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Hespoke to Lin on the telephone on Thursday afternoon. Ishall see him tomorrow morning.She was here yesterday afternoon

Note. Compare: We met on Saturday night ('Мы встретились в прошлую суб-
боту вечером') and We met on a Saturday night ('Мы встретились однажды суб-
ботним вечером').

d) There is no article in the following phrases: all day {long)
and all night (through) (but we say: all through thenight and all
theday), day after day, night after night, day in day

out, from morning till night, (to work) day and night, in the dead
of night, late at night
(but early in the morning).

e) There is a tendency to use the nouns denoting parts of the
day without any article in attributive of-phrases. Yet, the definite
article is used when a particular day, night, etc. is meant.

e.g. He always woke up with the first sounds of morning.

After the bombardment he couldn't recognize the street that
had been so familiar to him at the beginning ofthe day.

Names ofSeasons

§ 46. To this group of nouns belong: winter, spring, summer
and autumn (AmE: fall). The use of articles with these nouns pre-
sents great difficulty because we find a good deal of fluctuation

1) The definite article is used with these nouns when reference is
made to a particular winter, spring, summer or autumn present,
past or future, or to a season of a particular year. As a general
rule, this limitation is clear from the situation or context, but it
may also be expressed by a limiting attribute. The nouns usually
have the function of subject in this case.

e.g. The summerwas exceptionally trying in the town.

The winterwas very fine that year and we were very happy.
The summer wore on. He was still working hard.
The autumnof 1914was very warm.

But when these nouns are used as the subject to such com-
monly used verbs as to approach, to be over, to come, to come to
an end, to pass, to set in
and some others, either the definite arti-
cle or no article is found. In this case reference may be made to a
particular season or to the kind of season in general.

e.g. (The) winter came early and unexpectedly with a heavy fall

of snow.

(The) summerwas over but we had not heard from him yet.
In those parts (the) springusually sets in early.

The same fluctuation is observed when names of seasons are
used in general statements as a subject to a nominal predicate.

e.g. (The) winter is very long here.

(The) summer is a rainy season on the island.

2) The definite article is generally found when names of sea-
sons serve as an object in the sentence. This is usually found after
the verbs to hate, to like, to love, to spend, to talk about, to wait
and some others. In this case reference may be made to a par-
ticular season or to the kind of season in general,
e.g. He looks like somebody who spent the summer at the sea.

Dave loves the winter.

I liked the summer there, on account of the bathing, I think.

Sole. Although the use of the definite article is the norm in this case, occa-
sionally no article is found.

3) When names of seasons have a descriptive attribute and are
the centre of communication they are used with the indefinite ar-
ticle (in its aspective function).

e.g. We had a short summer.

He had passed a sluggish winter and a lazy summer.

4) When names of seasons are used as predicatives they have
no article.

e.g. It was summer and the place broke up in red flowers.

However, when these nouns in their predicative function are
modified by a descriptive attribute, the indefinite article is used
(see also point 3 above),
e.g. "It has been a terrible summer," he said.

"It was a remarkably fine autumn," she added.

But the article is not used with names of seasons if they are
modified by the adjectives early and late which do not describe
the season but serve to indicate the time of the year with more
precision. {Early summer means the first month of summer; late
means the last month of autumn.)

e.g. It was early summer.
It was late autumn.

5) There is a great deal of fluctuation in the use of articles
with names of seasons when they are used as adverbial modifiers in
prepositional phrases. After the prepositions in, till, until, before

and after names of seasons may be used either with the definite
article or without any article. Reference again may be made to a
particular season or to the kind of season in general.

e.g. The sun in (the) summer warms the skin, but in (the) winter
when it appears it warms the heart.
In (the) autumn young Ben was to go to a preparatory school.
"Can't you wait until (the) winter?" Sam asked.
I don't think they'll be able to get through with the work be-
fore (the) winter.
But after the prepositions through, for and during the definite
article is to be used.
. Through the autumn, a busy time for me, I was often uneasy.
"Are you going to stay here for the winter?" Jack asked af-
ter a while.
He stayed in Paris during the summer and worked without a
break till autumn was well advanced.
6) In attributive of-phrases names of seasons usually have no
article, as in: the warmth of spring, the dust of summer, three
months of winter, the colours of autumn.

Note. Note the following set phrases used adverbially: (to work) winter and
summer, early (late) in the autumn (summer, etc.), all the winter (spring, etc.).

Names of Meals

§ 47. The group includes the nouns: breakfast, lunch, dinner,
and tea.

1) In the overwhelming majority of cases names of meals are
used without any article. In this case neither the function of the
noun nor its being part of a set phrase is essential.

e.g. Lunch is ready and we can go in.
Dinner was at an end.
I was having tea with her.
He came in when we were eating breakfast.
John came to lunch at the appointed time.
They met for dinner.
"Stay to tea," said Mrs Watson.
His eyes still bored me as they had done at tea.

2) The definite article is infrequent with names of meals. It is
used in a clear case of back reference or if there is a limiting at-

e.g. The supper was very different from the one of the evening be-
The dinner was excellent, but Isabel noticed that John ate

very little.
He was greedily eating the lunch his mother had given him.

3) The indefinite article is used when names of meals are mod-
ified by descriptive attributes. The indefinite article has its aspec-
tive function.

e.g. I'll try to give you a decent lunch.
Walter wanted a very special dinner.

You can get a good supper here.

As soon as he was dressed, he went into the library and sat
down to a light French breakfast.

4) Occasionally, owing to a change of meaning, names of meals
become countable nouns. This occurs in the following cases:

a) when they denote dinner party, tea party, etc. Both the defi-
nite and the indefinite articles may be found here.

e.g. Fleur said: "We had a dinner last night."

I was having a wash and a brush-up before starting out to go

to the luncheon Elliot had invited me to.

Each Friday night Mr March used to give a dinner to the en
tire family.

b) when they denote a portion. In this case the noun is used
with the indefinite article denoting one.

e.g. I have not enough money to buy a dinner at such an ex-
pensive restaurant.
He wheedled a few francs out of me for a dinner and a bed.

Names of Diseases

§ 48. This group includes a considerable number of uncoun
table nouns, e.g. pneumonia, influenza (flu in colloquial English).

scarlet fever, cholera, diabetes, lumbago, cancer, diphtheria, tu-
berculosis (consumption), mumps
and measles (the last two are
used with a singular verb), etc.

1) Names of diseases are generally found without any article,
as in most cases they are used just to name the kind of disease.

e.g. The doctor said he had pneumonia and told him to keep warm.
The boy Roger arrived home with measles.
He had a bad attack of lumbago.
He had almost died of cholera.
She was suffering from diabetes.
The boy had been ill for two days and his mother thought it

was scarlet fever.
She fell ill with flu.

2) The definite article may be used with names of diseases in a
clear case of back reference or if there is a limiting attribute.

e.g. The family were sitting around watching TV, recovering from

the flu.
After the diphtheria Jane felt very weak and depressed.

Note. Certain nouns which are not special medical terms are used to name dis-
eases. They may be countable or uncountable.

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