Определите контекстуальное значение выделенных слов.

2.21. Переведите, обращая внимание на контекстуаль­ное значение выделенных слов:

1) 1. Aluminum is the most problematic material to be used for metallization in maintaining contact stability. 2. A lower re­sistivity is required for maintaining circuit performance. 3. Use of this self-test technique greatly simplifies field maintenance. 4. For storage and retrieval of data in the bubble-memory use is made of a group of registers and counters for accurately maintaining the position of data. 5. Any system must be designed to require less maintenance. 6. Preventive maintenance is necessary.

2) 1. This entails turning one of the file processors into an in­put/output unit. 2. Today, plants depend on carbon dioxide and water to survive. In turn, they produce organic matter. 3. Water can turn to a solid. 4. Let us now turn to ceramics. 5. At the turn of the 18th century nobody knew of semiconductors.

3) 1. Sometimes the performance of the circuits can suffer from technological advancement. 2. The systematic approach can anticipate the problems that will arise in future VLSI. 3. The av­erage wire length can be estimated by a very useful statistical formula.


Проверьте, знаете ли вы следующие термины.

2.22. Назовите данные термины по-английски. Вы мо­жете найти эти термины в Основном тексте:

1. интегральный усилитель, усилитель считывания, по­лупроводниковый усилитель, усилитель на ПЗС; 2. клей­кое покрытие, проводящее покрытие, нанесение покрытия методом погружения, покрытие, нанесенное напылением, связующий подслой; 3. проектирование кристалла, блоч­ная конструкция, проектирование схемы, топологическое проектирование, оперативное проектирование схем, проек­тирование с выбором схем; 4. акцепторная примесь, леги­рующая примесь, примесь, наносимая на поверхность по­лупроводника; 5. усиление по току, инверсный коэффици­ент усиления, нагрузочная способность логической ИС, номинальный коэффициент усиления; 6. зазор между кон­тактами, ширина запрещенной зоны, запрещенная зона с прямыми переходами, микрозазор, запирающий слой, гер­метизирующий слой, слой, стойкий к травлению, напы­ленный слой, исходный слой, многослойная пленка


Учитесь говорить.


Текст 2.9. Прочитайте текст и кратко изложите его со­держание на английском языке. Используйте следующие выражения:

1. As you can see from the title the text is devoted to...; 2. The problem arose...; 3. According to the text...; 4. Experiments paved the way to...; 5. Experiments proved...; 6. Research has shown that...; 7. I find the text rather/very...; 8. I've learnt a lot...


Made in Space

Numerous experiments carried out at the Soviet orbital sta­tions have paved the way to the development of methods and means of industrial production in space.

In recent years active research has been going on in one of the fields of space industrialization — space material study and pro­duction of new materials of better quality on board the spacecraft, ranging from semiconductors for microelectronics to unique and more efficient medicines for the treatment of quite a number of diseases (болезнь).

Conditions on board a space vehicle orbiting the earth drasti­cally differ from.those on its surface. However, all of these condi­tions can be: simulated on Earth, except for one - prolonged weightlessness.

What can weightlessness be used for? Many well-known physical processes proceed differently due to absence of weight. In case of melts of metals, glasses, or semiconductors, they can be cooled down to the solidification point even in space and then brought back to Earth. Such materials will possess quite unusual properties.

There is no gravitation convection, i.e. movements of gases or liquids caused by difference of temperature in space. Manufacturers of semiconductors know only too well that con­vection is to blame for the various faults in semiconductors. The technical specialists started their experiments aimed at proving the advantages of the zero- g state for the production of certain materials. In the Soviet Union all orbital stations from Salyut 5 onwards were used for that purpose, as well as automatic space probes and high-altitude rockets. Since 1976, over 600 technological experi­ments have been staged in the Soviet Union on board its manned and unmanned space vehicles. An impressive number of similar experiments have also been carried out by scientists in other countries.

The experiments proved that scientists were right. Many of the properties of the materials obtained in the zero- g conditions were much better pronounced as compared with those of the specimens produced on Earth.

At the same time, test runs of the installations of the next gen­eration developed for the small-scale industrial production in space have started. One such installation, Korund, has already been tested successfully on board the Salyut station. It has been designed to grow monocrystalline semiconductors possessing unique properties.

In order to launch full-scale industrial production of monocrystalline semiconductors, bioactive preparations and other substances it is not enough just to commission new-generation technology installations. Special space vehicles will also be needed. Research has shown that the acceleration rate on board these ve­hicles must be reduced to the minimum. Power plants of the ca­pacity of dozens of kw, and later, of hundreds of kw are needed.


2.23. Подготовьте сообщения по следующим темам:

1. Intrinsic semiconductor properties. 2. Contributions to the study of semiconductor physics. 3. Silicon and its dominant role as a material for microelectronic circuits. 4. New materials and their potentials.


2.24. Докажите правильность или ошибочность следу­ющих суждений:

1. The silicon dioxide is particularly important in the fabrica­tion of integrated circuits. 2. Oxygen influences many silicon wafer properties. 3. Gallium arsenide has a much lower electron mobil­ity than germanium and silicon.

При доказательстве используйте следующие выраже­ния:

1. That's just the point... I can also add...; 2.1 don't agree with it... The point is that...


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