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Predicative: Hewas an extremely boring fellow

Apposition: Hart, an uneasy nervous man,made a few sarcastic


2) The definite article, in accordance with its individualizing
function, serves to show that the speaker or writer is referring to
a definite person or object. As a rule, the noun in this case has a
limiting attribute, e.g.

Predicative:Philip had been the hero of his childhood.
Then Jack, the most impudent person there,in-
terrupted me.

In addition to this rule it should be mentioned that a noun in
apposition is also used with the definite article when the speaker
takes it for granted that the hearer knows the person in question,
e.g. "What is it, Maty?" "It's Mr Hooker, the newspaper editor,

he wants to see you."
As the invited entered the house they were greeted by Elsie,

the maid.
Erich Maria Remarque, the German-born anti-war writer,

said that his novels were successful because in them he told
"about a generation which had been destroyed by war in
spite of the fact that it escaped death."

3) Nouns used predicatively or in apposition may have no arti-
cle. This is found in the following cases:

a) when they denote a position (rank, state, post or occupation)
which is unique. Note that the noun in this case usually has an of
phrase attribute, e.g.
Predicative:Mike Slattery was chairman of the Republican

County committee.


Apposition:W. Carl Johnson, Superintendent of the School,re-
ceived me in his office.
Occasionally the definite article is also used in such cases, e.g.
Predicative: Ithink we all realize that Mr Passant has been the
leader of our group.
Apposition: So one day Itook the opportunity to talk to Mr

Руке, the assistant director of the firm.

b) when they denote a relationship and stress is laid on the social
position of the person expressed by the subject (or the head-noun).
The noun is usually modified by an of-phrase in this case, e.g.
Predicative: Mrs Nelson was wife of the manager of the firm.

He is heir to a rich manufacturer.

Apposition:Margaret, daughter of a history professor,was work- ing as secretary to a Labour member. But usually we find the definite article here, e.g. Predicative:She was the wife of a local tradesman.

One of these young men was the son of an eminent

Apposition:Ann, the daughter of the landlady,cooked break-
fast, for the boarders.

Then I was introduced to Charles March, thenephew
of ourhost.

Note. On the whole, with the nouns son and daughter used predicatively or in
apposition we find the following three variants:

a. She is the daughterof a doctor {which is the most common variant express-
ing mere relationship).

b. She is a daughterof a doctor (which expresses the idea that the doctor has
more than one daughter, the variant is not used unless this idea becomes im-

с She is daughterof a doctor (which describes the social position of the person
in question).

c) when nouns used predicatively serve to denote a certain
characteristic of the person indicated by the subject. The noun
predicative is usually followed by enough here. (This case is not
found with nouns in apposition.)

e.g. He isn't foolenough to believe that sort of thing.
She is woman enough to understand it.

d) when predicative nouns are used in clauses of concession
with inverted word-order.

e.g. Childthough she was, she had suffered much.
Boyas he was, he was chosen their leader.

Constructions of this kind are characteristic only of literary

Note. There is no article with the predicative noun in the phraseological units
to turn traitor, to turn pirate, to turn miser.

§ 24. In English there are a number of verbs which in the Ac-
tive Voice require the use of nouns as objective predicatives (a)
and in the Passive Voice — as subjective predicatives (b).

e.g. a) They thought him a prig.

They named the child John.
He was thought a prig.
The child was named John.

The number of verbs which can be used in sentences con-
taining an objective or a subjective predicative expressed by a
noun is limited. The most commonly used of them are: to appoint,
to call, to choose, to elect, to fancy, to imagine, to make, to
name, to think.

Note. There are a number of other verbs requiring the same construction but
they belong to literary style. Some of these verbs may be used both in the passive
and active constructions; others occur only in one of them.

The use of articles with nouns which serve as objective (a) and
subjective (b) predicatives is similar to that of predicative nouns
and nouns in apposition (see "Articles", § 23).

e.g. a) They appointed him a memberof the delegation.

We elected him an honorary memberof the Committee.
He fancied her the most wonderful womanin the world.
They chose him chairmanof the Society.
They appointed him secretary of the new Committee.
b) He was appointed a memberof the delegation.

He was elected an honorary memberof the Committee.
She was thought the most impudent little flirtin London.
He was chosen chairmanof the Society.
He was appointed secretaryof the new Committee.

Note. In the sentences They took him prisoner and He was taken prisoner, They
called him names
and He was called names we are dealing with set phrases.

§ 25. The rules given for the use of articles with predicative
nouns and nouns in apposition also hold good for nouns intro-
duced by as.

e.g. I regarded my uncle as a terrible tyrant.
meant it as a jokebut forgot to smile.
He went to the conference as the headof the delegation.
He acted as interpreterfor Mr March.
They nominated him as Lord Treasurerof the Council.

Although the use of articles with nouns introduced by as is, on
the whole, similar to that with predicative nouns and nouns in ap-
position, there is a deviation from the general rule — the indefi-
nite article need not always be used after as.

e.g. Rebecca was now engaged as (a) governess.

The man had agreed to serve as (a) witness.

Mr Stapleton had persuaded a leather merchant to take my fa-
ther on as traveller('коммивояжер').

"I can't see him doing much good as a traveller,"said my

Note. The above rules do not concern nouns introduced by as used for compar-
ison. In this case the articles are used in accordance with the general rules for
countable nouns.

e.g. The city looked to him as brilliant as a precious stone.
You were as white as the sheetin your hands.

§ 26. When nouns denoting titles, military ranks, or social
standing are followed by a proper name they are used without any
article, as in: Colonel Holmes, Doctor Smith, Professor Jones, Aca-
demician Fedorou, Lieutenant-General Rawdon, President Wilson,
Prime Minister Forbes, Queen Elisabeth, King George, Lord By-
ron, Lady Windermere, Sir William,
etc.In such combinations
only the proper name is stressed.

Note 1.But we say: The doctorhas come. The Prime Ministermade an an-
nouncement yesterday.

Note 2. The definite article is used in such cases as the late Professor Smith,
the celebrated playwright Osborne.

Note 3. A foreign title followed by a proper name is used with the definite arti-
cle: the Baron Munchausen, the Emperor Napoleon III, the Tsar Peter the Great.

The article is not used with some nouns denoting close rela-
tionship when they are followed by names of persons, as in Aunt
Polly, Uncle Timothy, Cousin John.

Other common nouns, when, followed by proper names, are
used with the definite article, as in: the boy Dick, the student
Smith, the painter Turner, the composer Britten, the widow Dou-
glas, the witness Manning, the geologist Foster, the dog Bal
etc. In this case both the common noun and the proper

name are stressed.

Combinations as above are found not only with names of per-
sons but also with lifeless things and abstract notions, as in: the
planet Mars, the preposition
on, the verb to be, the figure 2, etc.

Note, With names of persons in newspaper style there is a tendency to omit the
article in this case too. Thus we find:
e.g. World middleweight champion Dick Tigersaid yesterday that he will retain his

title against American Gene Fullmer.

However, such combinations on the whole are not very com-
mon. More often we find a proper name followed by an appositive
common noun.

e.g. Britten, the modern English composer...
Turner, the celebrated English painter...
Manson, a promising young actor...

§ 27. The article is not used with nouns in appositive of-phras-
es when the head-noun denotes a title or a post,
e.g. They nominated candidates for the post of President and


He got the degree of Master of Arts.

When I was a young man, the position of schoolmaster car-
ried with it a sense of responsibility.

§ 28. The article is not used in the adverbial pattern from -
in which the same noun is repeated after the prepositions, as
in: from tree to tree, from street to street, from town to town,
from day to day,
etc. Such combinations are to be regarded аs
free combinations (not set phrases) as the number of nouns thus
used is practically unlimited. Care should be taken not to confuse

such free combinations with set phrases, which are somewhat sim-
ilar to the above mentioned pattern but limited in number:

a) from head to foot, from top to toe, from top to bottom, from
beginning to end, from South to North.
(Here after the prepo-
sitions from ... to we find two different nouns, not the same noun.
The number of such units is limited.)

b) hand in hand, arm in arm, shoulder to shoulder, face to
face, day by day.
(The same noun connected by different preposi-
tions is repeated here. The number of such units is also limited.)
§ 29. There is no article with nouns in direct address.
e.g. "How is my wife, doctor?"
"Well, young man," said Eden with a smile, "what can I do
for you?"
§ 30. After the exclamatory what we find the indefinite article
with singular nouns.
e.g. "What a car!" she exclaimed.
I thought what an unhappy man he must be!
What a narrow-minded, suspicious woman Maria was!
With plural nouns there is no article, in accordance with the
general rules.

e.g. What marvellous books you've got!

It is noteworthy that no article is used after the interrogative
what modifying a noun.

e.g. What question did you want to ask me?

§ 31. The definite article is found within an of-phrase preceded
by one, some, any, each, many, most, none, all, several, the first,
the last, the rest, the majority.

e.g. "One of the letters is from Tom," she said.

Most of the lecturers had other jobs in the town.

Several of the boys knew that my father had "failed in busi-

Compare the above given combinations with: one letter, most
Lecturers, several boys,

§ 32. There is a fluctuation in the use of articles in the follow-
ing type of combinations: a sort of (a) man, the sort of (a) man,
what sort of (a) man, this sort of (a) man, that sort of (a) man,
some sort of (a) man; a (the, some, what, this, that) kind of (a)
man, a (the, some, what, this, that) type of (a) man.

e.g. He showed us a new type of bulb.

"What sort of a day have you had?" I asked him.
I said: "It's not the sort of situation one laughs at."
It was too dark to see what kind of a house it was.
"What kind of car was it?" Ramsden asked.

The more commonly found variant is the one without any article.


The Use of Articles with Uncountable Abstract Nouns

§ 33. Abstract nouns, like concrete nouns, fall into two class-
es: countables and uncountables. 1

Among abstract countable nouns we find, e.g. answer, belief,
conclusion, doubt, effort, fact, government, holiday, idea, job, lie,
mistake, opinion, plan, principle, promise, question, reply, sen-
tence, visit, word
and many others.

Countable abstract nouns may be used in the singular and in
the plural.

e.g. He had a brilliant idea. I like their method of work.

He always had brilliant ideas. I like their methods of work.

The class of uncountable abstract nouns includes such nouns
as: anger, beauty, curiosity, excitement, freedom, grace, happiness,

1 The division of nouns into these two classes is a matter of tradition and can
hardly be accounted for either semantically or grammatically.

impatience, jealousy, love, modesty, nervousness, pride, respect,
strength, time, violence, work
and many others.

Uncountable abstract nouns are used only in the singular.

It is sometimes difficult to draw a line of division between
countable and uncountable nouns. Some abstract nouns are used
as countables in one meaning and as uncountables in another:

Uncountable Countable

work — работа a work — произведение

silence — тишина, молчание a silence — пауза

decision — решительность, a decision — решение

kindness — доброта a kindness — доброе дело

experience — опыт an experience — случай

из жизни
favour — милость, располо- a favour — одолжение

failure — неудача, провал a failure — неудачное дело;

society — общество a society — организация,


nature — природа a nature — натура, характер

grammar — грамматика a grammar — учебник

(наука) по грамматике

observation — наблюдение an observation — замечание

e.g. They walked in silence along the path.
After a long silence he began his story.
She spoke with decision.
You must carefully think before you take a decision.

He is a wicked person who is insensible to kindness.
If you write him you will be doing him a kindness.

He has been doing this kind of work for many years, so he

has a good deal of experience.
It was an unpleasant experience and he didn't speak of it.

There are also a number of abstract nouns which appear both
as uncountables and countables without any noticeable change of
meaning, e.g. chance, change, difficulty, language, profit, reason,
temptation, torture, trouble, war
and some others.

Some of the nouns that generally tend to be uncountable are
in certain constructions regularly used with the indefinite article.
Here belong comfort, disgrace, disappointment, pity, pleasure, re-
lief, shame
and some others. They are found with the indefinite
article when they are used as predicatives after a formal it as
subject (a) or after the exclamatory what (b):

e.g. a) Itis a pleasure tosee you.

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