The Seasons in Town and in the Country

Spring: a wonderful season; lovely spring mornings (days); April showers, March winds bring warm weather; get warmer and warmer; break into leaf (of trees); the first flowers; green grass; everything comes to life; the best time for walks in the country.

Summer: hot; cool; dry; fine weather; shine brightly (of the sun); blue skies; go on a holiday; leave town; go to the country (seaside, etc); go swimming (boating, etc); lie in the sun; brown as a berry; wear light clothes (frocks, shorts, T-shirts, etc); enjoy oneself immensely; have a good time; summer is only too short.

Autumn: Indian summer; be over; rain hard; a thick fog; awful (beastly) weather; a dull (wet, etc) morning; change for the worse; wear a raincoat and carry an umbrella; leaves cover the ground like a thick carpet; grey, cloudy skies; wet, slippery roads.

Winter: a heavy snowfall; everything is white with snow; the ground is covered with snow; not a single leaf on the trees; no birds singing in the woods; a hard frost; bright sunshine; cold, but pleasant weather; go skiing (skating); be good for one's health; have a wonderful time.

Meeting a Friend in the Street


go by car; heavy traffic; move slowly; stop at the traffic lights;

see a friend; walk along the street; stop at the side of the street; get out of the car; stop to say "Hallo" to an old friend; know each other well enough; discuss personal (business, etc) matters; offer one's friend a lift.

Off to the Theatre


have two tickets; invite a friend; come home from work; shave; change one's shirt (tie, socks, etc); put on a clean shirt; clean one's shoes; brush one's coat (suit, etc); leave home; have little time; go by taxi; arrive at the theatre; meet sb at the entrance; find out at the last moment; be sure that....

At the Theatre


take one's seat in the hall; watch the play with interest; be fond of such plays; like the play very much; the play discusses matters of great importance; describe life in a small village (big town, etc); give the true story behind the events; walk home; thank sb for a lovely evening.


Ex 60 Discuss the following, giving your arguments for or against.


1. The climate has an effect on people.

2 The weather has helped to form the English character.

3. Your friend says that manners make the man. What do you think?

4. There are many who think that it is clothes that make the man (particularly the woman).

5. You like travelling by air, your friends like travelling by train. You think that flying is not only faster, but also much safer.

6. You like meeting and talking to strangers. You say that it helps you to learn more about people and the world.

Ex 61 Subjects for oral and written composition.


1. Explain why the English say: "Other countries have a climate, in England we have weather."

2. Describe your city: (a) in winter (autumn, summer, spring); (b) on a cold frosty morning; (c) on a bright sunny day.

3. My favourite season.

4. Describe a journey by train (plane, boat).

5. There is an English proverb which says: "Other times, other manners." Give an example of how manners change with the times.

6. People often enter into conversation when they are travelling in a train or on a boat. How would you explain this?


Text: At Home (from "A Kind of Loving" by Stan Barstow)1

Grammar: The Perfect Tense Forms (Present, Past and Future). Reported Speech. Sequence of Tenses (contd).



The bus I catch doesn't go up the hill and when I get off at the corner I catch the smell of fish and chips and I cross the road and call at the shop and buy a fish and four penn'orth2 of chips. I eat them out of the paper as I'm going up the hill. I really like fish and chips and there's no better way of eating them than in the open air. They last me till I get to the gate.

It's half past ten and the Old Lady and the Old Man3 are sitting with the table-lamp on watching television when I go in.

"Do you want some supper?" the Old Lady asks me.

"I've had some fish and chips on my way."

"You'll want a drink of something, I suppose?"

"It's all right; don't bother; I'll make some cocoa."

I go into the kitchen and make the cocoa and bring it back into the living-room and sit down on the sofa at the back and light a cigarette. I'm thinking about Ingrid as I watch the picture4 that's on TV. I'm wondering what happened that she didn't come to meet me.

"Where've you been?" the Old Lady says in a minute.


"By yourself?"

"With Willy Lomas."

"Willy Lomas? I don't think I know him, do I?"

"I used to6 go to school with him."

"I don't know why you pay good money to go to the pictures when you can see them at home for nothing," says the Old Man.

"You can't show colour6 and Cinemascope on TV."


"Wide screen..... bigger."

"But they're pictures, just the same, aren't they?"

I don't bother to argue about it. The picture's finished and there's a toothpaste ad7 on and I get up and throw my cig-end8 in the fire.9

"Going up?"10 the Old Lady says.

"Yes, I'm ready for it. Had a busy day today."

I say good night and go upstairs. There's a light in Jim's room. I go into our bathroom and wash my face and clean my teeth as quickly as I can. As I'm coming out Jim calls me.

"What is it?"

"A letter for you."

I take it and look at it. I look at my name on the envelope and all at once I begin to get excited.

"Where did you get this?"

"I found it behind the front door. Somebody pushed it in while we were watching television. There's no stamp on it."

There's no address on it, either; just my name.

I shut the door behind me11 before I open the letter. "Dear Vie,"12 it says. "My cousin decided to catch a later train and I went with her to the station to see her off. The train was late and it was after half past seven when I got back. I went to where we'd arranged to meet but of course you'd gone. I'm going to be at the same place tomorrow night. (Sunday). I hope you can come. Love,13




1. Stan Barstow was born in 1928 in the West Riding of Yorkshire, England, in the family of a coal-miner. "A Kind of Loving" was his first published novel, and came out in 1960. He has also written "Ask Me Tomorrow", published in 1962.

2. four penn'orth: four pennyworth на четыре пенса eg She bought two roubles' worth of apples. Она купила на два рубля яблок.

3. the Old Lady and the Old Man: a familiar way of speaking of one's parents

4. picture: a cinematograph film; pictures (BrE) =movies (AmE); the cinema

5. (used (followed by to+Infinitive): бывало; когда-то (знал, работал и т. д.)

We use this for repeated action in the past, generally with the idea that the action is finished now. Eg I used to go to school with him (but I don't now).

6. colour: technicolour цветной (о фильме)

7 . ad: advertisement реклама

8. cig-end: cigarette-end окурок

9. fire: here огонь камина

Many English homes still have fireplaces with open fires to warm up the room in cold weather.

10. Going up?: Going upstairs? Going to bed?

The traditional English one-family house has two storeys: upstairs and downstairs. The bedrooms and bathroom are always upstairs. Downstairs are the living room, dining room and kitchen.

11. I shut the door behind me: Я закрываю за собой дверь. Note that in English this construction with behind will always have a personal pronoun in the objective case.

12. Vic: short for "Victor". The boy's full name is Victor Brown.

13. Love: this is usually written at the end of a letter to a friend. Corresponds to the Russian с приветом.


kind n вид, род, сорт different kinds of books (goods, trees, etc) What kind of a man (student, etc) is he? Что он за человек (студент и т. п.)?

catch vt (caught) 1. ловить, поймать; схватить; уловить catch a ball (bird, fish; sb's idea, etc); catch sb by the hand; 2. поспеть, попасть на автобус (поезд и т. п.) catch a bus (train, etc) Phr catch (a) cold простудиться

cross vt переходить, пересекать (улицу, дорогу, реку и т. п.) cross a street (road, river, etc); crossing n перекресток; переход (через улицу); переезд по воде, переправа; пересечение

worth а стоящий; заслуживающий (внимания и т. п.) The coat is worth the money you paid for it. They worked hard but it was worth it. Phr be worth doing стоит сделать The film is worth seeing.

real а настоящий, подлинный; действительный real gold (silk, etc); a real friend (hero, etc); the real truth; reality n действительность, реальность; really adv действительно, на самом деле Do you really think so?

way n 1. путь, дорога a long (short, hard, etc) way; You have taken the right (wrong) way... Phr on the (one's) way home (to some place) по дороге домой; on the (one's) way back на обратном пути; Phr by the way кстати, между прочим; 2. способ, средство, метод, манера, образ действия I'll find a way to do it. I don't like his way of speaking. What is the quickest way of learning (to learn) a foreign language?

last vi 1. длиться, продолжаться How long did the meeting (lecture, concert, rain, trip, etc) last? 2. хватать (быть в достаточном количестве) The money (food, etc) will last them till the end of the month(for a whole week, etc).

happen vi случаться, происходить How did it happen? The story happened two years ago. What's happened to (with) him?

pay vt (paid) платить How much did they pay (you) for the article? pay n плата, зарплата What's your pay? payment n уплата, платеж, плата to make payment производить платеж

same indef pron тот же самый; такой же the same book (room, town, day, man, etc) Phr just (all) the same все равно It's all the same to me.

throw vt (threw, thrown) бросать, кидать; throw sth to (at) sb бросать что-н кому-н (в кого-н)

be excited волноваться; get excited разволноваться Everybody was excited by the news. Don't get excited! He волнуйтесь! excitement n волнение, возбуждение; exciting а волнующий, захватывающий an exciting story (speech, film, book, moment, event, etc); excited взволнованный, возбужденный an excited voice (face, child, etc)

behind prep за, позади (кого-н/чего-н) (also fig.) He left the room and closed the door behind him. What's behind his words (actions, etc)? Phr leave sb/sth behind оставлять

push vt толкать push a door (car, boat, person) (also fig); push n толчок give a push

just adv 1. точно, как раз, именно This is just the book I want; 2. только, всего лишь Не is just a child.

decide vt решать decide a question, etc; We decided to stay in town. They haven't yet decided what to do (where to go; etc); decision n решение Phr take (make) a decision принять решение; decisive а решающий a decisive moment (step, argument, event, etc)

arrange vt 1. устраивать, организовывать; договариваться arrange a party (meeting, trip, etc); We've arranged to meet on Saturday. I've arranged for a meeting next week. 2. приводить в порядок; расставлять (книги, мебель и т. п.) arrange one's business (plans, etc); arrange books (furniture, etc); arrangement n 1. соглашение, договоренность There is an arrangement between them about the price (payment, etc) Phr have (make) an arrangement (with sb) уславливаться, договариваться (с кем-н); 2. pl приготовления, мероприятия, планы Phr make arrangements (for sth) делать приготовления (к чем-н)

hope vi надеяться I hope to see you soon. We hope that everything will be all right. Phr hope for the better надеяться на лучшее; hope n надежда have some (little, strong, no, etc) hope for sth



get off, выходить (из автобуса, поезда и т. п.)

get on садиться (на автобус, поезд и т. п.)

call at some place заходить куда-н; call on sb заходить к кому-н

in the open air на (свежем) воздухе (не в помещении)

be on 1. идти (о фильме, концерте и т.п.); 2. быть включенным, работать (о радио, телевизоре, свете и т. п.)

all right 1. хорошо, ладно (выражает одобрение, согласие); 2. все хорошо, все в порядке

I suppose я полагаю (думаю, считаю)

light a cigarette закурить

by oneself сам, один, самостоятельно

see sb off (to some place) провожать кого-н (куда-н)

see sb home провожать кого-н домой



Ex 1 Answer the following questions.


1. Why did Victor get off at the corner? 2. What did he buy at the little shop? 3. How did he like eating his fish and chips? 4. When did Victor get home? 5. What were his parents doing when he came in? 6. Why didn't he want any supper? 7. What was he thinking about as he watched TV? 8. What surprise did Victor's brother have for him? 9. Why did Victor get excited when he saw his name on the envelope? 10. Where had Jim found the letter? 11. Why did Victor shut the door behind him before opening the letter? 12. Who'd written the letter? 13. What did the letter say?

Ex 2 Look through the text once again, and:


1. Say how old you think Victor is and what he does.

2. Explain why Victor did not tell the whole truth to his parents.

3. Say if you believe Victor had really been to the pictures, or not.

4. Describe Victor's mood when he returns home, and how it changes when he gets the letter.

5. Give as much background information about the Brown family as you possibly can.

Ex 3 Find in the text the English for:


поспеть на автобус; сойти на углу; почувствовать запах; перейти улицу; зайти в магазин; сидеть при зажженной лампе; приготовить какао; пойти на кухню; сесть на диван; закурить; учиться в школе вместе с кем-н; платить деньги; смотреть кино; широкий экран; пожелать спокойной ночи; умываться; чистить зубы; парадная дверь; закрыть за собой дверь; распечатать письмо; поехать более поздним поездом; там, где мы договорились встретиться; на том же (старом) месте.

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