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Ex 55 Discuss the following, giving your arguments for or against.




 

1. Your friend says that men make houses and women make homes. You believe that nowadays both men and women make houses and the role of the men in making a home is as important as that of a woman.

2. You think that many illnesses result from overeating, and that three meals a day is quite enough for a person. Your friend says that a young, growing person must eat four or five times a day.

3. Your friend says that all great men kept diaries. He believes, in fact, that all people should keep diaries. Diaries are important written documents for future historians. You say you have nothing to write in a diary. He disagrees with you.

4. Your friend says that it is not at all necessary to read newspapers, it is quite enough to watch tv. The news programme, he believes, has all the news you may want in it.

Ex 56 Subjects for oral and written composition.

 

1. Describe a day in the life of an Englishman.

2. Say what newspaper this particular Englishman is likely to read. Give your reasons.

3. Say whether you think this particular Englishman works at an office or at a factory. Give your reasons.

4. Describe your working day.

5. Speak oh things you like doing, and why.

6. Speak on your hobby.

7. Describe what you usually do in the evening on a week-day, on a Saturday or Sunday.

8. Explain the proverb: "Home is where the heart is."

 

 


LESSON THREE

Text: More about the English.

Grammar: The Continuous Tense Forms (Present, Past and Future).

Reported Speech. Sequence of Tenses (contd).

Degrees of Comparison of Adverbs.

MORE ABOUT THE ENGLISH

 

Like any other country Britain has its manners and customs as well as reputation.

Foreigners often say that in English trains people never speak to each other. But this, of course, is not true.

Not long ago I was travelling to London. In my compartment there were many passengers and they talked to each other almost all the time. They told each other where they lived, where they were going and, of course, talked about the weather. As soon as the train started a little girl, sitting by the window, called out: "We're off!" I found out that she was going to her aunt's in Chiswick.1 "It's somewhere near the Thames but I don't know exactly where... Shall we be passing anywhere near it?" "Chiswick? That's easy to find. You can get to it on the Tube. I'll show you where to go when we arrive," I told her.

"Goodness,2 how fast the train is going!" said an old lady. "Do they go so fast in foggy weather and at night?" Her neighbour smiled, took out a book and began to read. Here was a typical Englishman: during the whole journey he did not say a single word. But as we arrived in London, he got up, and turning to the lady he said with a strong accent: "Excuse me. I do not understand English. I am from Poland."

The English people often say something about the weather when they begin a conversation with strangers. In fact, people talk about the weather more in Britain than in most parts of the world. For one thing, the weather in Britain changes very quickly. One day may be fine and the next day may be wet. When you go to bed the stars may be shining brightly and when you wake up it may be raining heavily. You can never be quite sure what the weather is going to be like. The English often say "Other countries have a climate, in England we have weather." For another thing, the weather is a safe topic for conversation. When two Englishmen meet, if they can't think of anything else to talk about or if they don't know each other well enough to discuss personal matters, they talk about the weather.

If it's nice and warm and the sun is shining brightly, a person usually says, "It's a lovely morning, isn't it?" or "Isn't it hot today?", and the answer is "Yes, it's wonderful weather we're having." After a night of heavy snowfall and hard frost he may say: "A cold morning, isn't it?", and the answer is "Yes, we're having a very cold winter."

Or perhaps the day is dull; it is raining a little, the sky is grey and cloudy, and everyone is wearing a raincoat or carrying an umbrella. As it gets darker a thick fog covers London. Cars and buses put on their lights and move slowly along the wet, slippery roads. As one friend meets another the usual remark is, "Isn't the weather awful!"

As the weather changes so often, it is of course quite important. It plays a big part in the lives of the British people.. Every daily newspaper publishes a weather forecast. Both the radio and the television broadcast news about the weather several times each day.

NOTES

1. Chiswick: a small town in Middlesex, England.

2. Goodness: an exclamation of surprise or wonder боже мой1 батюшки!

VOCABULARY

true a 1. правдивый, правильный a true story (fact, description, etc); 2. верный, преданный a true friend (comrade, etc) He is a true friend of our family (to me). Phr come true сбытьс€ His dreams came true; truth n истина, правда Phr tell the truth сказать правду; по правде говор€; (un)truthful а (не) правдивый.

travel vi путешествовать travel by train (plane, air, sea, etc) He travelled all over the world (round the country, etc); travel n путешествие He told us about his travels. Phr go on a travel (trip, journey); a book of travels; a travel film

start vi 1. отправл€тьс€, трогатьс€ (в путь) We shall start in five minutes. Phr start on a trip (journey) отправитьс€ в путешествие; start for some place (Leningrad, etc) vi/vt; 2. начинатьс€ start work (a conversation, a discussion, a war, etc) Classes start at nine; start to do (doing) sth; start n начало Phr from start to finish=from beginning to end

pass vt/vi 1. проходить, проезжать (мимо) Ќе passed me and didn't say a word. What town will the train be passing? 2. проходить (о времени) Time passes very quickly. 3. сдать (экзамен) Ќе passed his examinations well.

arrive vi прибывать, приезжать arrive in a country (city, big town); arrive at a station (village, hotel, etc); arrival n прибытие

fast а быстрый a fast runner (game, etc); a fast train скорый поезд; My watch is ten minutes fast (slow) ћои часы спешат (отстают) на 10 минут; fast adv быстро walk (read, think, move, etc) fast

whole а весь, целый (употр. только как определение) the whole world (town, day, book, group, etc); the whole of Europe (Asia, etc) Phr on the whole в целом. On the whole you are right.

turn vt/vi 1. поворачивать(с€) Ќе turned (his head) and said something. She turned and left the room. Phr turn (to the) right/left (round the corner); 2. обращатьс€ к кому-н (с вопросом, за советом, за помощью и т. п.) turn to sb with a question (for advice, for help, etc)

stranger n незнакомец, чужой (человек) Ќе is a stranger here (to me, to the place); strange a 1. незнакомый, неизвестный а strange face (voice, place, etc); 2. странный, необычный a strange question (look, thing, story, idea, etc) There is something strange about the man (place, etc).

change vt 1. (из)мен€ть, мен€ть; обменивать change a plan (one's address, one's name; one's clothes, etc) Can you change a five rouble note?; vi 2. измен€тьс€, мен€тьс€ The weather changes very often in England. Phr change for the better (worse); changeable а непосто€нный, изменчивый, неустойчивый changeable weather; a changeable climate (situation; person, etc); 3. делать пересадку change to a bus(for another Metro line); change n изменение, перемена Phr make changes (in sth) вносить изменени€ (во что-н); for a change дл€ разнообрази€ I'll take fruit soup today for a change.

wake vi (woke, woken) up 1. просыпатьс€; vt 2. (раз)будить (кого-н) Wake me up at seven o'clock, please.

sure а уверенный Are you sure of his knowledge? Perhaps they'll come but I am not quite sure about it. I am sure (that) everything will be all right. Phr be sure of oneself быть самоуверенным. Phr make sure убедитьс€, удостоверитьс€. Ќе made sure that the door was closed. Phr for sure наверн€ка I know it for sure; surely adv конечно, несомненно

(un)safe а (не)безопасный, (не)надежный a safe topic (subject, place, hour, etc) Don't drive so fast, it's not safe; safely adv безопасно

matter n дело, вопрос an important (different, personal, business, etc) matter What's the matter? ¬ чем дело? „то случилось? What's the matter with you? „то с ¬ами? There is something the matter with sb/sth Phr it's a matter of time (chance, taste, principle, etc) это дело времени (случа€, вкуса, принципа и т. п.)

hard a 1. жесткий, твердый Is this wood hard or soft? 2. трудный, т€желый hard work; a hard man (life, time, day, task, etc); 3. сильный (о морозе, ветре, дожде и т. п.) a hard frost (wind, rain, etc); hard adv 1. усердно, упорно, напр€женно work (study, think, etc) hard; 2. сильно It was raining hard yesterday.

dull a 1. скучный, неинтересный a dull book (film, party, life, man, etc); 2. пасмурный (о погоде) dull weather; a dull morning (day, etc)

wear vt/vi (wore, worn) носить(с€) (об одежде) She is wearing a new dress today. This material wears well; worn-out поношенный, старый worn-out clothes (shoes, etc)

cover vt 1. покрывать; прикрывать, закрывать Dark clouds covered the sky. She covered her eyes with her hands. Phr be covered (with) быть покрытым The ground is covered with dry leaves; 2. (fig) охватывать, относитьс€ (к чему-н) What events does the article cover?

move vt двигать, передвигать move a table (chair, etc); vi двигатьс€, передвигатьс€; переезжать Ќе was too weak to move. When are you moving to the new flat? Phr move in (out) въехать в новую квартиру (выехать из квартиры); movement n движение I heard some movement in the other room. a revolutionary (labour, national, youth, etc) movement

publish vt публиковать; издавать, опубликовывать publish a newspaper (book, magazine, etc); publish news (advertisements, etc), a publishing house (office) издательство

broadcast vt (broadcast) передавать по радио; вести передачу; вещать broadcast news (an opera, a concert, a football match, sb's speech, weather report, etc); broadcast (= broadcasting) n радиовещание

WORD COMBINATIONS

as well as еще, в дополнение (к), также

call out крикнуть, выкрикнуть

for one thing с одной стороны; for another (thing) с другой стороны

put on (out) the lights зажигать (тушить) свет

play a big (small, important, etc) part in sth играть большую (малую, важную и т. п.) роль в чем-н

weather forecast прогноз погоды

EXERCISES

COMPREHENSION

Ex 1 Answer the following questions.

 

1. What reputation do the English have among foreigners? 2. Where was the author going one day? 3. What did the passengers in his compartment talk about? 4. Why did the author describe one of the passengers as a typical Englishman? 5. Why didn't this passenger say a single word during the whole journey to London? 6. How do the English people usually start a conversation with strangers? 7. Why is the weather always a safe topic for conversation? 8. What is the usual remark for good (bad, cold) weather? 9. What does London look like on a rainy day? (When a thick fog covers the city?)

Ex 2 Look through the text once again, and see if you can find facts to prove that:

 

1. Every country has its own reputation.

2. People in Britain talk about the weather more than in any other country in the world.

3. The weather, good or bad, is the safest subject for conversation with strangers as well as with friends.

4. The English are rather proud of their weather.

5. The weather is really important to the British.

Ex 3 Pick out words and expressions from the text, and group them under the following headings.

 

1. Travelling by train. 2. Good weather. 3. Bad weather. 4. Talking to strangers. 5. Driving in bad weather.

Ex 4 Find in the text the English for:

 

нравы и обычаи страны; в поезде; купе вагона; пассажир; говорить о погоде; ночью, вытащить книгу; в течение всей поездки; не проронить ни слова; говорить с сильным акцентом; зав€зать разговор с незнакомым человеком; быстро мен€тьс€; ложитьс€ спать; светить €рко; безопасна€ тема дл€ разговора; обсуждать личные дела; великолепное утро; прекрасна€ погода; сильный снегопад; сильный мороз; холодна€ зима; мрачный день; серое, зат€нутое тучами небо; идти под зонтиком; густой туман; зажечь фары; медленно продвигатьс€; мокра€ скользка€ дорога; ужасна€ погода; играть большую роль в чьей-л жизни, ежедневна€ газета; публиковать прогноз погоды.





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