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Множественное число имен существительных




 

Произно­шение -(e)s В каких случаях Примеры
[s] После глухих согласных book книга lamp лампа à   à books [s] книги lamps [s] лампы
[z] 1. После звонких соглас­ных и гласных     2. У после гласной   3. Если существительное оканчивается на -о 4. Если существительное оканчивается на -f, -fe (-f, -fe переходят в -v-) room комната girl девочка bee пчела boy мальчик hero герой life жизнь à   à   à   à   à   à rooms [z] комнаты girls [z] девочки bees[z] пчелы boys [z] мальчики heroes [z] герои lives [z] жизни
[Iz] 1. Если существительное оканчивается на -s, -ss, -x, -sh, -ch, -tch, во множест­венном числе прибавляет­ся -es 2. Y после согласной (-у переходит в -i)+es bus автобус box коробка family семья à   à   à buses [iz] автобусы boxes [iz] коробки families [iz] семьи

 

Особые случаи образования множественного

Числа существительных

Единственное число Множественное число
person [pWsn] – человек man [mxn] - мужчина woman ['wumen] - женщина child [tSaIld] - ребёнок foot [fut] - нога tooth [tHT] - зуб people [pJpl] - люди men [men] - мужчины women ['wImIn] - женщины children ['tSIldren] - дети feet [fi:t] - ноги teeth [tJT] - зубы

 


Хронологические даты

Годы, в отличие от русского языка, обозначаются коли­чественными числительными следующим образом:

1900 - nineteen hundred

1905 - nineteen oh five

1999 - nineteen ninety-nine

 

но

2000 - two thousand

2006 - two thousand and six

 

Мы пишем: 3/6/1999 or 3 June 1999

Мы говорим: The third of June nineteen ninety-nine.

or

June the third, nineteen ninety-nine.

 


Числительные

Количественные

1—12 13—19 20—90 100 и далее
1 one 2 two 3 three 4 four 5 five 6 six 7 seven 8 eight 9 nine 10 ten 11 eleven 12 twelve 13 thirteen 14 fourteen 15 fifteen 16 sixteen 17 seventeen 18 eighteen 19 nineteen 20 twenty 21 twenty-one 22 twenty-two и т. д. 30 thirty 40 forty 50 fifty 60 sixty 70 seventy 80 eighty 90 ninety 100 a (one) hundred 101 a (one) hundred and one 102 a (one) hundred and two и т. д. 200 two hundred 300 three hundred 400 four hundred и т. д. 1.000 a (one) thousand 1.001 a (one) thousand and one 1,250 a (one) thousand two hun­dred and fifty 2.000 two thousand 2.001 two thousand and one 2,235 two thousand two hundred and thirty-five 3,000 three thousand 4,000 four thousand 100,000 a (one) hundred thousand 1,000,000 a (one) million 1,000,000,000 a (one) milliard (в Англии); a (one) billion (в США)

 

Порядковые

1-й—12-й 13-й—19-й 20-й—90-й 100-й и далее
1st first 2nd second 3rd third 4th fourth 5th fifth 6th sixth 7th seventh 8th eighth 9th ninth 10th tenth 11th eleventh 12th twelfth 13th thirteenth 14th fourteenth 15th fifteenth 16th sixteenth 17th seventeenth 18th eighteenth 19th nineteenth 20th twentieth 21st twenty-first 22nd twenty-second и т д. 30th thirtieth 40th fortieth 50th fiftieth 60th sixtieth 70th seventieth 80th eightieth 90th ninetieth 100th hundredth 101st hundred and first 102nd hundred and second и т.д. 200th two hundredth 201st two hundred and first и т д. 300th three hundredth 400th four hundredth и т.д. 1,000th thousandth 1,001st thousand and first 1,002nd thousand and second и т.д. 1,000,000th millionth

 


ABC
Печатный шрифт Рукописный шрифт Название буквы Звук
A a A a [eI] [eI]
B b B b [bJ] [b]
C c C c [sJ] [s] - e,i,y [k]
D d D d [dJ] [d]
E e E e [J] [J]
F f F f [ef] [f]
G g G g [dZJ] [G] – e,i,y [g]
H h H h [eItS] [h]
I i I i [aI] [aI]
J j J j [dZeI] [G]
K k K k [keI] [k]
L l L l [el] [l]
M m M m [em] [m]
N n N n [en] [n]
O o O o [Ou] [Ou]
P p P p [pJ] [p]
Q q Q q [kjH] - qu - [kw]
R r R r [R] [r]
S s S s [es] [s] [z]
T t T t [tJ] [t]
U u U u [jH] [jH]
V v V v [vJ] [v]
W w W w ['dAbl jH] [w]
X x X x [eks] [ks] [gz]
Y y Y y [waI] [aI]
Z z Z z [zed] [z]

Сводная таблица чтения четырех основных

Типов ударных слогов.

Тип слога Буквы        
a[eI] [eI] pane [x] pan [R] par [eq] pare
o[Ou] [Ou] tope [O] top [L] tor [L] tore
e[J] [J] he [e] hen     her     bird   [W]
 
 


Byrd

 

curt

 

[Iq] here
i[aI]     y[waI]   bide   [aI]
 
 


by

  bid   [I]
 
 


blyth

  dire   [aIq]
 
 


byre

u[jH] [jH] cute [A] cut [jHq] cure

 

 

Таблица чтения четырех основных типов ударных слогов
                 
A a [eI] a [x] ar [R] are [eq] E e [J] e [e] er [W] ere [Iq]
pane pan par pare he hen her here
spate spat spar spare mete met mer mere
cape cap car care seme set serve sere
mane man mar mare we wet stern stere
Dane dan darn dare        
hate hat hart hare        
bane ban barn bare        
fate fat fart fare        
          I i(Y y) [aI] i(y) [I] i(y)r [W] i(y)re [aIq]
        fine fin fir fire
          pine pin pirn pire
        spite spit spirt spire
        hide hid hirst hire
        bide bid Byrd byre
        syce cyst sir sire
        try tryst hyrst tyre
O o [Ou] o [O] or [L] ore [L]        
tope top tor tore          
bone bon born bore          
code cod cord core        
lope lop lord lore U u [jH] u [A] ur [W] ure [jHq]
mote mot mort more cute cut curt cure
pope pop port pore huke hull hurl hure
tote tot tort tore cube cub curb cure
note not nor snore tune tun pur pure

 


Сочетания гласных

 

A a ai – [eI] – ay au - [L] - aw ai + r [eq]
  mail plain sail pain lain wail may play say pay lay way autumn August haunt haul maul fault awful lawn dawn law saw paw air pair fair hair stair lair
E e ei – [eI] – ey eu – [jH] - (i)ew ee - [J] - ea
  lei vein veil feint deign feign ley hey fey bey grey they feud deuce neutral feudal neuter Euclid few pew dew new mew view see been meet heel peel week sea bean meat heal peal weak
ea - [e] –перед d l(th) sant sure ee + r - [Iq] - ea + r ea + r [W] + согласная
dead head lead bread spread stead health wealth breath death leather weather peasant pleasant pheasant   pleasure treasure measure deer seer sneer leer peer veer dear ear near clear spear fear earn learn earl pearl earth bearth
O o oi - [OI] - oy ou - [au] – ow + согласная ow – [Ou] – в конце слова ou – [L] + gh + t – [Lt]
  oil soil spoil coin loin join boy toy hoy joy enjoy employ out rout house noun loud cloud owl scowl brown town down crown low tow snow grow fellow window ought nought bought brought fought sought
oo – [H] oo - [u] + k oa – [Ou] - oe oo + r - [L] - oa + r ou + r – [auq]
cool pool tool toon root spoon cook took hook look rook spook boat coat soap coast road roast toe foe doe floe woe throe door floor poor spoor poor floor oar boar board soar roar coarse our sour dour flour lour scour
                   

Сочетания согласных

(t)ch - [tS] chess, chat, chut, hatch, latch, match
sh – [S] ash, dash, cash, dish, fish, fresh
ck - [k] pack, stack, slack, lock, clock, block
gh – [-] eight, light, right, high, weigh, sigh
gn – [n] sign,design
kn – [n] knife, knock, knot, knob, knop, knit
mb – [m] comb, bomb
mn – [m] autumn, hymn
ng – [N] long, song, thing, lung, sung, stung
nk – [Nk] ink, pink, think, drink, drunk, trunk,
ph – [f] phone, phase, alphabet, photograph
qu – [kw] quick, quite, question
th – [D] this, these, that, those, gather, bathe
th – [T] thin, thick, myth, math, kith, depth
wh – [w] when, which, why, what, white, while
wh – [h] перед o who, whose, whole
wr – [r] write, wrote, writ, wrist, wrest, wrap

 






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