Агроценоз пшеничного поля: Рассмотрим агроценоз пшеничного поля. Его растительность составляют...
Нейроглия (или проще глия, глиальные клетки): Структурная и функциональная единица нервной ткани и он состоит из тела...
Универсальный восьмиосный полувагона: Передний упор отлит в одно целое с ударной розеткой. Концевая балка 2 сварная, коробчатого сечения. Она состоит из...
D. Заполните пропуски антонимами выделенных слов
1. Tables give information about safeand ... diving limit,
2. Time information is the time from the beginningof the diver's descent to the ... of his ...
3. If a diver is in the sea, he will set «sea water»,otherwise he will set ...
4. Battery level information indicates if the level is lowor ...
5. Before a diver starts to descend,he should set the time when he must ...
E. Заполните таблицу на словообразование.
Упражнение 3.Составьте возможные словосочетания глаголов из колонки А и существительных из колонки В.
Упражнение 4.Заполните пропуски, образуя составные слова, общеизвестные словосочетания и термины. Запомните их.
1. battery-... 7. ocean-... minerals
2. ... warning 8. ... arms
3. visual ... 9. support ...
4. ... diving 10. life ... system
5. stop ... 11. one ...
6. ... plants 12. ... camera
Упражнение 5. А.Назовите 15—20 ключевых слов и словосочетаний на тему: «New developments in manned submersibles».
В. Speak about:
Modern scuba diving.
REVISION OF LESSONS 7-9
Упражнение 1.Повторите причастия I, II, герундий и условные придаточные предложения. Переведите.
1. Bob is very good at solving mathematical equations. 2. She has never done any computing. 3. We saw an old man lying on the road. 4. Being a disabled, he could not drive a car. 5. The train being late, they decided to return home. 6. His favourite pastime is playing computer games. 7. Realizing the danger, they stopped. 8. The house rebuilt recently is very beautiful. 9. Look at the displayed objects! Look at the objects being displayed! 10. Graphic artists like adding colour and depth to their drawings and designs. 11. Having completed the job, the man left early. 12. The task having been accomplished, the pilot returned to the base. 13. Having been rebuilt recently, the house is very attractive now. 14. Scientists are interested in developing new programming languages. 15. What do you think of the methods being used in these experiments? 16. Our engineers will discuss the methods used and the results obtained. 17. Given certain conditions such work can be done by anybody. 18. The speed of a microprocessor is very important in processing information. 19. A fax machine is used for sending and receiving copies of original documents via a phone line. 20. Joystick is an input device especially helpful when playing computer games. 21. Distance measuring equipment now being used in all airplanes, pilots know exactly their position and speed. 22. Provided electronic and radio navigation equipment had not been improved so radically in recent years, aircraft flying would not have been so reliable and efficient. 23. Manhattan, one of the New York boroughs, is not large in size and population, people coming there only for work, to the theaters, museums and clubs. 24. If you got tired while getting ready for your exam, you should break off for half an hour. 25. We learnt of the engineers' having invented a wheel-computerized system that monitors and adjusts air-pressure in tyres. 26. Most submersibles do not move very far from the support ship, the connecting cables limiting their range. 27. Unless the internal combustion engine had been invented, the automobile industry would not have begun to develop so rapidly all over the world. 28. When completed, the new dirigible will be the largest and the most powerful one. 29. Hundreds of radio navigation stations being located at different places around the world, pilots are at constant link with them. 30. The principles of ecology are as real as those of aerodynamics. If an aircraft is to fly, it has to satisfy certain criteria of thrust and lift. Similarly, if an economy is to keep up progress, it must satisfy the basic principles of ecology. If it does not, it will decline (приходить в упадок).
Упражнение 2.Прочитайте и переведите текст, обращая внимание на грамматику уроков 7—9.
How It Works
Fuel warning light.Many cars have a fuel warning light. The level of fuel (petrol) in the tank being very low, this light switches on and the driver can see that he needs more petrol. How does this fuel warning light work?
The level of the fuel falling, the float moves downwards. When this happens, the arm also moves downwards and makes the lever touch an electrical contact, thus switching on the fuel light in the car.
Seeing the fuel warning light, the driver puts more petrol into the tank. This makes the fuel level rise and pushes the float upwards. When risen, the float makes the arm move upwards and this causes the level to move upwards also. The fuel warning light then switches off.
A car cooling system.Most car engines are cooled by water. The water flows around the engine and then passes through the radiator. It then passes through the water pump and around the engine again.
Thus, there are several stages in this cycle:
1. Water flows around the engine. The engine is cooled and water is heated.
2. When heated, the hot water enters the radiator through the top hose (шланг).
3. Flowing down through the radiator, the hot water is cooled by air. The air is drawn through the radiator by a fan (вентилятор). This fan is turned by a belt, which is driven by the engine. The cool water leaves the radiator through the bottom hose. The water is pumped around the engine again.
Finding a fault in a car.If your car doesn't start in the morning, you should check three things first: the battery, the fuel level and the spark plugs (свеча зажигания). It is easy to repair these faults. If the battery is flat, you should recharge it. If this doesn't work, you should replace it. If the petrol tank is empty, fill it up. If the spark plugs are dirty, clean them, and if the gap in a spark plug is too narrow or too wide, adjust it to the correct width.
If your car still doesn't start, the petrol pump may be broken, or the fuel pipe may be blocked. If the pump is broken, it must be repaired or replaced. If the fuel pipe is blocked, take it off and unblock it.
If there is a loud click when you turn the key, the starter motor may be jammed (заклинивать). If it is, you can try to release it by pushing the car forwards and backwards (in 2nd gear). If the car still doesn't start, the starter motor should be repaired or replaced.
Упражнение 3.Заполните пропуски следующими словами:
flat be repaired click recharge faults battery clean tank empty replace fuel wide sparkplugs cooling backwards narrow forwards
1. In a car the flat battery, the empty fuel tank and the dirty spark plugs are the ... that can be easily eliminated. 2. If your car doesn't start, check the ... and the fuel ... . 3. If the battery is flat, try to ... or ... it. 4. If the ... tank is ... , fill it with petrol. 5. If the ... ... are dirty, ... them. 6. Adjust the gap in a spark plug if it is too ...
or too ... . 7. If the petrol pump is broken, it must............ 8. If the
tyres are ... , you should pump them up. 9. If you hear a loud ... , while turning the key, the starter motor may be jammed. 10. If it is jammed, try to move the car ... or .... 11. If the engine becomes too hot, there is a fault in the ... system.
Упражнение 4. А.Прочитайте текст.
Speaking about automotive engines one should say that the two most common types of engine for land vehicles are the petrol engine and the diesel engine.
Since petrol engines are usually lighter and smaller than diesel engines, they are cheaper. Therefore, most cars and motorbikes use petrol engines. Petrol engines are also less noisy than diesel engines. They usually go faster. On the other hand, diesel engines use less fuel and last longer than petrol engines, and this is why larger vehicles such as trucks and trains use them. They are also safer than petrol engines, because there is less danger of fire.
There are two main types of petrol engine — 4-stroke and 2-stroke. All cars and larger motor-cycles use 4-stroke engines. But most smaller motorbikes use 2-stroke engines. These are lighter and smaller than 4-stroke engines, and are therefore cheaper.
B. Ответьте на вопросы.
1. Which is the lightest of the three engines (2-stroke, 4-stroke or diesel)? 2. Which is the least expensive? 3. Which is the noisiest? 4. Which is the largest? 5. Which is the safest? Why? 6. Which has the lowest fuel consumption?
C. Speak about:
The main systems of a car.
Инфинитив, формы и функции Конструкция there + сказуемое Глаголы to cause, to make, to force
Text 10A. Laser
Text 10B. Optical Technology
Text 10C. An Encyclopedia on a Tiny Crystal
Text 10D. Science and International Cooperation
Упражнение 1.Определите функции инфинитива в предложениях, переведите.
1. То develop a new submersible craft with a manipulator is not an easy task. 2. To develop the supercomputer, highly developed electronics and new materials were required. 3. One of the best ways to keep the car speed steady is to use a computer. 4. Experiments helped Mendeleev to discover the properties of new chemical elements. 5. Francis Chichester was the first to sail round the world by himself. 6. Some materials with new useful properties may be produced in space. 7. A special electronic device signals the engine to stop. 8. Radar may control the brakes to avoid collisions with other cars. 9. High temperature alloys make it possible for jet engines to be operating under severe conditions for a long period of time. 10. Recently a radar to be mounted on cars has been developed. 11. In a new Japanese car the information to be received by the driver will come through a navigation earth satellite. 12. To help helicopters and aircraft find the capsule, its upper part is covered with special paint which can be detected by radar. 13. To detect objects at a distance such as ships, aircrafts, buildings, mountains, etc. is of great importance for navigation both at sea and in air. 14. The radar detects the stationary objects ahead of the
car to warn the driver about them and slow down the speed. 15. We had fresh water to drink. 16. They returned to listen about our accident and help. 17. He asked permission to leave.
Упражнение 2.Переведите согласно образцам:
There are many ways ... — Существует много способов ...
There has appeared a new kind of vehicle. — Появился новый вид аппарата.
There is no doubt... — Нет сомнения ...
1. There are unique conditions in space for producing materials with special qualities. 2. There exist different designs of submersible crafts in several countries. 3. There remains one more test to be carried out before using the device. 4. There has recently appeared a new way of communication through satellite networks. 5. There is no doubt that soon we shall see the appearance of a new kind of superliners and space crafts. 6. We have read that there exists an international organization that makes it possible to keep telephone and telegraph communication via satellite with ships in any part of the World Ocean. 7. There is no doubt that mankind will be able to explore the solar system by using nuclear rockets. But there still remain a lot of problems to be solved.
Упражнение 3.Переведите предложения и запомните значения глаголов to cause, to make, to force.
1. Weather changes are often caused by cyclones and anticyclones. 2. Work with deaf people made Al. Bell look for a way to help them and he began to study the theory of sound. 3. In internal combustion engines the pressure of gases forces the piston to go down. 4. The fact that Sofia Kovalevskaya couldn't continue her studies in Russia made her leave for Germany. 5. Heating causes the motion of molecules in a substance, the hotter it becomes, the quicker the molecules move. 6. Morse's interest in electricity made him start experimenting with it. 7. Sometimes bad weather forces the aircrafts to land. 8. In ordinary air it is possible to make electrons jump through space by means of pressure of high voltage. 9. The manager made Mary copy the report again. 10. They made him wait for an hour.
Упражнение 4.Переведите предложения, учитывая особенности сочетания прилагательного с наречием enough.
1. Materials used for superliner structures must be strong enough to withstand the air resistance at high speeds. 2. The «night vision» system is to be small enough to be used in automobiles.
3. The film must be interesting enough since everyone has already seen it. 4. New materials for hypersonic craft should be light enough because the weight of the aircraft structure is of the greatest importance. 5. Infrared rays emitted by any object on the road are to be intensive enough for sensors to pick them up. 6. The Voice Warning system for cars requires the connection of 18 wires, but it is simple enough to be installed in a car.
Упражнение 5. А.Найдите русские эквиваленты для словосочетаний.
before the turn of the century, fantastic story, sword of heat, mysterious sword of heat, has come to reality, the name stands for, light amplification, stimulated emission, mankind's oldest dream, to make lead run like water, technological tool, thermonuclear fuel, to have no time to disintegrate, experiments in heating, required temperature, dozens of times greater, in just a fraction of a second.
технологическое средство, заставить свинец литься как вода, название означает, старейшая мечта человечества, усиление света, в конце прошлого века, индуцированная эмиссия (излучение), огненный меч, таинственный огненный меч, воплотилось в реальность, фантастическая история, эксперименты по нагреву, требуемая температура, термоядерное топливо, нет времени для распада, в десятки раз больше, всего за долю секунды.
В. Переведите словосочетания.
a very pure colour, to vaporize the hardest materials, to vaporize any substance on the earth, to combine two technological discoveries, limitless source of energy, practically limitless source of energy, thermonuclear fuel, thermonuclear reaction, controlled thermonuclear reaction, current estimates, a billionth of a second, to work hard.
Упражнение 6.Прочитайте и переведите интернациональные слова.
fantastic [faen'taestik], Martians ['ma:Jjanz], to stimulate ["stimjuleit], laser ['leiza], colour ['кл1э], thermonuclear reaction, controlled thermonuclear reaction, energy, plasma ['plaezma], dozens ['dAznz], practice ['praektis], practical ['praektikal], potential [pau'tenfal], intensive, intensity, principle, to vibrate [vai'breit], fraction, project ['procfeekt], transmission, solar transmission, realise ['rialaiz], effect [ffekt], Encyclopaedia [en,saiklau'pi:dja].
Упражнение7. Прочитайте и запомните произношение слов.
world [w9:ld], turn [t9:n], earth [э:6], invade [in'veid], sword [so:d], heat [hi:t], beam [bi:m], pure [pjua], mankind [maen'kaind], enough [I'riAf], vaporize ['veiparaiz], lead [led], focused ['faukast], treatment ['trktmant], vary [Veen], varied ['vearid], suggest [sa'cfeest], magic ['maecfeik], problem ['problem], combine [kom'bain], source [so:s], contribute [kan'tribju:t], duration [djua'reijan], pulse [paIs], though [5au], encounter [in'kaunta], encode [in'kaud], surface ['sa:fis], therefore ['deafo:], doubt [daut], entire [in'taia], weapon ['wepan].
СЛОВА И СЛОВОСОЧЕТАНИЯ ДЛЯ ЗАПОМИНАНИЯ
amplificationп — усиление
as welladv — также
approximatelyadv — почти,
capacityп — мощность,
conductv — вести, проводить
costп — стоимость
enoughadv — достаточно,
entireа — полный, целый
fulfilmentп — выполнение,
singleа — один, одиночный
suggestv — предлагать,
toolп •— инструмент, орудие,
heatv — нагревать; п — тепло, теплота
heatingп — нагрев heat-resistantа — теплостойкий
indeedadv •— действительно, на самом деле
installationп — установка, сборка
involved/?.//—связанный, рассматриваемый, имеющий место
rapidlyadv •— быстро representv — представлять, олицетворять
stimulatev — возбуждать, индуцировать
treatmentп — обработка varyv — менять, изменять(ся) weaponп — оружие
to meet the demands, the requirements— удовлетворять требованиям
in order to— для того чтобы
power plant— силовая установка, электростанция
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