II. Функции инфинитива в предложении

Функции Примеры Перевод
I. Подлежащее     It is easy to detect the direction of the prevailing winds. To forecast the weather with great accuracy is no simple matter. · Неопределенной формой глагола Легко определить направление преобладающих ветров. · Существительным Предсказание погоды с большой точностью не простая задача.
II. Обстоятельство цели (чтобы …) · In order · So as     Rivers can be used to generate electricity. · Неопределенной формой глагола Реки можно использовать для того, чтобы вырабатывать энергию.
III. Обстоятельство следствия с · too (слишком) · enough (достаточно)     The gravel is too coarse to be moved by wind. · Неопределенной формой глагола Гравий слишком крупный чтобы переноситься ветром.
IV. Определение · после существительных     · после порядковых числительных и слова Last   The magnetometer is an instrument to measure the Earth’s magnetic field. The seismograph is an instrument to record seismic waves.     The methods to prevent avalanches are expensive.   Stevenson was the first to measure the force of an ocean wave. · Существительным Магнетометр это прибор для измерения магнитного поля Земли. · Придаточным предложением Сейсмограф – это прибор, который записывает сейсмические волны. · Неопределенной формой глагола Методы, позволяющие предотвратить сход лавин очень дорогие. · Глаголом Стивенсон первым измерил силу океанических волн.
V. Часть сложного глагольного сказуемого. Earth crust movements may affect even small local areas. Движения земной коры могут воздействовать даже на небольшие территории.
IV. Часть составного именного сказуемого. Their object was to reach chalk rich layers. Их целью было добраться до слоев богатых мелом.

Task 2. Translate the following into Russian. State the form and function of the Infinitive.

1. The Atacama is a desert because no moist air blows on to it from the adjoining ocean to fall as rain.

2. Lead and zinc used to be mined in Greenland, but it is now too expensive to dig out what is left.

3. To understand earthquakes one must know about faults.

4. Plate tectonic theory developed primarily to explain certain structural phenomena.

5. The main purpose of this book is to help you recognize certain geologic structures; understand the forces that caused them.

6. Students first look at energy resources to see which ones might help replace our disappearing supplies of oil.

7. A spring is the place where ground water flows out of the Earth to form a small stream or pool.

8. Ore is a natural material that is sufficiently enriched in one or more minerals to be mined profitably.

9. After some time the eroded rock disintegrates to from particles small enough to be carried or moved by the wind.

10. Debate between proponents of the two alternate hypotheses became heated and further evidence to support each was sought.

11. It takes 20 minutes to travel from Britain to France by the Eurostar train through the Channel Tunnel.

12. The man’s long-term dream was to desalt and use water from the sea. To do this is technologically possible but is too expensive for common use.

13. Slightly more than 97% of water on Earth is present in the ocean. The next largest reservoir is to be found in the glaciers and ice-caps.

14. How can the scientist prevent the earthquake hazard? One solution is a structure such as nuclear power plant or highway. The other is to eliminate the hazard, which is more costly.

15. Layered rocks are generally easier to interpret than non-layered rocks.

16. Gravel, pebbles, small boulders are carried by icebergs and drift ice to be released to the water when the ice melts.

17. The major mountain belts of the world with higher mountain ranges tend to be geologically younger than those where mountains are lower. However, this is not always true.

18. The polar wastes of Antarctica and the Arctic islands were some of the last areas on Earth to remain untouched by humans.

19. Where rivers reach a fault or an area of soft rock, they often tumble over it to form a waterfall.

20. In Iceland, where geysers shoot steam into the sky, water from hot springs is piped to heat all the buildings of the capital, Reykjavik.


Task 3. Discuss with a partner the best way to translate the words and word combinations in brackets.

1. Devices (для измерения) barometric pressure may be mercury barometers or aneroid ones.

2. Scientists make use of data or fact (для того, чтобы сформулировать теорию или объяснить происхождение) of an event.

3. Many igneous rocks are fine-grained and (должны изучаться) by means of a special microscope.

4. (Невозможно подсчитать) the time that has elapsed since the continental glaciers entirely disappeared from Europe.

5. This group of students (должна была наблюдать) pressure and wind irregularity of the area.

6. Several methods have been used (чтобы определить) the length of the postglacial time both in Europe and North America.

7. (Для того, чтобы помочь) run the oil fields, and (для того, чтобы обеспечить) all kinds of services in the fast- developing and wealthy cities like Dubai, people have migrated from other parts of Asia and Europe.

8. (Для образования) a layer of coal one foot in thickness, about twenty feet of original plant material has to be compacted.

9. Winter rain is stored in reservoirs and is used in spring and summer (для того, чтобы орошать) the fruit for which Southern Europe is famous.

10. A hole in the ozone layer above Antarctica was first noticed in 1985, and (продолжает увеличиваться) in size.


Task 4.Translate the following sentences into English using the Infinitive whenever possible.

1. Задачей географии является изучение земли, ее строения и развития, а также явлений и процессов, происходящих на ней.

2. Из минеральных ресурсов, которые следует отметить, это отложения железной руды на юго-западе региона.

3. Добывать нефть с подводных площадей не простое дело.

4. Нам предстоит изучать радиоактивные элементы.

5. Вам придется определить возраст этого горообразования при помощи ископаемых остатков растений и животных, живших, когда образовались породы.

6. Евангелиста Торричелли (Evangelista Torricelly) первым измерил давление воздуха.

7. Благодаря развитию геологии стало возможным вести поиски месторождений на научной основе.

8. Для того чтобы лучше понять плейстоценовое оледенение, мы должны изучать современные ледники.

9. При прогнозировании землетрясений самым сложным является определение возможного времени начала будущих землетрясений.

10. Первые попытки оценить возраст нашей планеты были предприняты еще в ХVIII в. aнглийским астрономом Э.Таллеем (Talley).


Task 5. Study the following.

Complex Object

    We believe the students (them) to secure specimens in mines. to be securing specimens now. to have secured many specimens already. to be sent to the expedition. to have been sent to the expedition.


Объектный инфинитивный оборот употребляется после глаголов:


Глаголы Конструкция Перевод
1. выражающих физическое восприятие (без to): to hear – слышать to see – видеть to feel – чувствовать to watch, to observe – наблюдать to notice - замечать I saw him perform the experiment. Я видел, как он провел эксперимент.
2. выражающих умственное восприятие: to expect – ожидать, надеяться, to consider – считать, полагать to assume to believe полагать to hold to find – обнаруживать, находиться to note – отмечать to state – устанавливать, констатировать to claim – утверждать to know – знать to think – думать to understand – понимать to report – сообщать to show – показывать to declare – заявлять to mean – подразумевать The students expected the teacher to explain to them different hypotheses of the earth’s early history. Студенты надеялись, что преподаватель объяснит им различные гипотезы.
3. выражающих желание и потребность: to want – хотеть, требовать, нуждаться to wish – желать to desire – желать to like – в значении “хотеть” should (would) like – хотел бы to intend – в значении “хотеть” The dean of the faculty wants the students to attend the scientific conferences once a year. Декан факультета требует, чтобы студенты посещали научные конференции раз в год.
4. выражающих разрешение: to get to make заставлять (без to) to let (без to) – позволять, разрешать to ask (for) – просить to enable - давать возможность to cause – причинять, вызывать to request – вежливо приказывать to force – вынуждать to command – велеть, приказать to order – приказать to allow – позволять, разрешать to encourage – поощрять, стимулировать, содействовать Studies of present glaciers enable us to understandthe Pleistocene glaciation. Изучение современных ледников дает нам возможность понять плейстоценовое оледенение.

Task 6. Translate the following into Russian. State the Objective Infinitive Construction.

1. The Rocky Mountains look jagged because water freezes in cracks and forces rocks to break apart.

2. High temperatures and heavy rainfall encourage forests to grow.

3. Good roads and railway systems allow people to live in smaller towns and to travel into the big cities to work – commuting.

4. Saturn’s satellite Dione exhibits bright wispy areas, perhaps where large fractures have allowed water to escape and form frost.

5. When the ice sheets extended across the site of Great Lakes the weight of ice caused the region to be depressed.

6. Scientists believe the total quantity of water on and around the earth to have been more or less uniform throughout geologic time.

7. Constant expansions and contractions cause the outer layers to crack and disintegrate.

8. Since rock is a relatively poor conducter of heat, the sun’s rays cause exposed surface to become heated and expanded more than the interior resulting in strains that weaken the rock.

9. The melt water has caused the oceans to spill over.

10. Great pressures cause the molten rock to rise up.

11. The heat of the sun causes the rocks to expand.

12. Cooling and consolidation of internal material caused the earth to shrink and thus forced the cool outer crust to adapt itself to a shrinking interior.

13. Venera-4 found the temperatures in the equatorial regions of Venus to be at about 2000C.

14. Modern techniques enable us to desalt water from the sea.

15. In certain situation natural heat and pressure can cause preexisting rocks to crystallize or recrystallize.

16. Probably increased pressure does not cause the velocity of the wave to increase in iron as much as it does in basic rocks.

17. Precipitation results if the cooling causes the relative humidity to reach 100 percent.

18. Throughflow causes the soil to be wetter at the foot of a slope than it is higher up.

19. British government encouraged farmers to diversify away from agriculture.

20. Steep slopes give debris flows their energy and enable them to travel long distances and become major hazards to settlements lower down the valley.


Task 7. Translate the sentences from Russian into English using the models whenever possible.

Model 1:see (hear, observe) smb. do smth.

1. Я слышал, как профессор упомянул об этих фактах в своей лекции.

2. Туристы наблюдали извержение вулкана.

3. Студенты наблюдали за изменениями направления ветра.


Model 2:want (expect, assume) smb. to do smth.

1. Нагрев вызывает расширение поверхностных слоев пород.

2. Ученые полагают, что в этой гипотезе много противоречий.

3. Преподаватель хотел, чтобы студенты установили возраст пород. Он также рекомендовал им объяснить геологическую историю области, содержащей их.


Model 3:let smb. do smth.

makesmb. do smth.

1. Коллеги не могли понять, что заставило его прекратить исследование в данной области.

2. Ничто не заставит его изменить свое решение.

3. Дайте мне знать, когда закончите работу над статьей.


Task 8. Study the following.


Complex Subject


    The students are known to secure specimens of rocks every summer. to be securing specimens of rocks now. to have secured many specimens of rocks already. to be sent to the expedition. to have been sent to the expedition.


Субъективный инфинитивный оборот употребляется с:


  Конструкция Перевод
1. глаголами в страдательном залоге: · чувство восприятия: to see to hear to notice · умственного восприятия to think-думать to consider-считать, полагать to believe-полагать to expect-ожидать, предполагать to suppose-предполагать to know-знать · глаголами to say-говорить to report – сообщать to order-приказывать to ask-спрашивать to allow-позволять to state-устанавливать to announce – объявлять     The surface of the sun is estimated to have a temperature of more than 10,0000F. All glaciers around the Northern Atlantic coastare reported to be shrinking.         Установлено, что температура поверхности солнца составляет более 100000 по фаренгейту. Сообщают, что все ледники вдоль Северного Атлантического побережья уменьшаются.  
2. to be likely - вероятно to be unlikely – вряд ли, маловероятно несомненно, to be certain обязательно, to be sure бесспорно, непременно Reserves of coal and oil are likely to be exhausted in less than a century. Вероятно, что запасы угля и нефти истощатьсяменее чем через сто лет.
3. to seem казаться, to appear по-видимому to prove оказываться to turn out to happen случаться to chance The oldest glaciation appears to have taken place in Ontario around 2.3 billion years ago. Grey limestone formations proved to be very hard. Древнее оледенение,по-видимому, имело место в Онтарио около 2.3 миллиардов лет назад. Формации серого известняка оказались очень тяжелыми.


Task 9. Translate the following into Russian. State the Subjective Infinitive Construction.

1. The pyramids of Egypt are thought to record the pattern of the stars in the sky.

2. Mountains were thought to have formed through the consequent contraction of the earth’s interior.

3. The solar system is thought to have started as a defuse cloud of gas and dust, in which the planets grew by accretion (увеличение, наращение).

4. By the year 2015, urban areas are expected to be home to more than half of the world’s population.

5. The earth’s supply of hydrogen fuel is believed to be largely used up.

6. When material on a hillside has weathered, it is likely to move downslope because of the pull of gravity.

7. Polar bears are estimated to be extinct by 2060.

8. Saturn’s Titan hides its surface beneath an atmosphere composed mainly of nitrogen but appears to have a polar ice cap.

9. The scablands are believed to have been carved by gigantic floods of water.

10. If over a period of time, the amount of snow a glacier gains is greater than the amount of ice and water it loses, the glacier expands and is said to have a positive budget.

11. Meteorites are of interest not only to astronomers but to geologists, for they may give us clues to what the earth’s interior is like because many of the meteorites are thought to represent fragments of destroyed minor planets.

12. Jupiter’s satellites Ganymede, Europe, and Calisto are all believed to have rocky cores covered by shells of ice and possibly liquid water.

13. Uranus’s largest satellites seem to be predominantly made of water ice with some silicates and perhaps mixed with small amounts of ammonia and methane.

14. Uranus’s craters of Oberon appear to have been flooded with a dark material and the surface of Umbriel appears to have been coated with similarly dark material.

15. 2, 735, 000 tons of mineral substances are estimated to be added in soltion from all the rivers to the ocean.

16. Most glaciers in both northern and southern hemispheres seem to have been reducing more or less rapidly for several decades.

17. These canyons are unlikely to have been widened by lateral corrosion of streams.

18. The attraction of the Sun and the Moon is supposed to affect not only the waters of the ocean but also the solid crust of the Earth.

19. Corals have long been known to have distinct bands that represent annual growth. The bands are themselves made up of narrower bands that seem to represent monthly growth and are probably related to the tides and monthly cycle of the moon.

20. Debris flows are most likely to occur in areas where loose weathered matrial (regolith) can build up.


Task 10. Paraphrase the following sentences according to the models. Mind the tense-form of the predicative.

Model 1: Hydrogen is known to be the lightest of the elements.

It is known that hydrogen is the lightest of the elements.

1. The running water is considered to be the most important erosive agent.

2. More than 1/5 of the whole land surface is estimated to have been covered with ice late in the Pleistocene Epoch.

3. Sedimentary rocks are believed to be formed by deposits laid down on the floors of oceans.


Model 2: Grey limestone formations proved to be very hard.

It proved that grey limestone formations are very hard.

1. This approach seems to be working.

2. Changes in atmospheric pressure appear to have some effect on animals.

3. The western part of the region proved to be rich in coal, iron-ore and other metallic ores.


Model 3:Artesian water is likely to move over considerable distances from a recharge area.

It is likely that artesian water moves over considerable distances from a recharge area.

1. Extensive areas with similar climates are also likely to have resemblance in natural vegetation and soil.

2. Tornadoes are unlikely to occur in winter or autumn.

3. An air mass with colder, drier air in its surface layers than aloft is certain to be stable.


Task 11. Translate the sentences from Russian into English using the rules in Task 8.


1. Подсчитано, что средний радиус Земли составляет 6371,11 км.

2. В настоящее время подсчитано, что Латинская Америка и Азия потеряли около 2/5 территории своих лесов.

3. Известно, что реки несут около 22% осадков.

4. Говорят, что он изучает подземные воды в районах многолетней мерзлоты.

5. Ранее полагали, что Марс имеет как атмосферу, так и гидросферу.



1. Исаак Ньютон случайно открыл закон всемирного тяготения.

2. Гипотеза расширяющейся (expanding) Земли оказалась несостоятельной при объяснении происхождения складчатости.

3. Первичный океан был, по-видимому, пресным, потому что его образовывали воды рек и дожди.



1. Вероятно, что цены на нефть и природный газ возрастут.

2. Маловероятно, что геологи обнаружат новые месторождения самоцветов в этом регионе.

3. Атакама, бесспорно, очень древняя пустыня.


Task 12. Study the following.

Дата добавления: 2016-11-02; просмотров: 342 | Нарушение авторских прав

Рекомендуемый контект:

Похожая информация:

Поиск на сайте:

© 2015-2019 lektsii.org - Контакты - Последнее добавление

Ген: 0.022 с.