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Построение спирали Архимеда: Спираль Архимеда- плоская кривая линия, которую описывает точка, движущаяся равномерно вращающемуся радиусу...


Архитектурное бюро: Доминантами формообразования служат здесь в равной мере как контекст...


Нейроглия (или проще глия, глиальные клетки): Структурная и функциональная единица нервной ткани и он состоит из тела...

Предлоги, в сочетании с герундием образующие обстоятельства образа действия и сопутствующих условий



(сочетание «предлог + герундий» отвечает на вопрос «как, каким образом?»)

 

Предлог Возможные варианты перевода Пример
by путем + существительное; с помощью; посредством + существительное; посредством того, что; тем что + придаточное предложение; деепричастие; существительное в творительном падеже by comparing — путем (посредством) сравнения; сравнивая by building — тем, что строили; постройкой
without без + существительное; не + деепричастие; Без того чтобы + инфинитив without reading — не читая

Предлоги, в сочетании с герундием образующие обстоятельства цели и причины

(сочетание «предлог + герундий» отвечает на вопросы «для чего?», «почему?»)

 

Предлог Возможные варианты перевода Пример
for для + существительное; для того чтобы + инфинитив for making vessels — для изготовления сосудов; для того чтобы изготовлять сосуды
through owing to   благодаря тому, что; из-за того, что; тем что through being closely connected — благодаря тому, что были тесно связаны

Упражнение

5. Переведите.

1. We shall close this chapter by considering one more type of assimilation.

2. The author shows how a language varies in passing from one social group to another.

3. Upon returning to Reykjavik we had a very interesting interview with Mr Bjarnason.

4. She tore the letter into small pieces without reading it.

5. In discussing the problem they touched upon some very interesting items.

6. He liked to do things without disturbing anyone or being disturbed.

7. In digging into the mounds, the explorers discovered in many of them hearths which furnished a great number of relics.

8. Addison 8 (1672) proceeded to Oxford, and later, on receiving a travelling scholarship, passed four years on the Continent.

Addison — Аддисон (1672-—1719), английский публицист.


9. In selecting this spot as the site for an encampment, the Indians displayed a keen appreciation of its unsurpassed natural advantages.

10. The only safe method is to trace step by step the actual changes that a word has undergone , by examining its existing forms till the earliest is reached.

11. In 1872 Courbet 9 sent two paintings to the Salon, which were rejected on political grounds, without being looked at.

12. The first problem in reviewing the world's languages is to decide what to count a language.

13. The mollusks had evidently been opened by placing them on fire.

14. Henry Mayhew was a journalist and comic dramatist born in 1812 who turned to journalism after running away to sea as a boy and later serving as a clerk in his father's law office.

15. As a result a new school of literature arose, which, without being in sharp contrast with the old, contained some distinctly new elements.

II

16. Mayhew's work contains valuable facts and statistics that could be gathered only by interviewing hundreds of people and by making elaborate investigations.

17. Thus, in considering the causes of the Second Macedonian War, it is necessary to examine not only the agressive activities of Philip 10 but also the current state of political feeling at Rome.

18. Without going further into detail than the scope of this book permits, it is impossible to exhibit the relationship that the structure of Old English bears to the structure of Latin and Greek.

19. Historical grammar tries to explain the phenomena of a language by tracing them back to their earlier stages in the language.

20. Just as the Romance languages — Italian, Spanish, French etc. — are cognate to one another through being

8 Courbet — Курбе (1819—1877), французский художник-натуралист, коммунар

10 Philip — Филипп II, царь Македонии (382 г, до н. э.)


independent developments of their parent language Latin, so also English is cognate with Dutch, German, Danish, Swedish, and the other Germanic languages.

21. On taking a few spadefuls of earth, or on examining the walls of the new houses generally built with turf taken from these spots, — one everywhere finds the earth and grass-roots mixed with the bones of animals which the Greenlanders hunt.

22. In presenting the second part of this history of English literature, I should like to give some explanation of a very obvious shortcoming in the first part, viz.,11 the omission of the last chapter dealing with the poetry.

23. The language develops slowly through a number of epochs, by modifying its vocabulary and grammar. It develops without undergoing sudden and revolutionary changes.

24. The writers of the school of Flaubert and Goncourt complain of the difficulties the artist encounters in trying to reproduce what he sees.

25. A remarkably intelligent lad, who on being spoken to, at once consented to give all the information in his power, told me the following story of his life.

ГЕРУНДИАЛЬНЫЕ ОБОРОТЫ

Наибольшую трудность для перевода может представить герундий с группой зависящих от него слов, образующих герундиальный оборот. Существует два типа герундиальных оборотов.

предлог+герундий

I insist on writingthe letter immediately.

Я настаиваю на том, чтобы написатьписьмо сразу.

Субъект действия герундия не указан и может совпадать с подлежащим.

This reference-book differs from the previous in includinga greater number of names.

Этот справочник отличается от предыдущего тем, что (он) включаетбольшее количество имен.

11 viz. — читается: namely — а именно


В этих случаях перевод делается по способу, указанному выше (см. стр. 115).

предлог + притяжательное + герундий местоимение или существительное в притяжательном или общем падеже

I insist on his writingthe letter immediately.

Я настаиваю на том, чтобыон написал письмо сразу.

Субъект действия герундия не совпадает с подлежащим предложения и выражен притяжательным местоимением (или существительным в притяжательном падеже).

Герундий в таких оборотах переводится личной формой глагола в функции сказуемого придаточного предложения, вводимого союзом «что (чтобы)» с предшествующим ему соотнесенным местоимением «то» в соответствующем падеже (тем, что; в том, что и т. п.), а субъект действия герундия — подлежащим этого придаточного предложения.

Если субъект действия герундия выражен существительным в притяжательном падеже, то он обычно обозначает лицо:

I hear about your brother's goingabroad. Я слышал, что ваш брат едетза границу.

Если субъект действия герундия выражен существительным в общем падеже, то герундий имеет форму страдательного залога, так как субъект действия обозначает не лицо и подвергается действию, выраженному герундием:

I insist on the letter being sentimmediately.

Я настаиваю на том, чтобы письмо было отослано немедленно.

Герундиальные обороты выполняют в предложении те же функции, что и герундий.

Упражнения

1. Переведите. Найдите герундиальные обороти. Определите, совпадает ли субъект действия герундия с подлежащим предложения.

1. A good speaker, besides choosing appropriate terms from a wide vocabulary, and besides being able to utter


his thoughts with fluency, uses correct sounds and employs proper intonation.

2. The volume differs from the previous in embracing a wider range of subjects and in making considerably greater demands on the intelligence and knowledge of the young scholar.

3. In addition to being both creative writer and critic he is also a scholar.

4. Our eighth chapter is devoted to seeing the way in which this classification corresponds to the geologic divisions of Pleistocene time.

5. His output of dramatic work has been great, but it shows every sign of having been thoughtfully and conscientiously carried out.

6. Prosper Merimee realised — as many authors following his example have done since — that prose tales gain in tragic force by not being told with obvious sympathy in the exuberant manner of other Romantics.

7. According to the ancient story, Tantalus was punished for a crime by being made to suffer from thirst and hunger, while water and fruit were seemingly within his reach.

8. Arnold Bennet is interested not in philosophy, but in giving a realistic account of the lives of ordinary people.

2. Переведите. Найдите герундиальные обороты. Определите, чем выражен субъект действия герундия.

1. Even those who by 1905 had recognized Shaw as the outstanding British dramatist of his generation continued for many years to question the likelihood of his taking a permanent place in literature.

2. The question of the transition period is not principally a question of the adoption of a new material — bone instead of stone, but of the population going over to a new trade.

3. There are many new terms, some of which are in everybody's mouth, and are used by the man in the street without any suspicion crossing his mind of their learned origin.

4. We see that this word is an adjective from its having no ending.

5. This fact is due not so much to the mammoth and rhinoceros becoming gradually scarcer as to the change in the method of hunting.


6. The «Importance of Being Earnest» (1895) 12 is brilliant, but the same fault lies here again in the character- drawing. Any speech in the play might almost be directly transferred from one character to another without the change being noticed.

7. The most important cause of a language splitting into dialects is not purely physical, but want of communication for whatever reason.

8. The fact that stone and silex had been abandoned, is, however, not a sign of technical skill having fallen off.

9. The high quality of style has proved sufficient to give this work a high rank amongst the Japanese classics, and has insured its being handed down to our day as a most esteemed model for the composition in the native Japanese style.

 

10. Without language there is no understanding among people, and without understanding there is no chance of their being able to work together.

11. Conditions of the time (end of the 18th century) led to the need for quicker communication between the towns, and this naturally led also to the literature being spread more quickly than would have been possible before.

12. This is the main contradiction of capitalism which impedes productive development, and even leads to productive powers being used to destroy nations in warfare, instead of for lightening the labour and increasing the material prosperity of mankind.

13. In view of this practice being frequent among primitive people of the present (end of the 19th century), the above mentioned «Package of bones» from the Grotte de Covillon gains immensely in interest.

14. The distinguished German linguist H. Shuchardt, has in recent years strongly insisted that similarities between different languages need not always depend on the languages being related to one another as French is related to Italian, but in some cases may be due to some element common to mankind; in other words, some phenomena, instead of being historically related may be primordially related.

12 The «Importance of Being Earnest» — «Как важно быть серьезным», пьеса Оскара Уайльда


Повторение герундия

Переведите.

1. In some cases I contented myself with giving the bare references without printing the sentences in full.

2. Scientific discoveries affected intellectual life by overthrowing many of the old ideas respecting the world and nature.

3. The historian, according to the critics, sinned against the past by giving it an order and a symmetry which it did not possess. Instead of reliving history, he recreated it.

4. In estimating these poems we should make ourselves aware of the literary situation wherein they were written.

5. The investigation aims at establishing historical results regarding settlement and economic and social life.

6. I am told that he has never wanted to learn Chinese as a language, that he does not speak it and has little interest in hearing it spoken.

7. At the beginning of the period, the poets follow the teaching of Dryden 13 in attending more to the method of expressing their ideal than to the ideas themselves.

8. The exhibition of any genuine passion or of any imagination would have seemed to the cultured gallants of that age a sign of vulgarity. The only quality worth possessing was considered to be «the plain good sense».

9. The novelist can similarly tell a story without laying claim to having witnessed or participated in what he narrates.

 

10. In presenting the above facts I have had in mind letting the non-assyrologist know what a change the discovery of a few tablets in the Amorita land has brought about.

11. Those who find no intellectual pleasure in reading foreign languages, or perhaps even in trying to read them, must admit that some ability to do so is of practical value.

12. Comparative grammar compares grammatical phenomena of a language with those of the cognate languages, that is, languages which are related to it through having arisen from a common parent language.

13. The very nobles who helped Henry 14 to overcome Richard,14 because they hoped that by so doing they would

13 Dryden — Джон Драйден (1631—1700), английский поэт.

14 Henry, Richard — Генрих IV и Ричард II, английские короли


further their own advancement, rose against him when he tried to assert his authority over them.

14. He held office of the most important judge in England for four years, and might have held it longer, but that 15 he was accused of taking bribes.

15. These inventions, far from being used for the benefit of mankind, were employed by the priests of Egypt to simulate miracles, and so, by facilitating a pious fraud on the faithful, to assist in the secular struggle of superstition against reason.

16. Primarily synonyms should be studied for the sake of enabling a speaker or a writer to say exactly what he needs.

17. In endeavouring to repeat the blow he (the knight) used such force that his left stirrup-leather broke, and he was on the point of falling from his horse.

18. One can readily understand that for natives the tribute became insufferable and they sought recourse and revenge in waylaying and killing their oppressors.

19. He started by night to escape being seen by anyone.

20. The American School (of linguistics) is like the Prague School in not having a fully elaborated approach to the description of grammatical phenomena.

21. The island is unique in having a sandy shore and is surrounded by an amphitheatre of low hills.

22. Of late years some geologists have declared themselves in favour of admitting the existence of the glacial stages, basing their theory on weighty arguments.

23. On leaving the College H. Wells again took up teaching, but in 1893 ill-health compelled him to leave the profession and turn to literature.

24. We aim at laying down in very rough outlines the principles for a phonemic decipherment of a written text.

25. As Somerset Maugham is difficult to classify either by the literary forms he uses or by the kind of reader he engages, it may be worth while trying another approach.

26. Alfred then took steps to prevent the Danes from ever becoming dangerous again.

27. The Stoics began by asserting the equality of slaves and free men, but they never drew the obvious conclusion that slavery should therefore be abolished.

15 but that — если бы не 124


28. The step from pictographic to syllabic writing is an easy, logical and, it might seem, self-evident one; yet there have been several nations which developed the first without ever proceeding to the second.

29. As will be clear by now, true alphabetic writing consists in having a sign for each sound (technically each phoneme) of the language rather than one for each word or one for each syllable.

30. Man alone has succeeded in impressing his stamp on nature, not only by shifting the plant and animal world from one place to another, but also by so altering the aspect and climate of his dwelling place, and even the plants and animals themselves, that the consequences of his activity can disappear only with the general extinction of the terrestrial globe.

31. About 1814 Scott largely gave up writing poetry and save for short pieces mainly in the novels, wrote no more in verse.

32. For the modern linguist the achievement of his ultimate objective would consist in being able to answer all questions that could be asked about language as a general concept, or about any particular concept.

33. Exeter, the ancient capital of Devonshire, is a lovely city, proud of being the only English town that has been lived in continuously since the time of the Romans.

34. One can only wish that progressive literary criticism in Britain will follow even more bravely the teachings of Lenin about there being two nations in every nation and two cultures in every culture.

35. Still, enough evidence is at hand to support a surmise that the South American Indian languages are of a structure similar to that of the North American ones, and that there is a possibility of some day proving all of them to be related.

36. Northern Chinese having lost all its final stops and converted -m everywhere into -n, obscures this phenomenon to a great extent.

37. Prince Regent married his cousin, Caroline of Brunswick, simply because it offered a prospect of his debts being paid.

38. One of Shaw's earliest plays, «Widowers' Houses» (1892) is in reality a strong attack upon those people who


live quietly and comfortably upon unearned income without troubling to inquire how the money is procured.

39. Dunstan had a reputation of being the greatest manager of state affairs of all who lived before the Norman Conquest.

40. If a word refers to some person or thing without giving a name to the person or thing referred to, the word is a pronoun.

41. But when a nation thus speaking a variety of dialects attains a high degree of civilization, that unity and centralization which results in one town becoming the capital, results also in one definite dialect — generally, of course, that of the capital itself — being used as the general means of communication through the whole territory, especially, as is generally the case, the dialects have already diverged so much from each other that some at least of them are mutually unintelligible.

42. Wayland Smith was a personage known as intimately to our Anglo-Saxon forebears as, say, Robin Hood is known to us. The mention of his name was enough to call up to them stories attached to it without their ever needing to be told.





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