3) object clauseswhich modify verbs and adjectives as objects
to them and may be introduced by the same conjunctions and con-
junctive words as subject clauses (see above).
e.g. I thought (that) they were joking.
We were sorry (that) we had missed Father by a few minutes.
It was announced over the radio that the flight was delayed.
It was urgent that we should take a decision.
Itis very lucky that you're calling me now.
Iwish you hadn't asked me that.
Hefound it important that they should start on the job right away.
They took it for granted that his theory was correct.
Nobody knew what she meant.
He could not understand why they insisted on such a decision.
Time will show if (whether) he is right.
Itwas not clear what had happenedand who was injured.
4) adverbial clauseswhich function as adverbial modifiers to
verbs and adjectives within the principal clause and may be of the
a) adverbial clauses of timewhich are introduced by the con-
junctions when, while, as, until, till, before, after, since, as soon
as, as long as and some others,
e.g. When they reached the village,Jane got out of the taxi and
looked about her.
I won't leave until you come.
b) adverbial clauses of place and directionwhich are in-
troduced by the conjunction where,
e.g. They stopped where the road turned to the river.
c) adverbialclauses ofcause which are introduced by the con-
junctions because, as, since and some others,
e.g. He was glad to talk to her because it set her at ease.
d) adverbial clauses of purposewhich are introduced by the
conjunctions so that, that, in order that, lest,
e.g. He spoke loudly and clearly so that all could hear him.
e) adverbial clauses of conditionwhich are introduced by the
conjunctions if, in case, unless and some others,
e.g. If we start off now,we'll arrive there by dinner time.
f) adverbial clauses of concessionwhich are introduced by the
conjunctions though, although, even if, even though and wh-pro-
nouns, ending in -ever,
e.g. Although it was very late,she kept the dinner warm on the
Even if the faultis all his, Imust find a way to help him.
Whatever happens,she won't have it her own way.
g) adverbial clauses of consequencewhich are introduced by
the conjunctions that, so ... that, such ... that,
e.g. He was soembarrassed that he could hardly understand her.
h) adverbial clauses of comparisonwhich are introduced by the
conjunctions than, as, as...as, not so (as)...as, as if and as though.
e.g. He now took better care of his old father than he had ever