or) (ar) more
() (or) sure

1 Ij. lea], [09], Eu] correspond to the QA (), [srj. [srj,

There are three main types distinguished within RP pronunciation; 1) conservative used by older generation, by certain professions or social groups, 2) the general RP used by the BBC, and 3) the advanced RP, used by young people, or in some circles for prestige purposes.

The main differences between standard and advanced RP are the following:

1) The closing diphthongs are pronounced with the weakened or
lost glide, e. g.

/tel/ instead of /teil/

/ou/ turns into /a:/, e. g. /:/ instead of /boim/ /ai/ turns into /a3/ or /a/, e. g. /ba3d/, /bad/ instead of /baid/ // turns into /aa/, or /a/, e. g. /taa/, or /t<t/ instead of / /oi/ turns into /o:/, e. g. /bo:/ instead of /boi/ {tall, call are exceptions)

2) The centring diphthongs are levelled with monophthongs:

/ia/, // turn into /e:/ or long //, - g. bared, fared, pared are pronounced as /bs:d/, /fs:d/, /pe:d/

/is/ is opposed to // in open syllables, e. g. hearhair, fear fair. This opposition does not occur before voiceless, or before /1/.

// turns into /a/, e. g. /san/ instead oi /sAn/

3) The glottal stop is used between words and syllables, e. g
/ni?jehti/, /6i >?a:nt/, /Oet'?eib1/ that table.

4) /r/ is pronounced like the GA retroflex /r/.


1. What is standard pronunciation? 2. What are the main differences between the RP and GA a) systems of consonants; b) system^ of vowels; c) accentual structure and intonation? 3, What is "advanced" RP?


1. Read the words below according to the GA standard.

farm, bird, sister, leave, let, late, berry, merry, very, Bett ,.bottle* little, city, certainly, that one, mountain, which, what, when, due,1 new, suit, excursion, version, Persia, man, name, noun, nationa^

2. Read the words below

(a) with the vowel /i/ obscured:

will, fill, building, river, spirit, miracle, beer

(b) with the vowel lei lower than the RP /e/:
bell, well, best, lest, nest, hell

jc) with the vowel /el diphthongized /W, /a/:

bet, get,-detr met,.neck,-check,iet; -

3. Read the words below

(a) with the OA more frönt arid longer than the RP /je/:

ask, dance, last, answer,' half, aunt

(b) with the RP /se/ nasalized before I A, m, n/:
bad, man, land, answer

4. Read the words below according to the GA standard.

hurry PWij, current /*1:/, courage /^idg/, worry /lW3ri/ furrow /'{/, squirrel />skw3r3l/, stirrup //, clerk /?/ derby /Wbi/

5. Read the words below with the /r/-colouring terminally.

winter, perceiver, doctor, mister, sister, Webster

6. Read the words below according to the GA standard-
not, crop, dock, nod, father, palm, balm, calm

7. Read the words below according to the GA standard,

hop, rob, not, lock; doll, solve, on; frog, log, long; law, court

8- Read the words below. Compare the pronunciation of theJRP and GA diphthongs, of the Jong monophthongs /?:, a/.

gate, date, late, Kate, mate, make; radio, goat, coat; far, formr fare, bare, poor, mare, near, door

9, Read the words below. Mind the tertiary stress differences in RP and OAl


'dictionary idictiojnary

iFerbuary >FebrU|ary

'ordinary 'ordinary

'category icateigory

territory lterri|tcry

'cemetery 'cemetery

'monastery 'monastery

'matrimony 'matrimony

'testimony 'testimony

'necessarily 'necessarily

'ordinarily 'ordinarily

10. Read the words below. Mind the place of primary stress on thejsecond com
ponent in RP and on the first component in GA compounds.


'apple'source 'appleisource

'beefsteak 'beefsteak

'elseiwhere 'elsewhere

ifarraJhouse 'farmihouse

'mean'time 'meanitime

White 'House White iHouse

J-midf<Jay 'working 'man

'mid|day 'working

11. Read the place names below. Mind a single primary stress in RP and a primary and a tertiary stress in GA.

GA iBirming|ham 'Bloomjbury ^kih


* Birmingham


gi iDartjinoor 'Moor | gate Newfoundland 'Peterborough iDhi



) Moorgate




j <Ex(mouth iHampistead 'High|gate ^ll

'Ex moor




yj' Man (Chester



12. Read the GA general questions with a Jailing tone (the counterpart tone
In RP would be rising).

Are you going? Does he care?

13. Read the GA casual requests with the falling tone (this intonation in RP
would suggest a command).

Come in, Sit down. Shut the door. Ojjen the book.


Exercises p. 14

1. witches /witj, -iz/, glasses /glas, -iz/, foxes /ftjks, -iz/, gases /gaes, -iz/V
judges /dgAc^, -iz/, crashes /kraj", -iz/, calves /kaf, -vz/, elves /elf, -vz/, halves
/haf, -vz/, knives /naif, -vs/, leaves /Itf, -vz/, lives /laif, -vz/, loafs /lauf, -vz/,
selves /self, -vz/, sheaves /Jif, -vz/, thieves /6l:f, -vz/, wives /waif, -vz/, wolves
/wulf, -vz/, actresses /Isektns, -iz/, hostesses /Ihaustis, -iz/, mistresses /Imistns, -iz/,
■sculptresses /IskAlptns, -iz/, waitresses /Iweitns, -iz/, lionesses /Harems, -iz/

2. begged /begd/, lived /!ivd/, opened /laupand/, travelled /Itrsevld/, cancelled
/Usensald/, compelled /kamlpeld/, recognized /Irekagnaizd/, arrived /alraivd/,
rained /rerad/, informed /mlfoimd/, stopped /stupt/, wrapped /rsept/, helpedi
/helpt/, asked /a;skt/, discussed /dislkAst/, worked /werkt/, passed /past/, shipped
/Jtpt/, packed /psekt/, looked /lukt/, nodded /InDdid/, permitted /palmitid/,,
waited /Jweitid/, expected /ikslpektid/, invented /inlventid/, rested /Irestid/,.
.loaded /llsudid/, depended /dilpendid/

3. /IneifcnInsejanl/, /greivIgnsviti/, /pratvaukpralvukstiv/, /zfcl
Jzebs/, /sju(:)lprtaisjulprenrasi/, /alkg.' alkArsns/, /adlvaisadlvaiz/, /jus
jt*z/, /haushauz/, /ikslkjirs ikslkjua/, /dilvaisdilvaiz/, /Il^sbz/,/kiaus

4. /Jredbrest/ ; /Iblitbe]/; /Ibbsfeun/ ;-
/ibmlamz/ , ; /lbto|bDtl/
; /Iblaekjait/ , ; /Iblsekfeis/ (.)
; /lba:dzai/ ; /lbred3n(d)tbAte/ , , ;
/Ibreikipromis/ , ;/fheviweit/ ,
; /Iredbuk/ ; /tbluitsbkirj/ ;
/iblumauz/ ; /Iblmkaut/ ; ;
; /Iblitjbtinit/ ; ; /Ibtekhaul/^ .^, ,

; /Iblaäkrnss/

5, /stil/ , ; /sti:l/ ; /pml/ , /pul/ ;
/,fip/ ; /j"If/ ; /sit/ , /sfct/ ; /til/ , //
; /liv/ , /liiv/ ; /il/ ; /1:1/ ; /slip/ ,
/slip/ ; /sei/ , /seil/ ; /Imudl/ , /Irraudi/ ;
/so:/ , /sau/ , ; /IpauhJV , /IpühJ/ , ;
// , , /gaid/ , ; /W8:6/ , , /W3:s/
, ; /tiu-9/ , /tiixs/ ; /bAt/ ,
, /9/ ; /breD/ , /bredG/ ; /Idaian/ , /Idean/
; /sjuit/ , /swtt/ ; /paltreul/ , /ipetr(s)l/
; // , /Imeid-sa/ ; /raut/ , , /rust/

8. Rhythm.

9. give particular importance to the word think.

_,. i0; (a) Tne sounds /s, J/ are repeated to express the idea of sea movement. Thls\hIIPe helPs to Practise their differentiation.

(b) The sounds /u, ae, i, / are repeated in the rhyme to practise thei* pronunciation and differentiation.

.11. /bau-wau, mJiE-mjur, grAnt-grAnt, skwi:k,;tuihu:, kau-kau, kwffik-kwffikrmu;/. Onomatopoeia.

Control Tasks p. 17 3

s/; riotroutroute /raiatrautmt/; 7. bea /^811''; 8-, yearear /js:(jis)ia/; 9, quayqueue /kiskj.is/t 10. admit admittance /adlmit-adlmibns/; II. affect-effect /elfekt-ilfekt/t 12. draught-drought /draftdraut/,- 13. hairhareheir/heaheaea/j 14. pourpoor

4. very vary /Iveri Ivean/; 2. personal personnel /Ipaisnal tpa:saln el1/;
tf. suitsuite/sjujtswH/; 4. patrolpetrol /paltraulIpetral/; 5, mayormajor
/- imeidsa/; 6. riot-rout-route /Iraiatraut-mt/; 7. bear-beer
/^81'; 8 /j(j)/ 9 /kikj/ 10 dit


paw / /; 15. couragecarriage /IkindgIksciij/; 16. inquire acquire /mlkwaiselkwaia/

6. wolves /wulf, -vz/, wives /waif, -vz/, lives /laif, -vz/, leaves /li:f, -vz/,
knives /naif, -vz/, sheaves /jfcf, -vz/, halves /hccf, -vz/, selves /self, -vz/, elves
/elf, -vz/, loaf /lauf, -vz/, calves /kaf, -vz/, echoes /lekau, -z/, potatoes
/palteiteu, -z/, hostesses /lhaustas, -iz/, tigresses /Itaigras, -iz/, bases /ibeisis, -Iz/,
theses /löfcsu, -fcz/, crises /Ikraisis, -i:z/, analyses /alnselasis, -fcz/, men /msnmen/,
feet /fletfit/, geese 8gfcs/, mice /mausraais/, baths /ba:9, -8s/, houses
/haus, -iz/, classes flalas, -iz/, boxes /bioks, -iz/, dishes /dij, -iz/, inches /ratj", -iz/,
phenomena /fclnomman, -/, foci /Ifaukas, -sai/

./"D,3-9/;/eia.zs/;/39/;/tuu, zs/; /vS/; /i,vf/; /v-f/; /v-f/

7. /fmsiltinlsAlt/ ; /lübdgiktabtdsekt/
; /lautgau lauttgau/ , ; /Iprudjus
praldjt/ ; /lsAbd3ikt sabldgekt/ ,
; /lautgreuO lautlgrau/ ; /lautiei autflei/
, , ; /laut(l)9reuautlörau/
(-,); /Iprezntpnlzent/ , ;
/Iprsutest' praltest/ ; /itoimsnttalment/

8. Alliteration, rhyme, rhythm.

9. Through the repatition of the sounds /ju:, ei, ai, A/, syllabification and

Exercises p. 33

8. In the articulation of /p, t, k/ the vocal cords are taken apart and do not vibrate. In the production of /b, d, g/ the vocal cords are drawn close together and vibrate. In the /p, t, k/ articulation the force of exhalation is much greater than that in the production of /b, d, g/, therefore /p, t, k/ are voiceless fortis and /b, d, g/ are voiced lenis.

4. In the articulation of /m, n, rj/ the soft palate is lowered. In the articu
lation of /ij/ it is not only lowered, but forms a complete obstruction with
the back part of the tongue. The air escapes through the nasal cavity.

5. In the articulation of /b/ the noise is produced when the flow of air
breaks the complete obstruction formed by both lips, /b/ is an occlusive plosive
stop noise consonant. In the articulation of hi the noise U produced when the
flow or air passes through the incomplete obstruction formed by the lower lip
and the edge of the upper teeth, hi is a constrictive noise consonant. In the ar
ticulation of/tf/ the noise is produced by the flow of air first breaking a complete
obstruction between the tip of the tongue and the teethridge and almost imme
diately passing through the narrowing formed between the tip of the tongue
and the teethridge, /tf/ is occlusive-constricttve, or affricate.

6. In the articulation of /w/the active organs of speech are the lips, which
form a round narrowing. In the articulation of /j/ the active organ of speech is
the middle part of the tongue which is raised to the hard palate and forms a
narrowing with it, through which the air goes out rather freely. In the articu
lation of /h/ the walls of the glottis are slightly contracted when the air goes out
through it almost without any friction, /w/ is bilabial, /j/ is medlo-lingual,
/h/ is glottal.

8. The place of articulation (focus) in the production of /s/ (lenis) its between the teethridge and the front part of the tongue. There is groove-shaped depression in the front part of the tongue, through which the air passes with friction: it passes through a round narrowing. The place of articulation (focus) in the production of III is between the lower iip and the edge of the upper teeth. The air passes through this narrowing with friction. The narrowing in III articulation is more or less flat.

10. /Iptpl/, /Ipeipa/, /lpa:p3S/, /Ipusabl/, /put/, /pens/, /Ipiti/, /pua/, /Iptsiz/, /pst/, /Ipeni/, /tk/, /taim/, /taun/, /taiz/, /items/, /tuk/. /Iteeksiz/, /hl/, /itfctjaz/, /ta:nd/, /Itsutl/, /tus/, /tm/, /Unz/, /to:ts/, /kauid/, /Ikeaful/, /kcu/, /, /IkAirad/, /küst/, /kist/, /Iksmpas/, /lke:tli/, /Ikutwig/, /IkAraits/, /)1/

Exercises p. 44

4. Cardinal vowel No. 1 is pronounced with the position of the tongue
higher than for the Russian accented // in such words as , , .

Cardinal vowel No. 2 is pronounced with the position of the tongue narrower than for the Russian /e/ in the words , .

Cardinal vowel No. 3 is similar to the Russian // in the words , .

5. For instance: /td/bitbid, batbad, debt dead; /k~g/ duck dug,
Dick dig, tuck tug; // , ; // ; //
, .

. The beginning of the articulation of (k u>/ coincides with that of /i u/

// (e) /diddid/ /dd

12. (a) /si:msins/ /mi:lmil/ /mi:nmins/ /sli.-p-slip/ /Ibst list/ (c) /ttmtim/ /-fil/ /bto


/3dgtm/ /IfMinIfilirj/ /fct-it/ /slitssits/ (g) /Itv-lw/ /IffcveIhfti/ /Iblikanbil/ /tj-fcktjm/ /bttbit/

33. (a) /bedb£ed/ /9en/ /tplentiplasn/ /elsIffilis/ /Itetedsede/

(c) /frentj1-ran/ /penspsents/ /IbenalIbawau/ /Itwenti twffin/ /I memImaetg/

(e) /deddeed/ /leni tjelrs/ /IJeb-Jal/ /)men Imasrid/ /Ihenn lhaepi/

<fi) /Iheti-hajt/

/IsentralIsaandi/ /ltjevt-lt,fenl/ /Iraemrneep/ /iveslIvsljus/ /leldah lenkfts/

t4. (a) /kam/ /ISa1/

(b) /riidnd/

/Stfel Stil/

/krfckknk/ /slfctsht/ /sfcksik/ (d) /sfcnsm/ /IdtbIdina/ /htthit/' /bbt bit/

(f) /f!:Zfiz/

/mtmist/ /Jffcz9is/ /sttpstik/

(h) /hthim/ /Glim9in/ /sfetssits/

/Sti:p Stlf/


(b) /hedhad/




/sillektnllseks/ (d) /endand/




/Ihelpin Ihspi/ (f) /tentsen/




/t Jest-t Jap/ (h) /lern teokjbs/




(b) /antUnda/ /hadHundred/

/dak / /'baskit'/ /lakflAf/ (d) /dandAn/ /bat bAt/ /katkAt/ /matf mAtf/ (f) /lhadli !/ /1rAbd/ /lastlAk/

/ban IbAtn/ /Iak-Uk/ /Iklasiz IbAsiz/

(c) /Imaval 1/ /l<tfIIavIi/ /past IpAzhrj/ /'makit/ /last/

(e) /fanld 1/ /Imasta ImAgki /Istatid IsUdi/ /lldlt

fh) /am1/ /lhadli Ih/ /IstatidistAdid/ /matfnutf/ /hafstrAk/

/lastl (g) /fransfrAnt/


/adlvccntidsal /


/postbAt/ (i) /stfflstAn/




/mask inAst/

/tl;mtentsen/ /hidhed hjed/ /liftleft-ted/ /litlettek/ /m tnImem
/tornte:nteen/ /1:1kffii/ /badbs:dbsed/ /tjktj:trJtj
/jjr /ssS3:sad/ /Ikj Ik3:tnkset/

15. /bid-bed-bffid/

16. /:1-:1Jffil/
/wD;kW3:k waek/
:-fa: fat/

[Control Tasks p. 57

2. The allophones of the It! phoneme are for example: labialized in: rockr roof, rook, raw; devoiced in: present, practice, problem, protract; affricated in: tree, trim, troop, try, drain, dry, drop, draw; single tap in; throw, throng, threepence, thrust.

3. As a result of palatalization in the Russian language consonants alwy
occur soft phonemes and the vowel phonemes turn to the /j/+V positional"
allophone of the vowel phoneme.

4, The examples may, for instance, be as follows: complementary distribu
tion of /u/: pool, food, shoe, youth, cool, who, stoop, tube, hoof, booth, boot, rouge,
(Each word is given as an example of different /u/ environment, which
cannot be observed in other words.); contrastive distribution of /u/: bookbeak,
footfit, bookback, bookbeck, bookbark, putpot, putport;
free varia
tion in the pronunciation of the words: decapitation /fäiiktepitteij'an, dUjksept-
Iterjan/, deciduous /dilsldjuas, dtlsidjwgs/.

Exercises p. 62

1. Work of the vocal cords: voiceless fortis vs. voiced lenis: pinbin, packback, piebye, tiedie.

Active organ of speech and the place of articulation; labial, bHabial vs. Singual forelingual apical alveolar; pen ten, beendean; labial bilabial vs. lingual backlingual: polecoal, baitgait; labial, labio-dental vs. labial bilabial: feewe, felt well; labial, labio-dental vs. pharyngal:/ee he; lingual,forelingual apical vs. lingual forelingual cacuminal: sobrob, seal real,.■solerole, sip rip, sight right.

Manner of noise production: occlusive vs. constrictive: pity city, pay say, pall sail, polesole, peel seal.

Voice or noise prevalence: occlusive noise (plosives) vs. occlusive sonorants i(nasal): pinemine, debt net, kick Nick; constructive noise (fricatives) vs. constrictive sonorants: fellwell, thoserose, soul role, sip rip, sightright.

The number of noise producing foci: unicentral vs. bicentral: fell well, feewe.

The shape of the narrowing; constrictive with a flat narrowing vs. constric- i ive with a round narrowing: fail sail, fee see, foot soot, fat sat, fellsell-

3. fa) The force of articulation rather than the presence and absence of
■voice: /p b, t d, g/,

(b) Manner or noise production: occlusive /p/ vs. constrictive HI, It s/,
/d z/.

Active organ of speech: bilabial /p/ vs. backlingual /k/, backlingual /k/ vs. forelingual apical /t/.

(c) Manner of noise production: occlusive /t/ vs. occlusive-constrictive /t|Y
or /d/ vs. /ds/; constrictive /J7 vs. occlusive-constrictive /tf/.

(d) Place of articulation and the nurober of foci: interdental /6/ vs. apical
/, alveolar /z/ vs. palato-alveolar /3/, alveolar /5/ vs. palato-alveolar /J/.

Manner of noise production: plosive /t/ vs. constrictive /3/.

(e) Position of the soft palate: oral noise /b/ vs. nasal sonorant /m/, or /d/
vs. /n/, or /g/ vs. /n/.

4. The sub-minimal pairs: marry measure, genre jar, teasure
ledger. All the other pairs are minimal.

Control Tasks p. 63

1. (a) man nap, coming cunning, seem seen; (b) wield yield,
wail Yale; (c) pat cat, supper succour, leap leak

2. (a) less yes, drew due, clue cue, rung young; (b) tame
ame, rudder rugger, sinner singer, bitter bicker, bad bag bat
hack, day,- gay

3. (a) pine fine, bee thee, came lame; (b) fare chair, work
jerk; (c) boat moat, seek seen, kick king, deed need, vain lane,
sicksing; <d) fare chair, thine wine, vain lane; (e) thine wine,
lame -~ same

5. /I, r, j/ after /p/ are devoiced; after /t/ the position of the tongue for hi
in try is not so cacuminal and hi is affricated; /i/ after It/ in tube is devoiced;
/w/ after It/ in twelve is devoiced; /1, r, I, w/ after /k/ are devoiced in clean, cream,
cue, quite.

Exercises pi 67

1. () //. Both are back vowels, but /13/ is an open vowel of broad variation and /a:/ is a mid vowel of broad variation.

(b) /ese/. Both vowels are front, but /e/ is a mid-open vowel of narrow
variation and /se/ is a low (or open) vowel of broad variation.

(c) /9: d:/, /3:/ belongs to the group of central mid-open vowels of narrow
variation, /0:/ belongs to the group of back, fully back mid-open vowels of
broad variation.

(d) / u/, Both vowels belong to the group of back high vowels, but //
belongs to the subgroup of narrow variation and is fully bade, whereas /u/belongs
to the subgroup of broad variation and is a back-advanced voweL

(e) /seei/, //1 is a frönt open vowel o! broad variation. The nucleus of the diphthong /ei/ is /e/ which is a front mid-open vowel of narrow variation.

m //. /:/ is a raid fully back vowel of broad variation. The nucleus of the diphthong // is a central mid-open vowel.

3. () /ai/, //; (b) //

4. The phonemes /fc,ei, ac.a:/ in the first row of each column are the longest,
they are shorter in the second, and the shortest is the third row.

5. Stability of articulation.

Control Tasks p. 68

1. (a) /tea/ beadbedbad, deed deaddad; (b) / :a/
cabcurbcub, bad birdbud, tanturnton, hathurthut

2. cartcard Bozbars dondown
wartwhat caughtcot cordcod

3. {a) known noun, phoned found, hay high, bay buy, no
now, hoe how, tape type

(b) hear hair, beer bear, ear air, fear fair, rear rare, tear tear

Exercises p. 74

5. (a) kJ:p, ipi-siz, Itl-ffaz, Ipfcpl, Iparpas, Iksitn, ta:nd, lka:li, k<t, kxts,.
pats, pKz, teik, taim, taiz, tiaz, keuld, Iteutl, ksa, Ipranrj;

(b) til, kist, tin, Ipiti, Ipeni, tel, Items, Ipendsltan, Iksempes, Iksembnan,
Iteksi, put, tuk.'kuk, IkArants, 11, pAmpt, nlpAblik, IkAvad, tAnz, Ipnsrbl,
k-ost, Ikulidj, tos

(c) spent, stei, staun, IstAdi, stik, Istatid, (splendid, ifcslprerrans, iks'tensivh,
Ibaskit, Iklismrj, ikslplem, pleis, !, Iklasiz, plem, krfck, krept, , Iplaitfwm,
a3kt, kept, lukt

6. Iptpl, pet, Ipa:msn3nt', Ittiq; kamp, Ikitjan; Ibiljsdz; Iditarsnt, aildia; get,
algein, ga:lz >

ipsigativ, lepildemik; lkEeps]u:Iz; bed; ibeta; Idifrant

lpi:siz, pens, Ipeitferz; Itventi, Isikslttn, Itainirj; Ikeafli; beidz, big, (Anbilltvablr Idifrsnt, daunt; Iginrz, Igivirj, gauz

Ipiisiz, nlpead, Ipaipss; tiez, teik, te:nd; btn, big, bed, bsek, 8; aildia, dilsaidid, Ididnt, dei; get, gest, geilz, Igsuirj

Iptktjg, (ptanad, ikslpekt, pee; Kifttfcn, misted, Icttsst*, ktp, Ibaskit, vslkeijent
Iksempes; , Wsaid, imjbserasinj IstAdi, depös, deiz, Idsedr; Igigl,, gets, :1

pirjk, ikslpranans, Ipe^i, peitj tin, Iwnntid, teik, ternd; Idrinkirj, keim,. Iksandid, lfce:li; btri, Ibiikan, bit, basd, Iba'.tn; kanldi^gn, Inwdid, aildra; giv, get, ga:Iz

islpejeli, Ipsetan; stil, pölteiteuz, Itjielip; kbp, glkeisenl, kaen, lukfupai; bt,. IJugabM, Ibakbaun; dt; dra, imAdi, da-.t; givz, Uuggast, Iregiulö

, peid, Ipjurplz, Ip3:fikt; t!:tj\ stik,- ltju;zdi, tiaz; ki:p, llukirj, Iksrid3, keuld; bt, albeid, bask, baut; mldfcd, Idim, ldju;h, deit; Igivn, gest, algen,.algaU'

Iptenin, pit, nlpeid, Ipaesmd33; stif, Isiti, greulteak, ta:nz; ktp, Ibreikin, kserid3, ksuld; Ibbin, best, bsek; 1:1; di:l, Iditiz, die, ded; tgetirj, geiv, gaui

7. Ihffipi, Iliikap,' IkAbad, |nju(:)lmaunJ8, 1, 11, bum, Itpmas,
Ihsn, Swtsl, Ibukei, lh?arjkatfif, iwmza, Ikemist, laarjks, Ibsnkwit, iklsept, I
gaust, no:, sain, 1, Idaisfrsem, sai, plaü, eit

Exercises p. 77

6. janjAn.
IgivlraIgivirj ria

11 1


klfcn klm

inutlBirj 1

( Igauirj


sein IseiiQ

< brerk/in I breikrg


6. brig, 1, 'iggland, IJAgga, Iem8in els, lnA6irj av 9a' Ikamd, Iwihrjli,
tteikirj it, Imiagld, Isttpig, 6io, UiArjgn, Ifijirj, Imocmrj, Idramrjl , , IJAOgs
Jt!, sprig, Isfcirj Ifrend Inf, Iklaspirj 19 Ihsendz

7. Iraitirj, frtdirj, Igamrj, gtm, wen, sAg, , sAk, Btrj, Öifc, ihaerja,
, rsQk, kaum, 1;, liogiij, Imiggld

Exercises p. 84

4. thin sin thick sick > thought sought Forth force mouth mouse thumb some - worth worse thick tick thought taught three tree seethe seize lathe laze then den though dough seethe seed heath heat both boat forth fought clothe close breathe breeze there dare other udder worthy wordy months

the eighth zone withstand clothes sixth is thin it's this who's that

6. faund^ieauzand, fa:st63:st, fat9si, IrkOr*, fmz6inz, defdepö

II. o:lhal 1ݗhia aut~-haus athat athut ishiz austhaus - ithit ilhil sez1

sed - hged and hsend amham adzhasndz -

14. sheep, sheet, sheen, ship, should, shook, shed, shell, shake, shave, shade, shame, shape, shy, shine; election, condition, delegation, competition, organization, station, pleasure, leasure, decision, vision, occasion, measure

16. , Jtp, jAt, fij, brjij, lam;, Jfi/ra, Ispejal. Isteijsn, Ijusual
(1, Jup, 'Juga, Jud, /, IbntiJ, linglij, laenkjas, Isenkjash, islpejali,
1 lkl

16, pas, isertnh, Isimk, sai3, liest?, ail, lhauziz, IhAzband, di!z9:t,

Ifiziks, Issfata, ilnAf, draft, lef I tenant, mevju(:}, Imseoju:, lgac]zws:9i, ig

Ivuik], IJepad, I Jugs, aljira, Ivsijan, Inaujan, Isaujal, Ik on Jans, IJivaln, tfeiz,
^ 11, dl 1

Exercises p. 90

2. right, ride, ripe, cry, crisis, price, gray, bread, read, reap, reason, reach,
ridge, risk, friend, France, ring, rod, ran, rang, rot, wrong, great, try, rule,
roof, room, red, rest, ready, press, present, rash, rag, treason, written, row,
road, present

3. reits, red, ram, reust, raund, rsuz, lreko:d, iregj-ula, Ireilwei, 1, Inalr,
Imsari, Inuend, frendz, Ikrasau, draiy, Ipraisiz,. tr, draund, Idresig, IwAri, Ifwid,
fhAndnd, Iterapritfa, Ikssnd, Ipiarrad, Iburaud, IkArents, tdifrent, Iflva, IkAmfst,
lhi;9a, W3:ld, almenka, istgslret, Imtidn, Inrats, 1(?, wa:, Iwran, Istneri, 1:܄
IkAlad, Ineva, fa, Iststn, Ifiga, W3:k, da:z, pat, h:, ka

5. /, ju:fl, ja:, je:, jet, Ijestadi, ljust tu, njnz, Ihjuansn, mju(:)lziam, sju:ft
fjtt, rilvjus, ju;zd, Ikaepsjuiiz ■ -

9. The English /r/ is a cacuminal sounds the Russian /p/ is a trilled one.
/U is pronounced with the middle of.the tongue raised not so high as for

the Russian //, which results in the more "noisy" character of the /ft/ articulation.

/1/ is "light", it is pronounced with the front secondary focus. The Russian // is pronounced with the back secondary focus,

/i/ is "dark" because it is pronounced with the back secondary focus. The Russian /'/ is veiy "soft" which is the result of the front secondary focus in its articulation.

/w/ is biiabial and bicentral, it is pronounced with the back secondary focus. The Russian // is labio-dental and unicentral.

10. For instance: , , .

11. /Wv/, /eae/, /fci/, /ree/ are separate phonemes.

12. Jes, alpmjen, Unjan, jttlnait, mjut, Injtute, Ijuarap, Isju(;)id5, wud, to:k,
fauk, bctm, llinkan, witf, wahs, Ikwaia, hu:z, talwo:dz, sad

Exercises p. 93

2 û dg/ are pronounced as* indivisible clusters of two sounds and represent single phonemes / and /dj5/. The combinations /tr, dr, ts, tz, te, dflf/ consist 3/ end6nt phonemes each: /V+ /d/+// /t// /t/+// /i/+/6A

3. chin, check, chess, chain, China, child, rich, much, chop, watch, chalk,
coach, Jim, jinn, Jimmy, age, page, change, Jenny, Jack, Jane, George, Germany,

4. tfj:p, tJ4:k, pf, t/m, Itjfflnl, IdsentI, ld3ent!i, dgstmz, Istreindge,
ritf, witf, sAtf, mAtf, lAntf, WDtf, eidg, pd3, ladj, lkDlid3, Ibtids,

Imaentfista, itnaänjulfsektj'araz, mldpimant, 9!remd3mant, mlgeidjmant, diltstft, Itempritfa, Inselfaral

6. tfaild, Ineitfa, Ikwestfen, Irait/as, Imtstfif, d50i, dsem, djips, , lbAd3it, , Igrsendäa, Isauld33, Id

Control Task p. 105

(a) sit-down, read^,text 1, writedown, next^,time, glad^to see you,
what^can I do, like^to have it, what^.country, good^,time, tea and^cake,

don't_Jike, I'd.__ like, mashed^potatoes, mustard_p lease, got^to eat, that^pub,

■work_now, difficult^to deal, silk^dress, but_good, hit^nose;

(b) repeat^the noun, in^the noun, atwthe blackboard, clean_the board,
online seventh, rounds,the city, and^the guest, on^this, on^,the boy's plate,
just^thirsty, tell^the girl;

(c) will^you read louder, will^you please, will^you tell^rae, tell^,the girl

Exercises p. 115 I.

, (a) si:, wi;, trt, :, mi, hi, ft;

(b) sl;m, rfcd, klfcn, sfcn, dtl, lpi:pl, IbziIi;

|(c) tjfcp, swi:p, tftf, trtt, lfcst, krtk, wik

2. $, lv, IkDnkrfct, ftt, mit, nts, nlsfcv, faltfcg, IfcsBiit, kfc, kfc

3. m, il, big, wirjgz, pit, stik, klifs, , Bio, sik, nst, Isih, Ibtldtg, ig
kig, lbu|[E, Igimz, Ikvli, Ibizi, Imimts, tgauin, ldij"[z, btlgmz, Iknhds, Iwimin,

kalmit, lrna:si, ibritsn, Iwtndau, Imtsiz, Isimptamz, Jhtrlidi, Imtnstid, iklsaitid, '(), Iheziteit, Ipnvilid3, Ikntisizm, ilnitnt, Imedsin

4. did, lid, IglEdli, IfrMi, lirjks, 1^, Ivilidj, IwdJiz, lrLK3is, Ibuksiz,
, Ikrpiz, llaudid, Ifatmtin, Ibiskit, Ifraidr, sl:y, lletis, Iftjnd, lfo;fit, 1

5. bed, sed, help, tel, ]et, hed, Items, Iwe3a, Imemba, lleta, drest, (sets,
piij, Ismwei, lenvid, 11, Ifrendh, Idresirj, Idessht, Iseprit, Iheziteit, raailself,

nlmemba, inldevs, hau I tel, misted, fat get, illevn

6. rsd, get, tent Isevn, hed, ded, et, 9 temz, Ibercal

7. glsed, baad, plsen, kasn, swaem, blok, drajgk, sakt, sset, Ifaensi, Iglsadli,
IJsetau, Iffidid, Isepkjas, Ibsedli, itraeJik, , Idsadi, Isffidms, bilgsen, iglzaekth,
ilmsedjm, vslkaebjularr, IpraugrEem, Isaenwid3tz, imBenjulfselctfaz, Ibsslkara, Isseknfais

8. Iksen, laempl, hav, Isaeman, plsed, Jsemlpem, laebssluitli, laebstrakt, I

9. ck, ba:, fa;, ka, a:m, ask, ka:d, past, fam, hctf, po:t, lads, frctns, gras,
dak, gad, peck, stctt, sma;t, Ia:st, ha:d, niisk, Idccnsin, Ibctskio, IIcuFei], 1,
lhadlj, Ihaiba, Ictnsa, leftist, Ifaä9, Ibaskit, lldasiz, la:t[klz, la:k|ein{d)3(3)I,
dilpatja, mllctdj, stllaist

10. ma-st, lansa, la:st, ta, pit, lcuf, Ibakh, lhafad, hat

11. un, nod, wuz, rod, wiont, , d3Db, tot, Ion, sun, 1, Ibunit,
fdukta, (müdl, Ihiostal, ionist, Inudid, Ibudi, lufa, Ihnland, Iruki, Isphd, Ikaemit,
lükjupai, Ikotid3[z, Iprüsparas, d3[lumitn, Ifnlsuitt, Ihulidi, iWDznt, lsi:n \vi

12, hüt, Ision, Ifwm, Ikwohbi loümaritek, Iso:sid3, '11, j'pt

13. :, dro:, o:l, :1, bo:, ÖDit, ho:s, to:k, so:t, bo:t, d3s:d3, Jo:, b:\mz,
d lwo:ta, Ivraikin, 1:, bilfo:, 1:1, lekspo:ts, rmlpoitans, bau,

, b:kistra, lo:[talgeSa, af tko:s, rfo:t[lfo:

14. port, fo;t, flo:, do:, kD:st ko:t, fo:, :, :, wo:, bro:d, bo:tf :0,:1, jo:n, pa:, 9:

15. gud, rum, wud, kuk, fut, tuk, put, sut, Juk, lukt, Ibujrz, imanjulfäektjaz,
Iwudn, Ikudnt, Iwudnt, Iwudland, Irestful, Iwuman, I put laut, I put Itm, gud I bar}
Ijiffitjroli, tnkalpitjuleit, Iksafli

16. put, puj1, pul, Iwustid, wulf, luk, stud, tuk, kud, j"ud, Ikurra

17. flu, Ztt, tit, hu:, tlS, JUS, jtS, fju:, tru, /u:d, SlMl, skis], jufl, mU:V, :,

h]u:d3, nju:, Ijusuah, Isbsslicth, Inju(:)lmaunj3, Immvirj, Isevinju:, Ibjurfiful, rilvju:, irumd, Isjusaid, Ivffilju:, Iregjitla, Ipju^lz, Ihjttmsn, Iktltjj

18. blu:, md, ml, d3:n, kitl, turn, gru:p, wund, bru:z, bru:, malnurva

19. tjun, Ihjunra, jits, kju:, Itjuzdi, sjust, Injista, fju-., Ibjir-tt, hjuz

20. WAn, , kn, jAn, bAs, fflAtJ", tAn, JAO, , 1, 1,
19, 1, IkArgnts, tjAkl, IwAn, lhAndrad, 18), 1, IfAm, Ikvli,
IkAntn, IkAtnpas, mAst, d3Ast, ItrAbl, IwAndaful, IwAndslaend, mlstrAkta, [intra-
IdkJ Ii

21. mAst, An!d3Ast, d3Ads, , dAz, frAnt, 15/1, flAd, ikApJ,

TAf, Uf

22. wa:, hsid, wa:d, lws:kaz, ISarti, sta:, ta:nd, lte:nnj, lbs:tn, hs:, J3:z, iba:bu,
ga:lz, ba:dz, wstk, Itaiki, lka:tn, fa:st, ws^d, wa:s, 1|:1, Isa'.tnh, W3:6, da:t,

23. sts:, iffla:tl, lka:nl, :, Iwarks, lta:na, ns;s,!a:

24. glgen, bUtjj] slbaut, alkros, elbei, glpDn, falget, sslpraiz, [sigalret, ipikaldili, kgnlfes, pslhseps, salpauz, kanldijan, pglsent, hslself, ts ipli:z, ta 'step, Isüg, ta Idu;, te IfiJ, 0 lga:lz, 1:1, Iprnbebli, Ifamsli, iwAndalsend Iwudlsnd, idekareit, ighmarm, Imsenijists, Idesalit, Irekagnaiz, Itrsevls, Ibselksni

Exercises p. 134

1. (a) When preceded by /w, I, 0, s, d, tf, r, j, h, m, n/ the /i:/ phoneme is pronounced: as labialized in /wi:/; with the labiodental, position. for /f/ in /Ifi:v9/; with the interdental position of the tip of the tongue in /6i:m/; with the apical constriction (round narrowing) in /si:/; with the apical occlusion for /d/ in /di:l/; with the cacuminal position of the tip of the tongue for /r/ in Ihy.pzl; with the palatal position of the bulk of the tongue for /j/ in /ji:Id/; with the glottal (pharyngal) narrowing for /h/ in /hi:/; as nasalized after /m, n/ in /mi:lz, mi:, ni:dnt/.

(b) When followed by / b, v, , t, 1, J1, tf, , , m, n/ the /i:/ phoneme is pronounced:1 with the bilabial release in /gri:b/; with the labio-dental release in /li:v/; with the interdental release in /Ji:6, bri:S/; with the apical occlusion in the final stage in /i:t, fi:l/; nasali'ed before /m, n/, with the velar closure in /bi:k, Itg/; retracted.

tongue in /fiJV; with the interdental position of the tip of the tongue in /Girjks, 9irj/; with the apical position of the tip of the tongue in /dsd, sit, lift/; as retracted in /Igiva/; with the cacuminal position of The tip of the tongue in /ntJV; as retracted Jn /kil/; with the glottal (pharyngal) narrowing for /h/ in /hid/.

(b) the /r/ phoneme is pronounced: as nasalized in /him/;2 with the labiodental release in /if, hv/; with the interdental release in /mi6, wiS/; with th&

1 That is the first stage and the beginning of the medial stage of the vowel are affected.

a Thai is the final stage 'is affected.

apical release in /iz, bil/; as nasalized in /tin/; with the palato-alveolar position of the tip of the tongue in the final stage in //; as retracted in /pik, big/.

Control Tasks p. 136

1. Vowel No. I /i:/, quantitative changes: it is the longest in: sea, we, tree,, he. It is shorter in: easily, meals, fever. It is the shortest in: cheaper, sleet, speaker, teach, keep, sheep.

The quality of the vowels depends on the articulatory characteristics of the consonants which precede or follow them. E. g. in sea I'v.l is modified under the influence of the forelingttal, apical, alveolar, voiceless, fortis, constrictive* /s/; in we under the influence of the bilabial, constrictive sonorant /w/; in meals the nasal, bilabial, occlusive sonorant /ml; in cheaper the lingua], forelingual, apical, palato-alveolar, voiceless fortis constrictive/t]/; in tree the lingual, forelingual, cacuminal, post-alveolar, constrictive sonorant h/;. in fever ■ the labial, labio-dental, voiceless, fortis, constrictive IV; in sleet the lingual, forelingual, apical, alveolar, constrictive "light" /J/; in speaker the labial, bilabial, voiceless, fortis, occlusive /p/; in he the pharyngali (glottal) voiceless fortis, constrictive /h/; in teach the lingual, forelingual, apical, voiceless fortis, ocelusive III; m sheep the lingual, forelingual, apica] palato-alveolar voiceless fortis constrictive 1. Etc.

Control Tasks p. 143 1.


A. (1) a) pay, make, pain, weigh, way, waste, pale, Wales, paint; b) face;;
(2) b) lake, lay, day, late, lain, David, sane, taken; c) shape; d) rain, ray; (4^
game, case, gave.

B. (I) a) game, famous, able, shape; b) David, gave; (2) b) again, pain, case
rain, late, -waste, pale, sane, Wales, face; c) age; (4) make, lake, ache, taken-


A. (1) a) boating, poker, motor, poet, motive; b) foe; (2) a) though; b) don't,,
total, social, son, nose, noticed; c) shoulder, jokes; d) road, bureau; (3) yolk;.
(4) go, gold, cosy; (5) hope, hotel, hold.

B. (1) a) hope; b) over; (2) a) both; b) boating, hotel, hold, only, follow,
road, shoulder, gold, don't, old, cold, motor, poet, motive, total, nose, cosy,,
noticed; c) social; (4) poker, yolk, jokes.


A. (1) a) why, wild, mild, while, my, Michael; b) profile; (2) b) die, nine,,
silence, side, like, climb; d) right, rise, bright; (4) kind, kindly, kite; (5) high.

B. (1) a) climb; b) wife; (2) b) kind, wild, mild, nine, while, silence, profile,,
right, side, kindly, isles, eyes, idea, quite, bright; (4) like, Michael.


A. (1) a) pound, mouth; b) found; (2) a) thousand; b) south, now, down,,
sound, loud; d) round, drown; (4) couch; (6) how.

B. (2) a) south, mouth; b) drown, out; thousand, down, round, pound,,
found, loud; c) couch.


A. (1) a) boy, point; (2) b) soil, employ, noise; c) join, enjoy, joint; t; (4) i b)

()) y, poit; (2) b) oil, employ, d) destroy; (4) coin.

B. (2) b) join, point, coin, soil, noise, joint.


A. (I) a) Crimea; b) severe; (2) b) dear, near, idea, museum; (3) year; (5)

B. (1) museum; (2) b) accordeon, ears, real, realize, period; d) weary.



A. (I) a) parent, anywhere, bare, despair, pair. Mary; b) various, farewell;
(2) a) there; b) stare, stairs, dare; (4) care, square, carefully.

B. (1) b) carefully; (2) b) stairs; d) parents, various, Mary.


A. (1) a) poor, moor; (2) b) tour, during; c) sure, usual.

B. (2) b) usual; d) during, Europe,

2. sauÖ, smlsiak, (stremdgli, falsiliteitid, Iwamdirj, , Ifrafeuin, Imlaiz, 4mauta, lhaitn, palteitauz, lamralnait, IQiata, Id3uanst, Imsen, Imaikal, lamdgilau, ■Jd3em fsa, ml dormant, Itaifbid, ljuarsp, |

Exercises p. 152

1. a) /le/ before the mediolingual sonorant /j/ is a a advanced variant of
the fully back /le/, the back part of the tongue moves forward closer to the
position for the mediolingual /j/,

b) /e/ before the dark /1/ is more open.

c) /k, g/ followed by /le/, /!:/ are slightly rounded. They are slightly pal
atalized before /, /se/.

d) /Pit.g/ followed by /vu/, // are labialized, /p, t, g/ palatalized^efore /i:/.


2. Alveolar /t, d, n, 1/ become dental followed by /, 9/.

3. Post-alveolar /r/ becomes alveolar after /6, S/, /r/ is devoiced preceded
% Ih i. t, 6/, labialized followed by /d:, k/.

4. In (a) /d, g, g/ are non-labialized, in (b), (c) /d, 3, 1, g/ are labialized
'.followed by /w/

5. Sonorants /w, j, 1, r/ are devoiced most noticeably in the initial clusters
Up], pr, tw, tr, kw, kl, kr/ when followed by a stressed vowel. In the clusters
M' tJ kj, . fr, fj, 9r, Öj, Öw, sw, si, sj, sm, sn/ devoicing is less noticeable.

8. Assimilation of place in final alveolars:

a)/I/ to /p/ b)/d/ to /b/ c)/t/ to /k/
/braip blui/ /0: pat/ /jak keik/i
/dap bo:d/ /heb boi/ /braik grtn/

/waipwoj"/ /reb rai:t/ d)/d/ to /g/ /hctb walk/ /haig kssj/ /heg ge:l/

e) In/ to /o/ f) /s/ to /J/

/in Iktudif/ /Ikrismoj IJüpin/

/'sArj glcusiz/

g) reciprocal assimilation before /j/

/igetfa: Ikaut/ /Iwauntja*/

/ai Ih3:d5üi kAmlm/ /Ikudntju-/

/IbleJ Jtt/ /IJudntJiE/

/tkbu3 : ibuks/ /Ikantjus/

) // is assimilated, following /n, 1, s, z;

/in 1;/ /Iwots ss Ipumt/ /IkI la Ibuks/ /Iwesz za ibrednaif/

■9. a) /kief Ipeeldt/ /1 Itelafaun/

/weis Ipeipa/ /,n ntf ifedsUfs/

ftfl L?LLz/ /lnd3 Iserfes/ /Ibaö Jbeibi/ /idaiv biflau/

ftf*l Lstr?bnz/ /ld Ife/

b) /Itrap bai/ /kJauZ l

/lkra>k iputs/ /Ibffcö IdJpli/

/idAb Ifitm/ c) /Islaem 9 Ida:/

/Iheabrem Iskfcm/

/istrirj Imjuizikl instranrant/

Control Tasks p. 155

10. (I) Aspiration in all English words beginning with /p, f, k/. No aspiration in Russian words beginning with /, , /.

(2) Short English vowels are not affected by loose GV transition in /top/,
/pit/, /Ipepa/, etc.close CV transition.

a) Russian soft initial /, , , p/ result from the loose CV transition in
, , , , etc.

(3) Labialization with the lip protrusion in: , . Labialization with
no lip protrusion in: , , , , , , , , . English
consonants followed by /:, u:/ are pronounced with slight labialization (no lip

1). (1) lateral plosion: curdled, muddle, needless, mottled, at last, red tight* huddle, good looks;

(2) nasal plosion: Britain, oughtn't, admit, madness, witness, partner, cotton,
great number, sudden, captain, at night;

(3) loss of plosion: actor, begged, what kind, back to back, big books, slept,
top coat, black goat, ripe cheepe. v

12. /a/more back in /ka/; /j/ more high in /lpju:ta/;" /t/ more back In

13. Care should be taken 1) to avoid regressive voicing or devoicing of the-sounds given in bold type: /laenikdaut/,- /Ibatfdej/, /Iblakbsd/, /Imedsm/, /10 Ibuk/, /llets Igou/, /Iwuts Itaira/; 2) to pronounce alveolar /s, z, 6, 1/ as-dental, since they are followed by-the interdental /9, /: /stksö, hiz Win, Ipcts-, liz Iflaet, fif8sf Isimös löea, lsu:3z öam, ttel 9, Im 9/.

Exercises p. 163

1. , , , eau, ou, ough

3. Graphemes Phonemes Letters

b-a-o-b-a-b /Ib-ei-a-b-as-b/ b-a-o-b-a-b

v-e-s-t /v-e-s-t/ v-e-s-t

d-u-l-y /ld-jui-1-i/ d-u-I-y

sh-i-p -1-/ s-h-i-p

d-i-sh /d-i-J/ d-i-s-h

aw-E-u-1 /la-f-u-1/ a-w-f-u-1

d-aw-n /d-a:-n/ d-a-w-n

1-igh-t /1-ai-t/ 1-i-g-h-t

h-igh /h-ai/ h-i-g-h

w-or-k /w-3:-k/ w-o-r-k

ar-ch-a-i-c /a-lk-ei-i-k/ a-r-c-h-a-i-c

ai-r-y /lea-r-i/ a-i-r-y

1-au-gh /1-cc-f/ 1-a-u-g-h

w-a-tch-ed /w-D-tJ-t/ w-a-t-c-h-e-d

4. <r> = /r/ in rait, alfreid, prei, trai, tven, drai; <our>==/ua/ in tourT
<ear>=/ra/ in tear.

5. <ed> indicates the past indefinite morpheme -ed which is pronounced*
ft, id, d, d, id, t, d, d/.

6. psekt, bad, , frank, weg, IweSa, sl;n, bs:8, Isfchrj, ssul, bsa, preir rein, peil, , farad, pemz, tfcz, pi:s, ffct, wit/, die, bau, bred, rait, pra,

3>!:tj\ hra, far, teil* nidil, sAri, bfct, breik, meiz, wi:k, IkArsnt, Isferral, vein, sei, -seil, Ikumphnrentr'hea, bb, sfc, mit, hi=l, fea, sent, raud, tfcrn, ho:s, Iben, gert, ■plem, kl:

-1 , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , -■<5, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ■, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,

7. () me-ter, ca-ring, beau-ty, sour-Iy, sure-ly, tea-cher, cry-ing, six-ty;
i(b) pray-s; praise, child-'s, read-able, mis-rule, penni-less, un-known, dis-like,
im-mortal, ir-rational

8. Mute (r), (e) indicate historical length or the diphthongal nature of the
preceding vowel phonemes (second columns a); (nn), (ss), (tt), (rr) indicate the
short character of the preceding vowel phonemes (second columns b).

9. , , , , , , , ,
., , , , , , , ,

Control Tasks p. 164

1, face, Eac-ing, nic-er, choic-est, -y, princ-ess, age, rag-ing, 1 arg-er, urg-ent, bu!g-y, burg-ess, rage-cl, change-ling, outrage-ous, face-d, nice-ly, huge-ly, engage-ment, change-able


cu-ring fires cured o-ccurred stir-ring stirred pi-ning pined wor-ker wor-king worked tho-rough-ly cul-ture na-tion cit-y red-der chee-ring

2. a) cur-ing fire-s cheer-less cure-d oc-curr-ed stirr-ing stirr-ed pin-ing pine-d work-er work-ing work-ed thorough-ly cult-ure nat-ion cit-y redd-er cheer-ing

3. ai=/er, , , /; /eid, ffesri, /streit/; au = /o:, cc/r/lagast, sd:s, , *!■/; ay, ei = /ei/; /Ml, /; , /%!/: /freit, wei/.






/Ista: -no/





/IW3:-kirj/ /W3>kt/







sed, Ifauntin, (poitnt, Ivilan/; aigh=/ej/: =/i, e/: /Ipfcpl, Jerepans, 'jlepad/; eigh =

4. sealing, ceiling, ceiling; soles, sole, sole, soul, soul; bare, bear, bear, 'bear, bear; pair, pear, pair; write, right, right, right; vain, vain, vanes, vein, vein

Exercises p. 177

1. (I) CVC, ; (2) CVCC, ; (3) CVCCC, ; (4) CSVS, CSVS,
; (5) CV, ; (6) CCV (CSV), ; (7) VC, ; (8) CCCV (CCSV), ;
(9) VCC (VSG), ') VCCG (VSCC), ; (11) CCSVSC, ; (12)
CVC (V) SCC, ; (13) CCCVC (CCSVS), ; (14) CSVCC (CSVSC),

2. (a) lpf>pJ, Ibjtc-gl, Isse-tfal, Itrai-fl, In-äm, lei-pnl, ib-kwal, -,
Imai-blz, Ips-tanz, idrse-gnz, Is:-d3ant, Isai-vant, ili-snd, Ihe-raldz, le-randz,
Jpsa-rents, Itaan-d39nts, Ipei-Jants, iskse-falds


3. 2, 2, 4, 4, 2, 4, 3, 5, 3, 4, 3, 4, 6, 2, 3, 5, 6


7. Syllables Syllabographs
W3:k work
1\:- wor-ker
pamd pined
Ipai-mq pi-ning
Jsta;rlij stir-ring
-lljgid o-ccurred
kjuad cured
(tfis-lis cheer-less
lkjua- cu-ring
f tfta-rtrj chee-ring
lfa(i)9-ni] li-rtng
lred-(d)a red-der
(net-Jan na-tion
ikAt-tfa cul-ture
J9A-r9-Ii tho-rough-ly

Control Tasks p. 178

1. (a) at, aunt, elks, asks, ebbed

(b) took, lifts, texts, clenched, tip, struck, strays, thrust, bet, fact, fret,

(c) pray, straw, boy, pea

(a) , ,

(b) , , , , , , , , , ,
, ,

(c) , , ,

2. ) ) | ) ) I ) ) I ) ) | ) ) I ) ) I ) )
st|lm|bk|ms|sk|gv|tp etc.

3. IkAm-fe-ta-bl, Ik-o-hds, bi-ffad, graund, Ikt-tfan, fpaen-trr, IstA-dr, isev-ral,
tAp-lstsaz, lbsd-ru:m, Inaisa-rr, 19-, Ifai-m-tfa, Imai-dan, 9un, illek-ltn-si-ti,
Idsae-njue-n, lfeb--, Is-gast, sap-ltem-, -lteu-ba, nau-lvem-ba, di-lsem-,
Iwen-zdi,' Itju-zdi, 10s:-zdi

4. pa-rents, fire, piu-ral, -ral, din-ner, mar-ry, dis-ap-pear, speak-ing,
writ-ing, play-ing, walk-ing, stand-ing, pas-sing, break-fast, po-ta-toes, to-rna-
toes, cof-fee, cab-bage, ba-na-nas, ber-ries, pud-ding, pears, beer, shop-pmg,
iron-ing, house-work, mis-take, fish-ing

5. an aim for it; a blacked eye; not a tall; that stuff; I saw her eyes; the way
to cut it; I saw the meat; white shoes; might rain; keeps ticking; grade A



Exercises p. 136

1. , , , ,
, , , ,
, , , , ,,
, , ,
, , , ,
, , ,
, , -, -, ,

2. , , (), ,


4. , , , , , ,,
, , , , , ,,
, , (), ,

5. , , , , (
), , , , ,

6. ; ; *
; ();
; ( )

Control Tasks p. 188

1. lair-raid, Ibirdcage, Icoalmine, Iteapot, Iwashstand, Imail-bag, ldance-|rnu-
sic, (grandfather, I hand | writing, Ishop [keeper, Uadybird, loffice-boy, Iwaiting-room,
I dinner-1 jacket, Itape rejcorder, I labour exchange, IgrornidUloor, Iknee-ldeep, Icross-
Iquestion, Iflat-lfooted, Ishop-lwindow, hot-iwater-|bottle, waste-lpaper-jbasket,
Ipost-lgraduate, Ivice-1 chancellor, Isecondhand

2. l£ebs(a)ntablsent
I k u mpreskaml pres
IkDnsDitkanlSDjt Q/cm.)
linfiksmlftks {,) ,
lknnsa(:)t-kanlsa:t ,
Idezat dilzs:t ,


Exercises p. 196

1. /lamalami/ /i/; /ikslpenmsnt ikslpenment/ //; /11;
111:/ /i/; /samsAm/ //j /Itetemltel(h)im/ /i/; 8V
//; /Isite Isiti/ /i/; /vslraiatiIvesnss/ //; /lfa\redfoitaraid/
/:/; /lestimabl lestimeit/ /ei/

2. Iprautest, Ikuntent, IktHnent, la&bstreekt, Isesfselt, Ikaenut, Ibpuk, lblga:d,
lekspoit, , lekspait, Imsti'tjutt

3. lo:fn, Isejan, Ispejel, Idifikalt, 5, , Ikunferans, Idikfansn, leipral,



4. a) /iilmijn/ /ju:lza:p/ /u:lgand3/ /eilo:ta/
/lllevn/ /Itil/pemtirj/
/enlsam/ Mpltain/ /Ikoiaut/
/sebsltrskt/ /:1/  
/ubldsektiv/ /aildie/ /hrarUnda/
/orlkestral/ /autlwit/ /jualrei3J3n/
) // // //
// // //
// //Bl //
// // //

// // /'

// // /'/

Control Tasks p. 197

1. llaätjkfc, simlphstti, Iprautest, Iskailik, paniOten, Ibuldug, lautda: (damtgrum, Imtu, Imildju:, IwudkAt, lhatbam, IhAmpbsk, Ihaiwei, Isimplifai 4 haibrau, Iktmvoi, Irembau, Iremkaut, Undswea, tomatjua

4, Igcudian Injuspeipar | izfeimas far its misprints l| wai 13saz i:vn Igadian ■imisprmt | pralza:vd in Ibras fa prlstenti | ]: | Bfi= el vinau Iwam ba | dalsaidid ta Iput a Iplaak | m innar av Iftiip haup Iwnhs | its moust JfeiÖf| l ip iprobabh Iwitnst halbitjuei j| ^ Isau Imenjnn) iz lemmens Iwit | ■Irsekanlts: j tq Ikntik i it waz Idjirii ipleist J 1 iz ljugual!stt > lwo:l | lld et lsmo:l IritfualJ ai daunt IwBnt sta At)lgreitf| sed 9a relsipiant | at it fkbusli j bat öez aunlr liwin el in filip ] p Jju:v put in JtiK || lhau t bi: l Igaspt 9 Imsenid3mant [| wi wa lkeaf| ta I tfek wt0 9a Igadian ||


ACCENT /'ffikssnt/ is stress and pitch combined. If a stress occurs in the stepping head without a downward step in pitch, the word concerned is not accented. Stress in such words is usually weakened because there is no change of pitch accompanying them. See STRESS.

ACCENTEME /' ajksentfcm/. The distinctive function makes word accent a separate suprasegmental, or prosodic phonological unit, e.g. primary and weak word accentemes perform word distinctive functions in English: 'billow, be'low, in Russian: , ~. It also performs form-distinctive functions in Englishr 'import to im'port, and in Russian: (pi), (genitive).

ACCENTUAL NUCLEUS /a5k'sentju3l 'njtrkhss/ that syllable in the word which is effected by a change in pitch direction.

ACCIDENCE/'eksidens/ grammatical rules about the changes in the form of words connected with different modifications of their sound nature. For example: foot feet, have has had.

ACCOMMODATION /e,kuma'deijen/ adaptation to different adjacent sounds, e.g. in /tut/ /t/ is labialized under the influence of // and 1 is a little bit advanced under the influence of /t/.

ACCURACY OF PRONUNCIATION /'aekjurasi av pre,nAnsi'eiJan/ - cor-rect and distinct pronunciation.

_ ACOUSTIC PHONETICS /a'kuistik fau'netiks/ a branch of phonetics which deals with physical properties of sounds.

ADJACENT SOUNDS /a'^eisant 'saundz/ sounds that follow each other.

AFFRICATES /'tefnkits/ the sounds formed during the separation of the articulating organs: in their articulation the complete closure gradually and uninterruptedly opens into a flat-slit narrowing: /tf, ä^U

ALLOCHRONES /'telekraunz/ quantitative variants of a phoneme-The term is used by D. Jones and other foreign phoneticians.

ALLOPHONES /'selafaunz/ qualitative variants or members of one and the same phoneme, which never occur in identical positions, but are said to be m complementary distribution.

ALLOPHONIC TRANSCRIPTION imWtvmk trens'knpjenl - this type of transcription is based on the principle "one symbol per allophone". Tin* transcription provides a special sign for each variant of each phoneme. A pho-2TvJS reü?fteä in.th?s transcription as a uni


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