Защита диссертации, защищать диссертацию

It should be noted that there is nothing of this kind in England, although the oral (examination) or viva fulfills basically the same function. Defend and defense can be used as translations, so long as one bears in mind that they are not real equivalents. In some cases one can avoid the difficulty by re-phrasing the sentence.


В 2001 году он защитил кандидатскую/докторскую


In 2001 he was awarded his candidate's/doctor's degree.



The most detailed definition of this word is given by Webster: "studious inquiry or examination, esp. investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws."

In higher educational establishments research is often contrasted with teaching.


A. The job combines teaching and research.

B. He spent so much time on teaching that there was not much left for research.

Research can be translated as исследование, (научно-)исследовательская работа, научная работа or наука, depending on the context.

The word research is usually uncountable, as in the examples given above. A particular investigation is not called a research but a piece of research (or an investigation/study). Sometimes, however, research is used countably in the plural.


a. His researches produced some interesting results.

Research may also be used as a verb, often into.


b. He is researching into theorigin of language

problem of air pollution .



More often, however, the expressions to do research or to be engaged in research are used in this sense (see below).

The prepositions on, in and into are used with the noun research, as follows.

On is used with a more or less specific subject.


c. I'm doing research on place names / Shelley / the history of the trade union movement.

In is used with the field of investigation.

d. He is famous for his research in linguistics / history / microbiology.


Into occurs less often, mainly with words such as problem, cause,relation, origin.

E. Recent research into the causes of heart disease has led

To some important discoveries.


Research is used in the following expressions: to do research (on/in/into smth.)


a. He's doing research on programmed learning.

B. Very little research has been done in this field.

To do research with no adverbial modifier specifying the sub­ject or field often means to be a postgraduate student, or, as this is also called, a research student.

C. Students who get first-class degrees are usually given the

opportunity to (stay on and/to) do research.

d. What are you going to do next year?

I've applied to do research but I won't know whether I’ve been

Accepted or not until the end of the month.

to be engaged in research (on/in/into smth.)

This has the same meaning as to do research but is confined to formal style and is not used in the sense of to be a research student.


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