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[2] , , .

 

[3] , , . . , , . : , . , , , , . , . , , . , , , .

 

[4] Ekman, P., Sorenson, . R. & Friesen, W. V. 1969. Pancultural elements in facial displays of emotions. Science, 164 (3875): 8688.

 

[5] Izard, C. 1971. The Face of Emotion. New York: AppletonCenturyCrofts.

 

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[7] , Semiotica, The repertoire of nonverbal behavior, 1969. . , . Kleinberg, . 1940. Social Psychology. New York: Holt.

 

[8] Ekman, P. 1972. Universale and cultural differences in facial expressions of emotion. In J. Cole (ed.), Nebraska Symposium on Motivation, 1971. Lincoln, Neb.: University of Nebraska Press. . . 207283.

 

[9] Johnson, H. G., Ekman, P. & Friesen, W. V. 1975. Communicative body movements: American emblems. Semiotica, 15 (4): 335353.

 

[10] , . 1967 . , , . . , .

 

[11] , , , , , , . , , , , , .

 

[12] Ekman, P., Friesen, W. V., O'Sullivan, ., Chan, A., DiacoyanniTarlatzis, I., Heider, ., Krause, R., LeCompte, W. A., Pitcairn, ., Ricci Bitti, P. E.. Scherer, K. R., Tomita, M. & Tzavaras, A. 1987. Universal and cultural differences in the judgments of facial expressions of emotion. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 53: 712717. Ekman, P. 1999. Facial expressions. In T. Dalgleish & T. Power (eds.), The Handbook of Cognition and Emotion. Sussex, U.K.: John Wiley & Sons. . C. 301320.

 

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[14] Ekman, Universals and cultural differences in facial expressions of emotion.

 

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[16] Thompson, J. 1941. Development of facial expression of emotion in blind and seeing children. Archives of Psychology, 37. Fulcher, J. S. 1942. Voluntary facial expression in blind and seeing children. Archives of Psychology, 38. Eibl Eibesfeldt, I. 1970. Ethology, the Biology of Behavior. New York: Holt, Reinhart and Winston. Galati, D., Scherer, K. R. & RicciBitti, P. E. 1997. Voluntary facial expression of emotion: Comparing congenitally blind with normally sighted encoders. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73: 13631379.

 

[17] Ekman, P. & Friesen, W. V. 1978. Facial Action Coding System: A Technique for the Measurement of Facial Movement. Palo Alto, Calif.: Consulting Psychologists Press. 2002 . Ekman, . & Rosenberg, . L. 1997. What the Face Reveals: Basic and Applied Studies of Spontaneous Expression Using the Facial Action Coding System (FACS). New York: Oxford University Press. Cohn, J. F., Zlochower, A., Lein, J. & Kanade, T. 1999. Automated face analysis by feature point tracking has high concurrent validity with manual FACS coding. Psychophysiology, 36: 3543. Bartlett, M. S., Viola, P. A., Sejnowski, T. J., Golomb, B. A., Larsen, J., Hager, J. C. & Ekman, P. 1996. Classifying facial action. In D. Touretzky, M. Mozer, & M. Hasselmo (eds.), Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 8. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. . c. 823829.

 

[18] : Levenson, R. W., Ekman, P., Heider, . & Friesen, W. V. 1992. Emotion and autonomic nervous system activity in the Minangkabau of West Sumatra. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 62: 972988. Levenson, R. W., Carstensen, L. L., Friesen, W. V. & Ekman, P. 1991. Emotion, physiology, and expression in old age. Psychology and Aging, 6:2835. Levenson, R. W., Ekman, P. & Friesen, W. V. 1990. Voluntary facial action generates emotionspecific autonomic nervous system activity. Psychophysiology, 27: 363384. Ekman, P., Levenson, R. W. & Friesen, W. V. 1983. Autonomic nervous system activity distinguishes between emotions. Science, 221: 12081210. Ekman, P. & Davidson, R. 1994. The Nature of Emotion: Fundamental Questions. New York: Oxford University Press. Ekman, P. & Davidson, R. J. 1993. Voluntary smiling changes regional brain activity. Psychological Science, 4: 342345. Davidson, R. J., Ekman, P., Saron, C., Senulis, J. & Friesen, W. V. 1990. Emotional expression and brain physiology I: Approach/with drawal and cerebral asymmetry. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 58: 330341. Ekman, P., Davidson, R. J. & Friesen, W. V. 1990. Emotional expression and brain physiology II: The Duchenne smile. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 58: 342353.

 

[19] Ekman, P. 1985. Telling Lies: Clues to Deceit in the Marketplace, Marriage, and Politics. New York: W. W. Norton. A third edition was published by W. W. Norton in 2002. Ecoff, N. L., Ekman, P., Mage, J. J. & Frank, M. G. 2000. Lie detection and language loss. Nature, 405: 139. Frank, M. G. & Ekman, P. (submitted). Appearing truthful generalizes across different deception situations. Bugental, D. ., Shennum, W., Frank, M. & Ekman, P. 2000. True Lies: Children's abuse history and power attributions as influences on deception detection. In V. Manusov & J. H. Harvey (eds.), Attribution, Communication Behavior, and Close Relationships. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. . . 248265. Ekman, P., O'Sullivan, M. & Frank, M. 1999. few can catch a liar. Psychological Science, 10: 263266. Ekman, P. 1997. Lying and Deception. In N. L. Stein, P. A. Ornstein, B. Tversky, & C. Brainerd (eds.), Memory for Everyday and Emotional Events. Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. . . 333347. Frank, M. G. & Ekman, P. 1997. The ability to detect deceit generalizes across different types of highstake lies. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 72:14291439.

 

[20] , , , , , , , , .

 

[21] Mind Life Foundation , .

 

[22] LeDoux, J. . 1996. The Emotional Brain: The Mysterious Underpinnings of Emotional Life. New York: Simon and Schuster. Pankssepp, J. 1998. The Foundations of Human and Animal Emotions. New York: Oxford University Press. Damasio, A. R. 1994. Descartes' Error: Emotion, Reason and the Human Brain. New York: Putnam. Rolls, E. T. 1999. The Brain and Emotion. New York: Oxford University Press.





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