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The Scout Association was formed in 1908 by General Baden Powell. His idea was to train boys in mapping, signaling, knotting, first aid and

all the skills that would arise from camping and outdoor activities. Most

important of all for a Scout was to make a promise that he would do his best

to do his duty to.

The Boy Scouts had a left-handed handshake, a special badge and the

motto УBe PreparedФ. The Scout Law embraces Уhonour, obedience, cheer- fulness, thrift and cleanliness in thought and deed.

The Scout movement was intended for boys from 11 to 14 (15), but in

1916 Baden Powell introduced a programme for younger people. He called

them Wolf Cubs. They had special uniforms, badges, a special training sys-

tem and the motto УDo your best!Ф. The Wolf Cub pack is based on KiplingТs

УJungle BookФ about learning to survive.

The Girl Guides Association was founded by Baden Pawell in 1910. ItТs

divided into three sections: Brownies (from 7.5 to 11), Guides (from 11 to

16), Rangers (from 16 to 21). The programme of training is planned to de- velop intelligence and practical skills including cookery, needlework, child- care. Like a Scout a Girl Guide must be a friend to animals.

There are some other non-political organizations: the Combined Cadet Force, Sea Cadet Corps, the Woodcraft Folk, the Youth Hostels Associa-

tion, the National Federation of Young Farmers Clubs, Greenpeace.

There are several youth organizations associated with political parties. The Youth Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament (YCND) unites young peo-

ple and organizes mass rallies and meetings, demonstrations, marches of

protest, festivals. It co-operates with the National Union of Students.

Religious young organizations and groups aim at helping to elderly

people or working in hospitals. There are even groups where young people

help released prisoners to start then life a-new. Religious organizations pay attention not only to the study of religious views but involve youth into such activities as music festivals and amateur theatre.

As you see, all there organizations aim at preserving and strengthening the social and political system existing in the country. Many of them have done and still are doing useful work in providing leisure facilities for young English people.


6. Reading and writing

Read the note from www.helium.com and write an essay of solving this problem.


- When I was at school bullies made it clear almost immediately they r never liked me because I had the ability to speak two languages and I was


k Bullies try and get into your mind by intimidation and power in num-

d bers. Bullies are cowards and are weak they hunt in packs in order to gain

m a reputation status that they believe makes them popular. Bullies can com-

municate within a school either during a break, toilets, mobiles and more e and they can plan attacks on others or ways to cause as much mayhem as


m Bullies are not friends to people; they are like the devil in the mind and

l they try and get in there and poison you.

e Discipline in the 60Тs and before then was so good that people were too scared to commit any offence due to simple items like the cane and rulers.

e The humiliation of the class was enough to stop that behaviour and bullies r are people who need tougher penalties.

t I believe if you get a bully and teach them the right and wrong ways

n of their behaviour you can perhaps improve them. Leave them in jail for

a day to experience the lifestyle and what is to come if they continue their t behaviour.

e This is easier said than done and how I dealt with the bullies was to ig-

n nore them when they spoke to me and tried to keep away. But when you are

p hurting all the time and too scared to visit a school you have to try and get

support. As long as youТre telling people at least youТre trying.

r My advice is to always tell someone youТre being bullied. Keep away s from them and their friends and just go about life as normal and eventually e they either get fed up or they get found out.

y Bullies are cowards, bullies are weak and they are scared themselves.

I believe to stop them is to go above them and show your mental strength e and do things the right way.

- Experience pays and you need to learn that consequences have actions o and if you do the right things, reporting the problems and avoiding them s you have a better chance of becoming a better person afterwards.


l 7. summary

Do ex. 8, p. 225.


e 8. Homework

d Do ex. 5, p. 231.







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