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Экологические группы птиц Астраханской области: Птицы приспособлены к различным условиям обитания, на чем и основана их экологическая классификация...


Классификация электровозов: Свердловский учебный центр профессиональных квалификаций...


Объективные признаки состава административного правонарушения: являются общественные отношения, урегулированные нормами права и охраняемые...

D. Заполните пропуски антонимами выделенных слов



1. Tables give information about safeand ... diving limit,

2. Time information is the time from the beginningof the diver's descent to the ... of his ...

3. If a diver is in the sea, he will set «sea water»,otherwise he will set ...

4. Battery level information indicates if the level is lowor ...

5. Before a diver starts to descend,he should set the time when he must ...

E. Заполните таблицу на словообразование.

 

Verb Noun Adjective
... submergence • • •
... • • • exploratory
popularize ... • • •
... creature • • •
• • • sick
... performance
... ... connective
  exposure
... ... definite

Упражнение 3.Составьте возможные словосочетания глаголов из колон­ки А и существительных из колонки В.

 

А В
1. realize a. data, images
2. master / penetrate b. areas
3. join c. at a rate of
4. submerge d. the sea and ocean depths
5. descend / ascend e. a dream
6. be f. efforts
7. cover g. within safe limits
8. transmit h. to the depth of

Упражнение 4.Заполните пропуски, образуя составные слова, общеизве­стные словосочетания и термины. Запомните их.

1. battery-... 7. ocean-... minerals

2. ... warning 8. ... arms

3. visual ... 9. support ...

4. ... diving 10. life ... system

5. stop ... 11. one ...

6. ... plants 12. ... camera

Упражнение 5. А.Назовите 15—20 ключевых слов и словосочетаний на тему: «New developments in manned submersibles».

В. Speak about:

Modern scuba diving.


REVISION OF LESSONS 7-9

Упражнение 1.Повторите причастия I, II, герундий и условные прида­точные предложения. Переведите.

1. Bob is very good at solving mathematical equations. 2. She has never done any computing. 3. We saw an old man lying on the road. 4. Being a disabled, he could not drive a car. 5. The train be­ing late, they decided to return home. 6. His favourite pastime is playing computer games. 7. Realizing the danger, they stopped. 8. The house rebuilt recently is very beautiful. 9. Look at the dis­played objects! Look at the objects being displayed! 10. Graphic artists like adding colour and depth to their drawings and designs. 11. Having completed the job, the man left early. 12. The task hav­ing been accomplished, the pilot returned to the base. 13. Having been rebuilt recently, the house is very attractive now. 14. Scien­tists are interested in developing new programming languages. 15. What do you think of the methods being used in these experi­ments? 16. Our engineers will discuss the methods used and the re­sults obtained. 17. Given certain conditions such work can be done by anybody. 18. The speed of a microprocessor is very important in processing information. 19. A fax machine is used for sending and receiving copies of original documents via a phone line. 20. Joy­stick is an input device especially helpful when playing computer games. 21. Distance measuring equipment now being used in all airplanes, pilots know exactly their position and speed. 22. Pro­vided electronic and radio navigation equipment had not been im­proved so radically in recent years, aircraft flying would not have been so reliable and efficient. 23. Manhattan, one of the New York boroughs, is not large in size and population, people coming there only for work, to the theaters, museums and clubs. 24. If you got tired while getting ready for your exam, you should break off for half an hour. 25. We learnt of the engineers' having invented a wheel-computerized system that monitors and adjusts air-pressure in tyres. 26. Most submersibles do not move very far from the sup­port ship, the connecting cables limiting their range. 27. Unless the internal combustion engine had been invented, the automobile in­dustry would not have begun to develop so rapidly all over the world. 28. When completed, the new dirigible will be the largest and the most powerful one. 29. Hundreds of radio navigation sta­tions being located at different places around the world, pilots are at constant link with them. 30. The principles of ecology are as real as those of aerodynamics. If an aircraft is to fly, it has to satisfy cer­tain criteria of thrust and lift. Similarly, if an economy is to keep up progress, it must satisfy the basic principles of ecology. If it does not, it will decline (приходить в упадок).


Упражнение 2.Прочитайте и переведите текст, обращая внимание на грамматику уроков 7—9.

How It Works

Fuel warning light.Many cars have a fuel warning light. The level of fuel (petrol) in the tank being very low, this light switches on and the driver can see that he needs more petrol. How does this fuel warning light work?

The level of the fuel falling, the float moves downwards. When this happens, the arm also moves downwards and makes the lever touch an electrical contact, thus switching on the fuel light in the car.

Seeing the fuel warning light, the driver puts more petrol into the tank. This makes the fuel level rise and pushes the float up­wards. When risen, the float makes the arm move upwards and this causes the level to move upwards also. The fuel warning light then switches off.

A car cooling system.Most car engines are cooled by water. The water flows around the engine and then passes through the ra­diator. It then passes through the water pump and around the en­gine again.

Thus, there are several stages in this cycle:

1. Water flows around the engine. The engine is cooled and wa­ter is heated.

2. When heated, the hot water enters the radiator through the top hose (шланг).

3. Flowing down through the radiator, the hot water is cooled by air. The air is drawn through the radiator by a fan (вентилятор). This fan is turned by a belt, which is driven by the engine. The cool water leaves the radiator through the bottom hose. The water is pumped around the engine again.

Finding a fault in a car.If your car doesn't start in the morning, you should check three things first: the battery, the fuel level and the spark plugs (свеча зажигания). It is easy to repair these faults. If the battery is flat, you should recharge it. If this doesn't work, you should replace it. If the petrol tank is empty, fill it up. If the spark plugs are dirty, clean them, and if the gap in a spark plug is too narrow or too wide, adjust it to the correct width.

If your car still doesn't start, the petrol pump may be broken, or the fuel pipe may be blocked. If the pump is broken, it must be re­paired or replaced. If the fuel pipe is blocked, take it off and unblock it.

If there is a loud click when you turn the key, the starter motor may be jammed (заклинивать). If it is, you can try to release it by pushing the car forwards and backwards (in 2nd gear). If the car still doesn't start, the starter motor should be repaired or replaced.


Упражнение 3.Заполните пропуски следующими словами:

flat be repaired click recharge faults battery clean tank empty replace fuel wide sparkplugs cooling backwards narrow forwards

1. In a car the flat battery, the empty fuel tank and the dirty spark plugs are the ... that can be easily eliminated. 2. If your car doesn't start, check the ... and the fuel ... . 3. If the battery is flat, try to ... or ... it. 4. If the ... tank is ... , fill it with petrol. 5. If the ... ... are dirty, ... them. 6. Adjust the gap in a spark plug if it is too ...

or too ... . 7. If the petrol pump is broken, it must............ 8. If the

tyres are ... , you should pump them up. 9. If you hear a loud ... , while turning the key, the starter motor may be jammed. 10. If it is jammed, try to move the car ... or .... 11. If the engine becomes too hot, there is a fault in the ... system.

Упражнение 4. А.Прочитайте текст.

Automotive Engines

Speaking about automotive engines one should say that the two most common types of engine for land vehicles are the petrol en­gine and the diesel engine.

Since petrol engines are usually lighter and smaller than diesel engines, they are cheaper. Therefore, most cars and motorbikes use petrol engines. Petrol engines are also less noisy than diesel en­gines. They usually go faster. On the other hand, diesel engines use less fuel and last longer than petrol engines, and this is why larger vehicles such as trucks and trains use them. They are also safer than petrol engines, because there is less danger of fire.

There are two main types of petrol engine — 4-stroke and 2-stroke. All cars and larger motor-cycles use 4-stroke engines. But most smaller motorbikes use 2-stroke engines. These are lighter and smaller than 4-stroke engines, and are therefore cheaper.

B. Ответьте на вопросы.

1. Which is the lightest of the three engines (2-stroke, 4-stroke or diesel)? 2. Which is the least expensive? 3. Which is the noisiest? 4. Which is the largest? 5. Which is the safest? Why? 6. Which has the lowest fuel consumption?

C. Speak about:

The main systems of a car.


LESSON 10

Инфинитив, формы и функции Конструкция there + сказуемое Глаголы to cause, to make, to force

Text 10A. Laser

Text 10B. Optical Technology

Text 10C. An Encyclopedia on a Tiny Crystal

Text 10D. Science and International Cooperation

ПРЕДТЕКСТОВЫЕ УПРАЖНЕНИЯ

Упражнение 1.Определите функции инфинитива в предложениях, пере­ведите.

1. То develop a new submersible craft with a manipulator is not an easy task. 2. To develop the supercomputer, highly developed electronics and new materials were required. 3. One of the best ways to keep the car speed steady is to use a computer. 4. Experi­ments helped Mendeleev to discover the properties of new chemi­cal elements. 5. Francis Chichester was the first to sail round the world by himself. 6. Some materials with new useful properties may be produced in space. 7. A special electronic device signals the en­gine to stop. 8. Radar may control the brakes to avoid collisions with other cars. 9. High temperature alloys make it possible for jet engines to be operating under severe conditions for a long period of time. 10. Recently a radar to be mounted on cars has been de­veloped. 11. In a new Japanese car the information to be received by the driver will come through a navigation earth satellite. 12. To help helicopters and aircraft find the capsule, its upper part is co­vered with special paint which can be detected by radar. 13. To de­tect objects at a distance such as ships, aircrafts, buildings, mountains, etc. is of great importance for navigation both at sea and in air. 14. The radar detects the stationary objects ahead of the


car to warn the driver about them and slow down the speed. 15. We had fresh water to drink. 16. They returned to listen about our acci­dent and help. 17. He asked permission to leave.

Упражнение 2.Переведите согласно образцам:

There are many ways ... — Существует много способов ...

There has appeared a new kind of vehicle. Появился новый вид аппарата.

There is no doubt... — Нет сомнения ...

1. There are unique conditions in space for producing materials with special qualities. 2. There exist different designs of submers­ible crafts in several countries. 3. There remains one more test to be carried out before using the device. 4. There has recently appeared a new way of communication through satellite networks. 5. There is no doubt that soon we shall see the appearance of a new kind of superliners and space crafts. 6. We have read that there exists an in­ternational organization that makes it possible to keep telephone and telegraph communication via satellite with ships in any part of the World Ocean. 7. There is no doubt that mankind will be able to explore the solar system by using nuclear rockets. But there still re­main a lot of problems to be solved.

Упражнение 3.Переведите предложения и запомните значения глаголов to cause, to make, to force.

1. Weather changes are often caused by cyclones and anticy­clones. 2. Work with deaf people made Al. Bell look for a way to help them and he began to study the theory of sound. 3. In internal combustion engines the pressure of gases forces the piston to go down. 4. The fact that Sofia Kovalevskaya couldn't continue her studies in Russia made her leave for Germany. 5. Heating causes the motion of molecules in a substance, the hotter it becomes, the quicker the molecules move. 6. Morse's interest in electricity made him start experimenting with it. 7. Sometimes bad weather forces the aircrafts to land. 8. In ordinary air it is possible to make elec­trons jump through space by means of pressure of high voltage. 9. The manager made Mary copy the report again. 10. They made him wait for an hour.

Упражнение 4.Переведите предложения, учитывая особенности сочета­ния прилагательного с наречием enough.

1. Materials used for superliner structures must be strong enough to withstand the air resistance at high speeds. 2. The «night vision» system is to be small enough to be used in automobiles.


3. The film must be interesting enough since everyone has already seen it. 4. New materials for hypersonic craft should be light enough because the weight of the aircraft structure is of the greatest importance. 5. Infrared rays emitted by any object on the road are to be intensive enough for sensors to pick them up. 6. The Voice Warning system for cars requires the connection of 18 wires, but it is simple enough to be installed in a car.

Упражнение 5. А.Найдите русские эквиваленты для словосочетаний.

before the turn of the century, fantastic story, sword of heat, mysterious sword of heat, has come to reality, the name stands for, light amplification, stimulated emission, mankind's oldest dream, to make lead run like water, technological tool, thermonuclear fuel, to have no time to disintegrate, experiments in heating, re­quired temperature, dozens of times greater, in just a fraction of a second.

технологическое средство, заставить свинец литься как вода, название означает, старейшая мечта человечества, уси­ление света, в конце прошлого века, индуцированная эмиссия (излучение), огненный меч, таинственный огненный меч, во­плотилось в реальность, фантастическая история, экспери­менты по нагреву, требуемая температура, термоядерное топливо, нет времени для распада, в десятки раз больше, все­го за долю секунды.

В. Переведите словосочетания.

a very pure colour, to vaporize the hardest materials, to vapor­ize any substance on the earth, to combine two technological dis­coveries, limitless source of energy, practically limitless source of energy, thermonuclear fuel, thermonuclear reaction, controlled thermonuclear reaction, current estimates, a billionth of a second, to work hard.

Упражнение 6.Прочитайте и переведите интернациональные слова.

fantastic [faen'taestik], Martians ['ma:Jjanz], to stimulate ["stimjuleit], laser ['leiza], colour ['кл1э], thermonuclear reac­tion, controlled thermonuclear reaction, energy, plasma ['plaezma], dozens ['dAznz], practice ['praektis], practical ['praektikal], potential [pau'tenfal], intensive, intensity, principle, to vibrate [vai'breit], fraction, project ['procfeekt], transmission, solar transmission, realise ['rialaiz], effect [ffekt], Encyclopaedia [en,saiklau'pi:dja].


Упражнение7. Прочитайте и запомните произношение слов.

world [w9:ld], turn [t9:n], earth [э:6], invade [in'veid], sword [so:d], heat [hi:t], beam [bi:m], pure [pjua], mankind [maen'kaind], enough [I'riAf], vaporize ['veiparaiz], lead [led], focused ['faukast], treatment ['trktmant], vary [Veen], varied ['vearid], suggest [sa'cfeest], magic ['maecfeik], problem ['problem], combine [kom'bain], source [so:s], contribute [kan'tribju:t], duration [djua'reijan], pulse [paIs], though [5au], encounter [in'kaunta], encode [in'kaud], surface ['sa:fis], there­fore ['deafo:], doubt [daut], entire [in'taia], weapon ['wepan].

СЛОВА И СЛОВОСОЧЕТАНИЯ ДЛЯ ЗАПОМИНАНИЯ


amplificationп — усиление

as welladv — также

approximatelyadv — почти,

приблизительно

capacityп — мощность,

нагрузка, производительность

conductv — вести, проводить

costп — стоимость

durationп

продолжительность

enoughadv — достаточно,

довольно

entireа — полный, целый

fulfilmentп — выполнение,

осуществление, исполнение

singleа — один, одиночный

suggestv — предлагать,

советовать

toolп •— инструмент, орудие,

средство


heatv — нагревать; п — тепло, теплота

heatingп — нагрев heat-resistantа — теплостой­кий

indeedadv •— действительно, на самом деле

installationп — установка, сборка

involved/?.//—связанный, рас­сматриваемый, имеющий мес­то

rapidlyadv •— быстро representv — представлять, олицетворять

stimulatev — возбуждать, ин­дуцировать

treatmentп — обработка varyv — менять, изменять(ся) weaponп — оружие


 


to meet the demands, the requirements— удовлетво­рять требованиям

in order to— для того чтобы

power plant— силовая установка, электростанция



Text 10A





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  1. B, Выберите для выделенных в тексте А слов правильные значения
  2. D. Вставьте антонимы выделенных слов
  3. F. Формы прошедшего времени. Перепишите, заполнив пропуски предложенными в скобках глаголами в форме Past Simple или Past Perfect
  4. I. Организационный момент. 1. Догадайтесь, как связаны числа с рисунками, и заполните пустые «окошки»
  5. I. Организационный момент. 1. Заполните таблицу: Первое слагаемое Второе слагаемое
  6. А) Переведите текст со словарем и заполните таблицу, наглядно подтверждающую преимущества торговли
  7. А) Прочитайте и переведите следующие определения и примеры. Заполните пропуски словами из рамки
  8. Алгоритм выполнения задания. Заполнить пропуски предлогами in, on, with (15 баллов)
  9. Бетоны напористых заполнителях
  10. Виберіть правильний варіант та вставте пропуски
  11. Вопрос 1. Какие опасные ситуации возможны в доме (квартире) и каковы их причины? Заполните до конца таблицу


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