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Summary and Annotation

РЕФЕРАТ И АННОТАЦИЯ

I.Прочитайте и переведите текст. Выпишите и выучите незнакомые слова.

Summary and Annotation

The reading of original literature is crucial to get the latest information. Summary (abstract, précis)and annotationhave become important forms of such information providing. These forms can essentially reduce the specialists’ time of information (data) processing.

Summaryis a short written account of something, which gives the important points but not the details. It is usually opens an article or a report. It can be considered as a shortened version of an original. The summary is expected to be about a sixth or a tenths of the original in length. It is usually far easier to write it after you have read the original. First go through it lifting out important information, findings, conclusions and recommendations. It is necessary to avoid including excessive background and detail. Sometimes the summary may take a spoken form. To prepare a summary you should:

1. Study the work carefully;

2. Make definite opinion of what has been read;

3. Develop the appropriate style of writing;

4. Communicate accurately the author’s conclusions;

5. Write briefly and clearly.

Annotationis the extremely brief account of the main contents like the list of major problems. If the purpose of summary is to get the reader acquainted with the main contents of the original and the substitute it to some degree, the annotation considers only the article’s or the book’s topic and facilitates search of necessary information on the subject. To make annotation, you should do the following:

1. Write down the name of the original (article or book) in English:

2. Translate this into Russian.

3. Write down the publishing data of the article (book).

4. Resume briefly (in 3-4 sentences) the contents of the original.

The following phrases normally open summaries and annotations:

The article (text/story) is concerned with …

This work deals with …

This work is devoted to …

Mention was made of the new achievements in the field of …

Special emphasis is laid on …

Particular attention is given to …

Notice has been taken to …

It is known (thought) that …

A new method (approach) has been proposed …

The author comes to the conclusions …

The work is of primary interest (importance, value) for …

One manager who had trouble summarizing a lengthy report discovered a helpful technique. He imagined that he and his boss got on the elevator on the 35th floor and rode down to the lobby. His boss remarked, “I just got your report on the new sales incentive plan. What’s it all about?” The manager would - in the time it takes an elevator to descend 35 floors – give his boss the rationale, findings, and recommendations of the report.

Depending on how tall your building is – or how fast or slow the elevators are – you may want to try this technique to help you frame your summary.

 

II. Ответьте на вопросы.

1. What is a definition of a summary?

2. Is it difficult to write summaries?

3. What phrases are typical for a summary or an annotation opening?

4. What technique can be proposed for making an annotation?

5. How long can it take you to write a summary?

III. Запомните эти слова и составьте с ними предложения.

Nouns Существительные
summary/abstract/precis реферат
annotation аннотация
aim/purpose/object цель
intention намерение
action действие
effect/function роль, функция
approach подход
method/technique метод
manner/way способ
suggestion предположение
trend/tendency тенденция
task задача
Verbs Глаголы
sum up/summarize подвести итог, подытожить, резюмировать
assume считать, допускать, полагать
consider считать, рассматривать
expect ожидать, предполагать
find/reveal находить, обнаруживать
maintain утверждать
intend намереваться
show/demonstrate показывать, демонстрировать
suppose/suggest предполагать
report сообщать
interpret объяснять, интерпретировать
think/reckon считать
prove/give evidence доказывать
Expressions Выражения
call attention to обращать ч-л внимание на
give/pay attention to уделять внимание кому-то (чему-то)
do away with покончить с, отказаться от
make attempt делать попытку, пытаться
make mention of упоминать о
make reference to ссылаться
make use of использовать, найти применение
take account of принимать во внимание, учитывать
take advantage of воспользоваться
take care of заботиться, учитывать
take notice of замечать, обращать внимание на

IV. Приведите в соответствие слова и их перевод.

assume действие
approach утверждать
suggestion цель
task задача
maintain рассматривать
consider допускать
purpose предположение
action подход

V. Заполните толкование этих слов на английском языке.

accurate (adj) free from errors
adequate (adj) enough; sufficient
analyze (v) study in all parts
issue (n) a matter of dispute or a difference
knowledge (n) information that is capable of being learned
transition (n) smooth connection of ideas
valid (adj) truthful or supported by accurate facts and statistics
abstract (n) a short piece of writing that summarizes the main point of it

VI. Приведите в соответствие выражения и их перевод:

make mention of принимать во внимание
take account of воспользоваться
call attention to обращать (ч-л) внимание на
make use of использовать
take notice of упоминать о
take advantage of замечать
make attempt уделять внимание кому-то (чему-то)
pay attention to делать попытку

VII. Сопоставьте каждое слово из левой колонки с его синонимом из правой колонки.

aim technique
manner sum up
method objective
summarize tendency
reveal way
trend show
demonstrate find

VIII. Приведите в соответствие слова из левой колонки с их толкованием из правой колонки.

accurate (adj) truthful or supported by accurate facts and statistics
adequate (adj) free from errors
valid (adj) enough; sufficient
analyze (v) study in all parts
issue (n) a short piece of writing that summarizes the main point of it
transition (n) a matter of dispute or a difference
abstract (n) information that is capable of being learned
knowledge (n) smooth connection of ideas

IX. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

1. This statement was followed by a long discussion concerning the meaning and application of the theory. 2. Mention was made of the new achievements in this field. 3. An attempt was made to review the vast amount of new facts obtained in this field. 4. This method allows the data to be easily obtained. 5. The method was proved to be of considerable commercial value. 6. Our conclusions were supported by new evidence furnished by other investigators. 7. The scheme insisted upon proved to be satisfactory. 8. Much attention was paid to the data reported. 9. The object of investigations is to understand the way these changes are brought about. 10. Mentioning some unsolved problems, a certain amount of work has to be done upon the development of the theory. 11. We should summarize the information available on this subject. 12. The solution to this problem might probably be found in this work. 13. Proof of the correctness of this interpretation would seem to call for some modification of our notions. 14. The suggestion does not seem to have satisfied itself in practice.

X. Переведите предложения на английский язык.

1. Чтение оригинальной литературы необходимо для получения новейшей информации. 2. Аннотация и реферат позволяют существенно сократить время специалистов. 3. Реферат – это краткое резюме каких-либо материалов в письменном виде. 4. Его можно рассматривать как сокращенную версию оригинала. 5. Объем реферата составляет от 1/6 до 1/10 объема оригинала. 6. Начинайте делать реферат, только прочитав оригинал. 7. Избегайте излишних рассуждений и деталей. 8. Аннотация еще короче, чем реферат. 9.Она знакомит читателя лишь с основным содержанием книги или статьи. 10. Выучите на память типичные фразы, с которых начинается аннотация и реферат.

REVIEWING A NEWSPAPER ARTICLE (TEXT/STORY)

Describe the article (text/story) you are going to review by giving answers to the following questions:

1. How is the article (text/story) entitled (headlined)?

2. What newspaper (magazine, book/textbook) is it published in?

3. What page is it on?

4. What is the date of the issue?

5. Who is the author (writer/journalist/correspondent/narrator)?

6. What problem is it devoted to?

7. What is your opinion on the problem spoken about in the article (text/story)?

8. What can you say in conclusion?

I. Use the following expressions to answer the questions given above:

The plan for reviewing the article (text/story) Some expressions to be used while reviewing the article (text/story)
1. The title of the article (text/story). The article (text/story) is entitled (headlined) … . The title (headline/heading) of the article (text/story) I’ve read is …
2. The author (writer/narrator/correspondent) of the article (text/story); where and when the article (text/story) was published (written). The author (writer/narrator/correspondent) of the article (text/story) is … The article (text/story) is written by … It is (was) published (written) in … It is (was) printed in … .
3. The main idea of the article (text/story). The main idea of the article (text/story) is … . The article (text/story) is about/is devoted to/ deals with/ is concerned with/touches upon … . The purpose (aim/goal/objective) of the article (text/story) is to give/provide the reader some information/material/data on … .
4. The contents of the article (text/story). Some facts, names, figures. a) The author (writer/narrator/correspondent) starts by telling the readers (about, that) … . b) The author (writer/narrator/corres-pondent) writes (states/stresses/thinks/points out) that … . The article (text/story) describes … . c) According to the text (article/story) … . Further the author reports (informs/says) that … . The article (text/story) goes on to say that … .
5. Your opinion of the article (text/story). From my viewpoint (in my opinion/to my mind/I think/believe/consider) I’ve found the article (text/story) interesting (important/dull/informative/knowledgeable/of practical use/of no value/too hard to understand …)

 

II. Complete your story with the help of the expressions given below:

1. The article (text/story) ends with…

2. The author (writer/narrator/correspondent) comes to the conclusion…

3. In conclusion the author (writer/narrator/correspondent) …

4. At the end of the article (text/story) the author (writer/narrator/correspondent) sums it up…

 

III. The plan for reviewing a newspaper article (text/story):

1. The title (headline/heading) of the article (text/story)

2. Where and when the article (text/story) was published (written)

3. The author (writer/narrator/correspondent) of the article (text/story) (if stated)

4. The main idea of the article (text/story) (some names, facts, figures)

5. The conclusion of the article (text/story)


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