Words in this function modify verbs, adjectives and adverbs,
specifying the circumstances of a happening.
Adverbial modifiers may be expressed by an adverb, anoun
with a preposition, an infinitive, an ing-iorm with a conjunction
or a preposition, a participle with a conjunction, an adjective with
a conjunction and an absolute construction.
According to their meaning, adverbial modifiers are sub-
1) adverbial modifiers of place and direction,
e.g. He found himself in a lonely street.
The procession moved slowly towards the embankment.
He'll be heretomorrow.
Adverbial modifiers of time,
e.g. I'llgive you a telephone call tonight.
Bring him back on Sunday.
He kept silent a long time before answering.
When tired,he has his supper in his room.
3) adverbial modifiers of frequency,
e.g. He seldomspoke with such frankness.
She has music lessons twice a week.
4) adverbial modifiers of degree,
e.g. He came back home prettylate last night.
The night was very still.
He knows his subject perfectly.
Adverbial modifiers of manner,
e.g. She was crying bitterly.
Hecame here by taxi.
He opened the door with difficulty.
They walked very fast.
The bus passed us without stopping.
Adverbial modifiers of attending circumstances,
e.g. Itis very romantic to take a walk by moonlight.
I don't feel like going out in this weather.
She looked up at him, herface smiling happily.
He lived all by himself in an old house on the river, with all
His family gone and forgotten. Ilooked round the room, thesense of being watched acute
Adverbial modifiers of description,
e.g. Fay's eyes continually moved in his Father's direction, as
Though seeking his approval.The shop was freshly painted, with a large green awning to
Protect the window.He stood there very quietly, his hand outstretched.
Adverbial modifiers of purpose,
e.g. Idid my best to preventher from making a mistake.
Adverbial modifiers of cause,
e.g. Our flight was delayed owing to the storm.
Adverbial modifiers of comparison,
E.g. Shesat still like a statue.He was as ugly as a monkey.
I've got a more difficult problem to solve than finda new
Adverbial modifiers of consequence,
e.g. He had to read only the first ten pages to knowwhat the
book was about.
He was clever enough to understandit.
Iwas too tired to gofor a walk.
12) adverbial modifiers of concession,
e.g. When he returned his wife was still at the table, though pre-
paring to go.
Whatever the reason,she should have come.
Though tired,he agreed to show us the garden.