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III. Лексический минимум по теме Medical History (part II)
Выучите произношение следующих слов:
Renaissance [ri’neisqns], dissection [di’sekSqn], human anatomy [‘hjHmqn q’nqetqmi], university [,jHni’vWsiti], structure [‘strAkCq], army [‘Rmi], technique [tek’nJk], pulse [pAls], circulate [‘sWkjuleit], artery [‘Rtqri], vein [vein], initiate [I’niSIeIt], resistance [ri’zistqns], immunology [,imju’nOlqGi], alcohol [‘qelkqhOl], infectious [in’fekSqs], chemist [‘kemist], microbe [‘mQikroub], bacterium [bqek’tiqriqm] (pl. bacteria [bqek’tiqriq]
Выучите новые слова и выражения:
advances [qd’vRnsiz] - достижения, успехи
Middle Ages [‘midl’eiGqz] - средние века
to dissect [di’sekt] - проводить вскрытие
numerous [‘njHmqrqs] - многочисленный
to improve [imp’rHv] - улучшать
blood [blAd] - кровь
heartbeat [‘hRtbJt] - сердцебиение
to conclude [kqn’klHd] - делать вывод
to pump - качать, нагнетать
safe - безопасный
smallpox - оспа
to dull pain - притуплять боль
to administer [qd’ministq]- назначать
various [‘vFqriqs]- различный
drug - лекарство
certain [sWtn] - некоторый, определенный
to invent [in’vent] - изобретать
to determine [di’tWmin] - определять, устанавливать
IV. Базовый текст.
Прочтите и устно переведите текст.
MEDICINE: HISTORY (Part II)
The chief medical advances in Europe during the Middle Ages were the founding of many hospitals and the first university medical schools. A new scientific spirit developed during the Renaissance, the great cultural movement that swept across Western Europe from 1300 to the 1600’s. During the late 1400’s and early 1500’s the Italian artist Leonardo da Vinci performed many dissections to learn more about human anatomy. He recorded his findings in more than 750 drawings.
Andreas Vesalius a physician and professor of medicine at the University of Padua in Italy also performed numerous dissections. He used his findings to write the first scientific textbook on human anatomy, a work called “On the Structure of the Human Body” (1543).
A French army doctor named Ambroise Pare improved surgical techniques to such an extent that he is considered the father of modern surgery.
The English physician William Harvey performed many experiments in the early 1600’s to learn how blood circulates through the body. He performed dissections on both human beings and animals and made careful studies of the human pulsebeat and heartbeat. Harvey discovered that the blood returns to the heart through the veins.
In 1796 an English physician named Edward Jenner discovered a safe method of making people immune to smallpox. The success of the experiment initiated the science of immunology – the prevention of disease by building up resistance to it.
For thousands of years physicians tried to dull pain during surgery by administering alcoholic drinks, opium, and various other drugs but no drug proved to be really effective in reducing the pain and shock of operations. Then in the 1840’s two Americans – Crawford Long and William T.G. Morton - discovered that ether gas could safely be used to put patients to sleep during surgery. Long, a physician, and Morton, a dentist, made the discovery independently.
Scientists of the 1800’s made dramatic progress in learning the causes of infectious diseases. Pasteur, a brilliant French chemist, proved that microbes are living organisms and that certain kinds of microbes cause disease. Koch, a German physician, invented a method for determining which bacteria cause particular diseases.
V. Задания по тексту.
Соедините пары предложений в соответствие с прочитанным текстом.
1. The chief medical advances in Europe a. to write the first scientific human anatomy, a
during the Middle Ages were … work called “On the Structure of the Human
2. During the late 1400’s and early 1500’s b. many experiments to learn how blood
the Italian artist Leonardo da Vinci circulates through the body.
3. Andreas Vesalius used his findings … c. a method for determining which bacteria
cause particular diseases.
4. A French army doctor named Ambroise d. the founding of many hospitals and the
Pare improved … first university medical schools.
5. The English physician William Harvey e. many dissections to learn more about
performed… human anatomy.
6. In 1796 an English physician named f. that ether gas could safely be used to put
Edward Jenner discovered … patients to sleep during surgery.
7. In the 1840’s Crawford Long and William g . a safe method of making people
T.G.Morton discovered immune to smallpox.
8. Paster, a brilliant French chemist, proved… h. surgical techniques to such an extent
that he is considered the father of
9. Koch, a German physician, invented… i. that microbes are living organisms and
that certain kinds of microbes cause
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