Макетные упражнения: Макет выполняется в масштабе 1:50, 1:100, 1:200 на подрамнике...
Нейроглия (или проще глия, глиальные клетки): Структурная и функциональная единица нервной ткани и он состоит из тела...
Агроценоз пшеничного поля: Рассмотрим агроценоз пшеничного поля. Его растительность составляют...
Упр. 532. Переведите на английский язык, употребляя подходящие по смыслу модальные глаголы (can, can't, may, mast, needn't, shouldn't)
1. Она, должно быть, дома сейчас. 2. Она, должно быть, была дома вчера. 3. Мы, может быть, придем к вам завтра. 4. Они, может быть, приходили к нам вчера, но нас не было дома. 5. Он, должно быть, видел этот памятник, когда был в вашем городе. 6. Он, может быть, видел этот памятник, когда был в вашем городе. 7. Не может быть, что он знает эту картину. 8. Не может быть, что он видел эту картину. 9. Ты можешь пойти туда: я не возражаю. 10. Ты можешь пойти туда: это совсем близко. 11. Ты не можешь пойти туда: ты не знаешь адреса. 12. Ты можешь не ходить туда: я могу им позвонить. 13. Ты не должен идти туда: они очень плохие люди. 14. Ты мог и не ходить туда вчера. 15. Тебе следует пойти туда: они тебя ждут. 16. Тебе следовало пойти туда вчера. 17. Тебе не следовало ходить туда вчера.
Упр. 533. Переведите на английский язык, употребляя подходящие по смыслу модальные глаголы и выражения (can, can't, may, must, to have to, to be able to),
1. Я должна купить торт сегодня. 2. Мой брат не умеет говорить по-английски. 3. Моя сестра умеет говорить по-немецки. 4. Можно, я посмотрю вашу фотографию? 5. Вы можете показать мне свою фотографию? 6. Не может быть, что сорок лет: он выглядит гораздо моложе. 7. Не может быть, что он забыл прийти. Он, дол-ясно быть, был очень занят. 8. Мы, может быть, доедем за город, если будет хорошая погода. 9. Если сестра не купит мне кофе, мне придется идти в магазин самой. 10. Я не могу найти свои часы. — Может быть, вы оставили их на работе. — Нет, я не могла оставить их на работе: я никогда не снимаю их с руки. 11. Вы сможете поговорить с ним завтра? 12. Я, должно быть, заблудилась. Вы не можете мне сказать, как пройти к Эрмитажу? 13. Мне пришлось прочесть массу книг, когда я готовилась к докладу. 14. Я не мог вспомнить последние строчки сонета, и мне пришлось специально звонить своему другу.
КЛЮЧИ К УПРАЖНЕНИЯМ
1. This is a book. It is my book. 2. Is this your pencil? — No, it isn't my pencil; it is my sister's pencil. 3. I have
a sister. My sister is an engineer. My sister's husband is a doctor. 4. I have no handbag. 5. She has got a headache.
6. Have they got a car? — Yes, they have. Their car is very expensive but reliable. 7. Have you got a calculator?
— No, I haven't. 8. Is this a watch? — No, it isn't a watch, it's a pen. 9. This pen is good, and that pen
is bad. 10. I can see a pencil on your table, but I can see no paper. 11. Give me a chair, please. 12. They have a
dog and two cats. 13. I have a spoon in my plate, but I have no soup in it. 14. My friend says he is going to be a
millionaire one day. 15. Would you like an orange? 16. Mr. Smith is an artist, Mrs. Smith is a poetess.
1. He hasn't got a car. But he's got a computer. The computer is new. 2. My friends have got a cat and a dog. The
dog never bites the cat. 3. This is a tree. The tree is green. 4. I can see three boys. The boys are playing. 5. I
have a bicycle. The bicycle is black. My friend has no bicycle. 6. Our room is large. 7. We wrote a dictation
yesterday. The dictation was long. 8. She has two daughters and one son. Her son is a pupil. 9. Last year I gave
my mother a bracelet for her birthday. She liked the bracelet. 10. My brother's friend has no dog. 11. This pencil
is broken. Give me that pencil, please. 12. She has a ball. The ball is big. 13. I got a letter from my friend yesterday.
The letter was interesting. 14. When they were in Geneva, they stayed at a hotel. Sometimes they had
dinner at the hotel and sometimes in a restaurant.
1. This is a pen. The pen is red. 2. These are pencils. The pencils are black. 3. This is soup. The soup is tasty. 4.
In the morning I eat a sandwich and drink tea. 5. She gave me coffee and a cake. The coffee was hot. The cake
was tasty. 6. Do you like ice cream? 7. I see a book in your hand. Is the book interesting? 8. Do you need a
camera? 9. He never eats meat; he always eats vegetables, cereals, seeds, fruit, and nuts. He is a vegetarian. 10.
This is a pineapple. The pineapple is delicious. 11. Elaine, apples are good for you! 12. My cousin is upset. He's
got a sore throat. 13. This is cottage cheese. The cottage cheese is fresh. 14. She bought meat, butter and potatoes
yesterday. She also bought a cake. The cake was very tasty. We ate the cake with tea. 15. This is my table.
On the table I have a book, two pencils, a pen and paper. 16. This is a bag. The bag is brown. It is my sister's
bag. And this is my bag. It is yellow.
1. I have two sisters. My sisters are students. 2. We are at home. 3. My brother is not at home, he is at school. 4.
My mother is at work. She is a doctor. 5. I am not a doctor. 6. I have no sister. 7. He is not a pilot. 8. I have
thirty-two teeth. 9. He has a child. 10. She has two children. Her children are at school. 11. Is your father at
home? — No, he is at work. 12. Where is your brother? — He is at home.
1. We have a large family. 2. My granny often tells us long interesting stories. 3. My father is an engineer. He
works at a factory. The factory is large. 4. My mother is a doctor. She works at a large hospital. She is at work
now. 5. My aunt is a teacher. She works at school. The school is good. My aunt is not at school now. She is at
home. She is drinking tea and eating jam. The jam is sweet. I am at home, too. I am drinking tea and eating a
sandwich. The sandwich is tasty. 6. My sister is at school. She is a pupil. 7. My cousin has a big black cat. My
cousin's cat has two kittens. The cat likes milk. The kittens like milk, too. 8. I am an engineer. 9. My son is a
pupil, 10. He is a good pupil. 11. This is a house. 12. This is my pencil. 13. You have some pencils, but I have
no pencil. Give me a pencil, please.
1. What's the weather like today? — The weather is fine. 2. The sun is yellow. 3. The sky is grey today. 4. The
Earth is a planet. 5. We had an English lesson yesterday. The teacher asked me many questions. The questions
were difficult. 6. Where is your brother? — He is at home. He is in his room. He is sitting at the table. He is doing
his homework. The homework is difficult. 7. Our cat is sitting on the sofa. 8. It is very dark in the room.
Turn on the light, please. 9. Nick went into the bathroom, turned on the water and washed his hands.
1. This is a good book. Take the book from the table. Put this book into the bookcase. 2. The weather is fine
today. The sky is blue. The sun is shining brightly in the blue sky. 3. This is a boy. The boy is at school. He is a
pupil. This boy is my brother's friend. He has a cat, but he has no dog. He likes his cat. He gives the cat milk
every day. 4. Yesterday I received a letter from my friend. The letter was interesting. 5. We live in a big house.
I like the house very much. 6. Are you a worker? — No, I am a student. 7. I like your beautiful flower. Give me
the flower, please. 8. My mother is at home. She is reading an interesting book. 9. My father is not at home. He
is at work. He is a doctor. He is a good doctor. He works at a hospital. The hospital is large.
1. There is a big tree in the garden. 2. There is a bank near here. — Where is the bank? 3. There is a new supermarket
in the centre of our town. 4. There is a hotel over there. The hotel isn't cheap. 5. Where is the cat? —
The cat is on the sofa. 6. Where is the book? — The book is on the shelf. 7. Where are the flowers? — The
flowers are in a beautiful vase. 8. Where is the vase? — The vase is on a little table near the window. 9. Open
the window, please. The weather is fine today. I can see the sun in the sky. I can see a nice little bird. The bird
is sitting in a big tree. The tree is green. 10. There is a little white cloud in the sky. 11. We have a large room.
There is a big sofa in the room and a little lamp on the wall over the sofa. I like to sit on the sofa and read a
1. There is a wonderful small computer in front of the books there. 2. Where is the soup? — The soup is in a
big saucepan on the gas cooker. 3. Where are the cutlets? — The cutlets are in the refrigerator on a little plate.
4. There is no bread on the table. Where is the bread? 5. There is a little brown coffee table in our room in front
of the sofa. 6. Where is the table in your room? 7. There is a thick carpet on the floor in my mother's room. 8. is
your brother at home? — No, he is at work. He works at a big factory. He is an engineer. 9. My sister has many
books. The books are in a big bookcase. 10. The weather is fine today. Let's go and play in the yard. There are
many children in the yard. They are playing with a ball.
1. I see a bottle of pineapple juice on the kitchen table. 2. Her son has a great sense of humor. 3. There was a
discotheque at the club last Saturday but he didn't go. 4. Is there a bus stop near the building? 5. We have a big
dog. The dog is very clever. 6. My friend has a very good computer. 7. This boy is big. He is a student. 8. There
is a very big piano in the hall. 9. This is a tree and that is not a tree. It's a bush. 10. I am a boy. I am a pupil. I
learn at school. 11. My sister is at work. She is a secretary. She works at a large office. 12. This is a very difficult
question. I don't know the answer to it. 13. Do you see a little girl with a big ball in her hands? She is a pupil
of our school. 14. There was a beautiful flower in this vase yesterday. Where is the flower now? 15. Last year
we were in Geneva. It is an exciting city to visit, but a very expensive place to live.
1. There is a jar of orange marmalade in the middle of the shelf. 2. There is a big box of cereal to the right of
you. 3. There is a bunch of bananas on the table. Don't keep them in the refrigerator. 4. There is a loaf of white
bread on the upper shelf of the refrigerator. If you want your bread to be fresh, keep it only in the refrigerator. 5.
Is there a bag of flour in the cupboard? 6. There was a bottle of lemonade in the corner of the kitchen. 7. There
is a thick red carpet in my room. The carpet is on the floor in front of the sofa. 8. Where is the table in your
brother's room? — His table is near the window. 9. I can see a fine vase on the shelf. Is it your vase? 10. We
have no piano in our living room. 11. My uncle is married. He has a beautiful wife. They have a son, but they
have no daughter. 12. I can see a nice coffee table in the middle of the room to the right of the door. It is black
and red. I like the coffee table. 13. Our TV set is on a little table in the corner of the room. 14. There is a beautiful
picture in my father's study. The picture is on the wall to the left of the window.
My aunt's flat is in a new house. There is a living room, a bedroom, a study, a bathroom and a kitchen in the
flat. The bedroom is a large room with two windows. The room is light as the windows are large. There are
white curtains on the windows. There are two beds with large pillows on them. There are small tables near the
beds. There are lamps on them. To the left of the door there is a dressing table with a mirror on it. There is a
low chair at the dressing table. There are several pictures on the pale green walls. There is a thick carpet on the
floor. The carpet is dark green. The room is very cosy.
1. There is a park behind the hospital. There are some beautiful trees in the park. 2. There is a good film on TV
this evening. I am going to watch it. 3. There is a library between the school and the bank. There are some English
and German books in this library. 4. There is a sofa in the corner of the room. 5. There are some cushions
on the sofa. 6. There are some books on the shelf. Give me a book, please. 7. Look into the refrigerator. What
can you see on the shelves? — There is some butter in the butter dish. There is some sausage, but there is no
cheese. There are some eggs and some apples. There is an orange, a lemon, and some jam in a little vase. 8.
There is some juice in this cup. May I drink the juice? 9. There are some girls in the yard, but I can see no boys.
Where are the boys? — Oh, all the boys are playing football at the stadium. 10. There is a peculiar charm in her
1. Where is the bus station? — The bus station is next to the gas station. 2. There are two pets in the house: a
cat and a dog. 3. There is a TV antenna on the roof. 4. There is a mailbox between the building and the bus stop,
5. There is a big dog in front of the fireplace. 6. Do you speak English at work or at school? 7. She had a bad
day today. 8. I have a colour TV set. The TV set is on a little table in the corner of the room. 9. There is a book,
a pen, and some paper on my writing desk. 10. My brother is a teacher. He works at school. He has very good
books. His books are in a big bookcase. 11. There is some tea in my glass. There is no tea in my friend's glass.
His glass is empty. 12. Where is the coffee table in your room? — The coffee table is in front of the sofa. There
is a cup on the coffee table and some newspapers. There is some coffee in the cup. 13. There are some photographs
on the sofa. 14. There is a guitar on the chair near the piano.
1. Every day my brother and I get up at eight o'clock and walk to school. I like school. It's fun. My brother
loves football. He hates homework. So he doesn't like to go to school. Will he go to work in the future? 2. My
friend has to get up early in the morning because he goes to school. That's why he usually goes to bed early in
the evening. 3. The weather was very bad in the morning yesterday. The sky was grey and it was raining. But in
the middle of the day the weather began to change. The rain stopped and the sun appeared from behind the
clouds. In the afternoon it was very warm. I did not want to stay at home and went into the yard. There were
boys and girls in the yard. We played in the yard till late in the evening. When I came home, I drank tea, ate a
sandwich and went to bed at once. I slept very well at night.
1. My brother is a pupil. He goes to school. He goes to school in the morning. He has five or six lessons every
day. In the afternoon he goes home. At home he does his homework. In the evening he reads books. He usually
goes to bed at half past ten. At night he sleeps. 2. My father goes to work in the morning and comes home in the
evening. 3. I get up at half past seven in the morning and go to bed at a quarter to eleven in the evening. 4.
When does your mother leave home for work? — She leaves home for work at a quarter past eight. 5. When do
you leave home for school? — I leave home for school at half past eight. 6. What do you do when you come
home from school? — I do my homework, talk to my friends on the phone and go for walks. I often listen to
music. I like jazz best.
1. We always go to the Russian Museum on Sunday. 2. On Saturday she usually goes to the Philharmonic. 3. In
August he has his birthday. He is planning to have a nice party with his friends. 4. There are three rooms and a
kitchen in our new flat. 5. My new dress is made of silk. 6. If you want to write something on the blackboard,
you must have a piece of chalk. 7. Are there any pupils in the classroom? 8. I have a new English book. The
book is very interesting. 9. There is a garden in front of our school. The garden is not large, but it is very nice.
10. May is the fifth month of the year. 11. Saturday is the sixth day of the week. 12. Sunday is a day off. 13.
Today is the ninth of May. He is going to a public phone to make a phone call to his grandfather. 14. This is a
nice place. In June we are going there for a holiday.
1. My friends live in a small town. It is a new town. The streets in the town are broad and straight. There are
beautiful buildings in them. The town is very green, and so the air is fresh. There are some beautiful parks and
gardens in the town. The people like to go there after work. In the evening you can hear the sounds of music
from the parks. There are some schools, some libraries, a hospital, a theatre, some cinemas, some polyclinics
and some kindergartens in the town. 2. This is a classroom. The classroom is large and light. 3. There is a picture
on the wall. 4. What is the date today? It is the seventh of December. 5. The third lesson today is a lesson of
English. 6. Pete, go to the blackboard. 7. After school I usually go home. 8. My father always comes from work
late: at eight o'clock or at half past eight. But on Friday he comes home early: at half past four or at a quarter to
five. On Saturday and on Sunday he does not go to work.
I go to school in the morning, so I get up early. I usually get up at a quarter past seven. I go to the bathroom, turn
on the water and wash my face and hands. My father and mother also get up early in the morning. My mother
works at an office. She is a typist. My father is a doctor. He works at a polyclinic. We have breakfast in the
kitchen. We eat porridge and eggs. We drink tea. My father and mother leave home for work at half past eight.
My father goes to the polyclinic, and my mother goes to the office. I don't leave home with my parents: the
school where I learn is near our house. I leave home for school at a quarter to nine. My granny stays at home
and cooks dinner. I have lunch at school after the third lesson. My father and mother have lunch at work. When
we come home, we have dinner.
1. Every day my husband goes to work, my son goes to school and I go to the institute. 2. There is a new school
at the corner of our street. 3. My daughter came home from school on Monday and said to me: "There will be a
parents' meeting on the tenth of February at six o'clock in the evening." 4. The teacher told us a very interesting
story at the lesson. 5. When the bell rang, the pupils went into the classroom. 6. We are usually at school from
nine o'clock in the morning till two o'clock in the afternoon. 7. We don't go to school on Sunday.
1. What do you do after breakfast? — After breakfast I go to school. 2. My granny likes to read a book after
lunch. 3. People usually have breakfast in the morning. They have dinner in the afternoon. In the evening people
have supper. 4. There is a proverb: "After dinner sleep awhile, after supper walks a mile." 5. Who cooks
dinner in your family? 6. Yesterday father told us a very interesting story at breakfast. 7. What did you have for
lunch at school on Wednesday? — We had salad and tea. 8. My mother never has supper with the family because
she does not like to eat in the evening. 9. When do you clean your teeth in the morning: before breakfast
or after breakfast?
1. For breakfast I have coffee with milk and sugar. I have jam, too. There are different things on the dinner table.
There is some bread, some butter and some ham. There are some cups and some glasses there. There is a jug
on the table. The milk in the jug is hot. There is a teapot on the table. There is tea in the teapot. The tea is hot,
too. There are some plates, some forks and some knives on the table. 2. The lamp is on the table. 3. There is a
lamp on the table. 4. Is there a lamp on the table? 5. Is the lamp on the table? 6. Is there a clock on the wall? 7.
There are two shelves on the wall. 8. Where are the shelves? — The shelves are on the wall. 9. They have a
large flat. There are four rooms in the flat. 10. Is the newspaper on the table? 11. Is there a newspaper on the table?
12. There is some butter on the plate. 13. Where is the butter? — The butter is on a little plate. 14. There is
some white and brown bread on the table.
1. Pete has a small family. He has a father and a mother. He has no brother, but he has a sister. His sister is a
pupil. She is a good girl. She has many Russian books, but she has no English books. 2. There is a writing desk
in the room. The writing desk is good. There is a lamp on the writing desk. 3. My uncle has a large family.
They are six in the family, 4. My father is an engineer. He works at a big factory. 5. We have a good library. Our
books are in a big bookcase. 6. Is your sister married? 7. What do you do after breakfast? — I go to school. 8.
When do you come home? — I come home at half past two. 9. Do you like to watch TV in the evening? 10. He
watches television — all day. I never do it. I can't watch TV very often. But tonight I can spend the evening in
front of the box, because there is a very interesting film on. It is "My Fair Lady" with Rex Harrison and Audrey
Hepburn. I love it.
1. My aunt and my uncle are doctors. They work at c a hospital. They get up at seven o'clock in the morning.
They go to bed at eleven o'clock. 2. I work in the morning and in the afternoon. I don't work in the evening. I
sleep at night. 3. When do you leave home for school? — I leave home at a quarter past eight in the morning. 4.
What does your mother do after breakfast? — She goes to work. 5. Is there a sofa in your living room? — Yes,
there is a cosy little sofa in the living room. — Where is the sofa? — It is in the corner of the room to the left of
the door. I like to sit on this sofa in front of the TV set in the evening. 6. There is a nice coffee table near the
window. There are some newspapers on the coffee table. 7. There is some tea in the glass. 8. When do you
watch TV? — I watch TV in the evening. We have a large colour TV set in our room. There is a beautiful vase
on the TV set. There are some flowers in the vase. 9. I have a large writing desk in the study. There is some paper
on her writing desk. My books and exercise books are on the writing desk, too.
My friend's flat is very comfortable. There are three rooms in the flat: a living room, a study and a bedroom.
The living room is not very large. The walls in the living room are blue. There are some pictures on the walls.
There is a table in the middle of the room with some chairs around it. To the left of the door there is a sofa. Near
the sofa there are two large armchairs. They are very comfortable. There is a piano in my friend's living room.
The piano is to the right of the door. The bedroom and the study are small. The furniture in the flat is brown.
1. What colour is your new hat? — It's red. 2. Is there a refrigerator in your kitchen? 3. Where is the refrigerator
in your kitchen? — It is in the corner of the kitchen. 4. There are some flowers in our living room. The flowers
are in a beautiful vase. 5. I have some tea in my cup. 6. He has no coffee in his cup. 7. What book did you take
from the library on Tuesday? 8.1 have some books, exercise books and pens in my bag. 9. I am an engineer I
work at an office. I go to the office in the morning. As the office is far from the house I live in, I take a bus to
get there. 10. What bus do you take to get to work? 11. Whose pen is this? 12. What colour is your new T-shirt?
— It's white. 13. She is going to a music shop to buy a cassette. What cassette is she going to buy?
Here is a large window. Through the window we can see a room. Opposite the window there is a door. On the
door there is a curtain. In the corner of the room there is a round table. On it we can see some books and a telephone.
There is a bookshelf over the table. On the bookshelf we can see some newspapers and a book by Jack
London. There are two pictures in the room. One picture is small, the other picture is very large. There are two
bookcases in the room. The bookcases are full of books. There is a large sofa in the room. On the sofa we can
see a bag. Whose bag is that? There is no bed in the room. On a small table near the window there are some
flowers and a glass of water. In front of the window we can see an armchair.
1. English is a world language. 2. I study English. I attend English classes in the evening. On the days when I
have no classes, I stay at home and do some work about the house. I have dinner with my family. After, dinner I
talk to the members of my family, watch TV and read books, newspapers and magazines. I go to bed late at
night. 3. I am thirsty. Give me some water, please. 4. There is a book on the table. Give me the book, please. 5. I
enjoy listening to music but I don't really like the music that that man plays on his guitar. 6. What did you have
for lunch? — I only had a tuna sandwich. 7. He is a wonderful teacher. He teaches history.
1. When my grandfather was a young man, he studied physics. 2. Do you speak Spanish? 3. My uncle is a great
specialist in biology. 4. Japanese is more difficult than French. 5. We listened to a very interesting lecture on
English literature yesterday. 6. Yesterday at the lesson of geography the teacher told us some very interesting
things about famous travellers. 7. My father speaks English and French, but he does not speak German. 8. We
had a lesson of mathematics уyesterday. We wrote a paper in mathematics. The teacher said: "I shall correct the
papers in the evening. Tomorrow you will know the results".
1. My name is Charlie. I come from a pretty big family. I have two brothers and a sister. I am the oldest and my
sister is the youngest; she plays the violin really well and wants to be a professional musician. She has other
hobbies, too, and she often goes swimming with her friends if the weather is nice. 2. Do you play the piano? 3.
There is a big black piano in our living room. It is at the wall to the left of the door opposite the sideboard. My
mother likes to play the piano. She often plays the piano in the evening. 4. Boys like to play football. 5. What do
you do in the evening? — I often play chess with my grandfather. 6. Where are the children? — Oh, they are out
of doors. The weather is fine today. They are playing badminton in the yard. 7. What games does your sister
like to play? — She likes to play tennis. 8. Do you like to play the guitar? 9. What colour is your guitar?
It was a hot day. The sun was shining brightly in the blue sky. A wolf and a lamb met at a stream. The water in
the stream was cool and clear. The wolf saw that lamb was fat and wanted to eat it. He began to shout: "You,
fool, you are making the water dirty!" The lamb was afraid. It looked at the wolf and said in a thin voice: "But,
Mr. Wolf, I cannot make the water dirty for you from the place where I am standing, because the stream runs
from you to me." "Stop talking!" shouted the wolf in an angry voice. "I know you! I met you six months ago,
and you were very rude to me." "You are wrong, Mr. Wolf," cried the lamb, "you could not meet me six months
ago: I am only four months old." "Never mind," said the wolf, "if it wasn't you, it was your brother." And with
these words he seized the poor lamb and carried it into the wood.
1. Bill Robins was a very rich man. He was the richest man in the village. 2. Pete is the tallest boy in our class.
Nick is the shortest boy, but he is very strong. He is stronger than many boys who are taller than he. I think
Nick is the strongest boy in the class. 3. Granny often tells us long stories. Today her story was still longer. It
was the longest story. She began telling it after dinner and finished only before supper. But the story was very
interesting. I think it was the most interesting of Granny's stories. 4. Which was the most difficult exercise in
the paper? 5. Which is the best season of the year? 6. February is the shortest month of the year. 7. Do you
know the longest river in our country? 8. In May the days are longer than in April.
1. Moscow is situated on the Moscow River. The Moscow is a river that moves very slowly. There is a canal
called the Moscow-Volga Canal which joins the /5 Moscow to the Volga. The Volga runs into the Caspian Sea.
2. Several rivers run into the sea at New York. The most important is the Hudson River which empties into the
Atlantic Ocean. Besides the Hudson there are two other rivers: the East River and the Harlem River. 3. In Siberia
there are many long rivers: the Ob, the Irtysh, the Yenissei, the Lena and the Amur. 4. The Altai Mountains
are higher than the Urals. 5. There is a splendid view of Lake Geneva from this hotel. 6. My friends have travelled
a lot. This year they are going to fly to the Canary Islands. 7. Which river flows through London? — The
Thames. 8. Of which country is Washington the capital? — The United States. 9. The United Kingdom consists
of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. 10. Chicago is on Lake Michigan.
1. Russia occupies the eastern half of Europe and the northern third of Asia. 2. The climate of the northern part
of Russia is severe. 3. This winter is a true Russian winter with hard frosts. 4. It is warm in the Crimea and the
Caucasus. 5. Washington is the capital of the United States of America. 6. I want to go to New York some day.
7. The best way to know and understand the people of other countries is to meet them in their own homes. 8. Is
Australia an island or a continent? 9. The Red Sea is between Africa and Asia. 10. There are six continents in
the world. 11. France is to the north of Italy.
1. The Neva flows into the Gulf of Finland. 2. The Pacific Ocean is very deep. 3. The Urals are not very high.
4. Kazbek is the highest peak of the Caucasus. 5. The Alps are covered with snow. 6. The Shetland Islands are
situated to the north of Great Britain. 7. The USA is the largest country in America. 8. The Crimea is washed by
the Black Sea. 9. Lake Baikal is the deepest lake in the world. 10. Paris is the capital of France. 11. Lomonosov
was born in a small village on the shore of the White Sea. 12. Gogol was born in the Ukraine in 1809. 13. The
Caucasus separates the Black Sea from the Caspian Sea. 14. Europe and America are separated by the Atlantic
Ocean. 15. The Baltic Sea is stormy in winter. 16. There are many small islands in the Pacific Ocean. 17. The
North Sea separates the British Isles from Europe. 18. The Balkans are old mountains. 19. The Nile flows
across the northeastern part of Africa to the Mediterranean Sea. 20. Which are the highest mountains in Russia?
1. The Thames is a short river. 2. Russia is washed by the Arctic Ocean in the north. 3. Kiev is to the south of
Moscow. 4. Europe is a continent. 5. Moscow is the capital of Russia. 6. Is Asia an island or a continent? 7. The
Black Sea is in the south of our country. 8. The White Sea is in the north of our country. 9. This is a map of the
world. What can you see on the map? What colour are the valleys on the map? 10. Petrov is an architect. He is
an experienced architect. He is in the Far East. He has a wife. His wife is a typist. They have a son and a daughter.
11. The Philippines are situated to the southeast of Asia.
1. This is a pen. It is a good pen. The pen is black. It is on the table. 2. I have got a dog. The dog's name is Spot.
He is a big grey dog. The dog is very strong. 3. My friend has a sister. Her name is Ann. The girl is a pupil. 4.
We have a picture in the living room. The picture is very good. It is on the wall. 5. The Irish Sea is between
Great Britain and Ireland. 6. There is a map on the wall of the classroom. It is a map of the world. There are
many seas and lakes on the map. This is the Mediterranean Sea and that is the Red Sea. These are the Himala9
yas. They are the highest mountains in the world. 7. We live in St. Petersburg. St. Petersburg is a very large
city. It is one of the largest cities in Russia. 8. My brother is a doctor. His flat is in the centre of the city. It is in
a new house. There are three rooms in the flat. The living room is the largest of all. It is a nice light room. There
are some pictures on the walls. There is a round table in the middle of the room. There is a sofa at the wall with
a large thick carpet in front of it. The study and the bedroom are small, but very comfortable.
1. Did you have a good time in the country? — Oh, yes. The weather was fine. We were out of doors from
morning till night. We played football, volleyball and other games. We came home late at night and went to bed
at once. 2. Look at the clock! It is a quarter past ten. Go to bed at once. 3. The sun rises in the east and sets in
the west. 4. We spent last summer in the Ukraine, in a little village on the bank of a big river with very warm
water. There was a wood on the other side of the river. We often went to the wood and gathered a lot of mushrooms.
5. My friend likes to play chess. He is ready to play chess all day long. He is the best chess player in our
1. Teckle comes from a very old country on the Nile. It is called Ethiopia. Ethiopia is a beautiful mountainous
country. Teckle is a young man. He wants to be come an engineer. He is very happy to be a student of St. Petersburg
University. He spends a lot of time at the library reading and studying different subjects, Very often in
the evening his new friends and he walk about the city talking about their native countries. 2. Galina lives in the
Ukraine. She lives in a small village near Odessa. She is a librarian. In summer she has a lot of work: she takes
newspapers and magazines to the people who work in the fields. Galina wants to enter Moscow University and
now she is preparing for the entrance examinations. 3. My friend lives in America. He is a student. He studies
history at Harvard University.
When we want to write a letter, we take a piece of paper and a pen. We first write our address and the date in
the right-hand corner. Then on the left-hand side we write a greeting. We may write, for instance, "My dear
brother," "Dear Henry,'* etc., and then on the next line we begin the real letter. We must not forget to leave a
margin on the left-hand side of the page. At the end of the letter we write "Yours," and then we sign our name.
We put the letter into an envelope and close the envelope. On the envelope we write the name and address of
the person who will receive it. We stick a stamp in the top right-hand corner, and then we post the letter.
Once there lived a man who was very fond of gold. He used to say: "While I have my gold, I am the happiest
man in the world." And so all his life he saved money. One day he was travelling in the desert of North Africa.
He lost his way. He had no food or water. He was almost dying of hunger. He was so weak that he could not
walk, he could only crawl. The heat was terrible. There were only stones and sand around. Just then he saw a
bag lying on the sand. He hoped that he would find food in it and water, too. He crawled up to the bag and
opened it. He saw that the bag was full of gold. What is the use of gold to a hungry man in a desert? He left the
bag on the hot sand, crying bitterly: "I am the most unhappy man in the world."
1. Let's go to the shop, I must buy some bread and milk. 2. I was at the cinema yesterday. — What film did you
see? — Oh, I saw a very good film. I think it is the best film of the year. 3. Do you often go to the theatre? —
No, I don't. I like to go to the theatre, but I am very busy. I work from morning till night. I even have no time to
play the piano. 4. Oleg has a lot of interesting books at home. 5. A lot of tourists from different countries come
to St. Petersburg. They want to see one of the most beautiful cities in the world. 6. My new friend said to me: "I
am a student of the first course." 7. We went to the cinema in the evening. 8. What foreign languages does your
father speak? — He speaks English. He studied English at school. 9. I am interested in history. 10. We played
tennis at the lesson of physical training yesterday. We had a good time. 11. Did you go for a walk yesterday? —
No, we didn't. The weather was bad, and we went to the cinema. 12. What are your friends doing? — Mary is
playing the piano. Tom and Nick are playing chess.
Three men came to New York for a holiday. They came to a very large hotel and took a room there. Their room
was on the forty-fifth floor. In the evening the friends went to the theatre and came back to the hotel very late.
"I am very sorry," said the clerk of the hotel, "but the lifts do not work tonight. If you don't want to walk up to
your room, we shall make beds for you in the hall." "No, no," said one of the friends, "no, thank you. We don't
want to sleep in the hall. We shall walk up to our room." Then he turned to his friends and said: "It is not easy
to walk up to the forty-fifth floor, but we shall make it easier. On the way to the room I shall tell you some
jokes; then you, Andy, will sing us some songs; then you, Peter, will tell us some interesting stories." So they
began walking up to their room. Tom told them many jokes; Andy sang some songs. At last they came to the
thirty-sixth floor. They were tired and decided to have a rest. "Well," said Tom, "now it is your turn, Peter. After
all the jokes, I would like to hear a sad story. Tell us a long and interesting story with a sad end." "The story
which I am going to tell you," said Peter "is sad enough. We left the key to our room in the hall."
Swift, a famous English writer, was travelling one day on horseback with his servant. The weather was bad, it
was raining, and the roads were muddy. In the evening the two men came to an inn. Before going to bed Swift
told his servant to clean his boots. But the servant was lazy and did not do it. In the morning Swift asked the
servant why he had not cleaned the boots. "What's the use cleaning the boots now?" said the servant. "The roads
are muddy, and the boots will soon be dirty again." "All right," said the writer. "Let's go. We must continue the
journey." "But I haven't had breakfast," said the displeased servant. "Well, what's the use giving you breakfast
now?" said Swift: "You will soon be hungry again."
In a small town in the East there was once a man who had a parrot. The parrot was taught to say the words:
"There is no doubt about it." It used to repeat these words all day long. Every time it was asked a question, it
gave the same answer. "There is no doubt about it." One day the man decided to sell the bird; so he put the parrot
into the cage and went to the market with it. "Twenty pounds for a very clever parrot!" he cried. A man who
was passing by heard this and turned to the parrot. "Are you worth twenty pounds?" he asked. "There is no
doubt about it!" answered the parrot. "What a clever parrot!" said the man and bought the bird. He took the parrot
home and invited his friends to look at the clever bird. The friends came and looked at the parrot and talked
to it. Now you must know that the man was not rich. In fact, he was often short of money. So a week or two
later, sitting in an armchair and looking at the parrot, he said: "What a fool I was to throw away such a lot of
money!" "There is no doubt about it!" cried the parrot» And this time the bird was right.
A train stopped at a little station. A passenger looked out of the window of a train carriage and saw a woman
selling cakes. The man had not had breakfast in the morning. He was hungry and wanted to buy a cake. The
woman was standing rather far from the carriage. The man did not want to go and buy a cake himself because
he was afraid to miss the train. He saw a boy who was walking along the platform near the carriage. He called
the boy and asked him: "How much does a cake cost?" "Three pence, sir," answered the boy. The man gave him
a sixpence and said: "Bring me a cake, and with the other three pence buy a cake for yourself." The boy took the
money and went to the woman. A few minutes later the boy returned. He was eating a cake. He gave the man
three pence change and said: "The woman had only one cake, sir."
A crow once said to her children: "It's high time for you to look for food." With these words she turned them
out of the nest and took them to the field. But the crow's children did not like the idea. "We'd rather go back to
the nest," they cried. "It's so nice when you bring food to us!" "Indeed!" said their mother. "You are big enough
to feed yourselves. My mother turned me out of the nest when I was much younger, and I had to take care of
myself." "But people will kill us with their guns," said the young crows. "No fear of that," answered their
mother. "Before people shoot, they take aim, and that takes time. When you see a man raising a gun to his face,
you must just fly away." "That's a simple thing to do," said the children, "but supposing a man or a boy wants to
throw a stone at us: in such a case he won't have to take aim." "Well, then he will have to bend down to pick up
a stone," said the crow. "But what if he carries a stone in his hand ready?" "Why, if you are clever enough to
think of that," said the mother, "you are clever enough to take care of yourselves." And she flew away leaving
the young crows in the field.
Russia is such a large country that when it is night in one part of the country, it is day in another part, when it is
winter in one part of the country; it is already summer in another. Imagine it is the beginning of May now. It is
spring in St. Petersburg. The weather is fine. It is still cool at night, but it is quite warm in the afternoon. It
sometimes rains, but the rain is warm, too. The ground is covered with soft green grass, and the trees are covered
with green leaves. But while it is spring in St. Petersburg, it is still winter in the north of our country at the
beginning of May. Here it is cold and sometimes frosty, the rivers and seas are covered with ice. The ice does
not melt in some places even in summer. The ground is covered with deep snow. In the south of our country the
weather is quite different. It is already summer in the Caucasus and in the Crimea. It is much warmer than in St.
Petersburg. It is sometimes even hot. The sky is usually cloudless and it seldom rains here, People wear summer
1. Is this an interesting book? Is this a very interesting book? Is this the very interesting book you have spoken
about so much? It is such an interesting book. Is it the same book you have recommended to us? 2. She is a
teacher. She is a good teacher. She is a teacher of our school. She is a teacher of English. Here is the teacher,
ask her about the question which interests you. 3. There is a word in the text which I cannot understand. There is
a very difficult word, too, which I cannot pronounce. Here is the word I was looking up in the dictionary. This
word is an adverb. 4. The first men were vegetarians. 5. Serfdom was abolished in Russia in the 19th century. 6.
Columbus, who discovered America, was a native of Genoa. 7. Rome is an ancient town. 8. Ireland, Scotland
and Wales are parts of the United Kingdom. 9. What is the name of the ocean between America and Asia? —
The Pacific. 10. Last summer I visited Switzerland and Germany. 11. Amsterdam is the capital of the Netherlands.
Once there lived a king. His name was Midas. He had a little daughter. They lived in a beautiful palace with a
wonderful garden around it. Now the king was very fond of gold. He loved gold more than anything else in the
world. One day, when the king was looking at his gold, a young man appeared before him. "You are a very rich
man, Midas," said the young man. "Yes," said the king, "but I would like to be richer. I would like to have a
golden touch. I want everything that I touch to turn into gold." The young man was a magician, and he gave the
king the golden touch which he wanted to have. The king was very happy. He touched a table, and the table became
gold. He went into the garden. There were beautiful roses in the garden. He touched the roses, and they
also became gold. The king's daughter, who loved the roses very much, saw it and began to cry. "Don't cry, dear
daughter", said the king and touched his daughter's head. The next moment the girl turned into a beautiful gold
A group of farmers were sitting in a village house, and among other things they began talking about echoes.
One of the farmers said that there was a wonderful echo in the field near his farm where there was a large group
of trees. All the other farmers said that they would like to hear the echo, and the farmer invited them to come
the next afternoon. But the fact was that the farmer did not really have the echo he had told the other farmers
about. So when he came home, he sent for the son of the cook and told him to go to the field, hide himself
among the trees and imitate everything that was said. The next day the other farmers came, and the farmer took
them to the field to listen to the wonderful echo. When they were in the field, he shouted at the top of his voice:
"Are you there?" The answer came back: "Yes, I've been here for two hours!"
It was a nice summer day. The weather was fine, the sun was shining in the blue sky, the air was fragrant with
the smell of grass and flowers. A dog which was running about the streets of a little town saw a butcher's stall
with a lot of meat. The dog cautiously approached the stall and, when the butcher turned away to talk to a
woman, quickly seized a big piece of meat and ran away with it. On the way home the dog had to cross a
stream by a narrow bridge. As he was crossing, he looked down into the stream and saw his reflection in the
water. He thought it was another dog with another piece of meat. He snapped at the reflection and dropped his
own piece of meat. That's how the dog was punished for greediness.
On Sunday our family went to the country. We got up at sunrise and quickly had breakfast. After breakfast we
left home. There is a little village not far from St. Petersburg where we have friends. We went there by train.
We had a very good time in the country. The weather was fine, the sky was blue and the sun was shining. We
stayed out of doors all day long. We played volleyball and tennis. We returned to town late in the evening.
When we came home, we had supper and went to bed at once.
1. Look at the sky. It is covered with dark clouds. Let's hurry home. 2. It was very pleasant to live in the country
in summer. The weather was fine and it seldom rained. Summer is a fine sea son. 3. How lovely the night is!
There are no clouds in the sky and the air is so fresh. 4. When spring comes, the sun shines brighter, the snow
melts, the days become longer. 5. Winter is a good time for sports. 6. On Sunday my friend and I usually go to
the country. We ski, skate, play snowballs and have a very good time. 7. The fog is so dense that it is difficult to
walk. 8. My friend is a very good chess player. 9. In summer we lived in the country and went up to town by
train. 10. Tomorrow is Sunday. If it is too hot in town, we shall go to the country. And on Monday we shall
Last Tuesday evening, when the whole family was at home, a burglar came into the house and stole $ 500!
When we discovered the theft, we called the police. Because his shoes were wet and dirty, the detective could
follow his footprints. Here is what the burglar did. He came in the front door. It was locked, so he broke the
lock. Dad was reading a newspaper in the study near the front door. He was facing the big window, so he didn't
see the man, and because he was also listening to loud music, he didn't hear him. It was raining and there was
thunder, so there was a lot of noise outside, too. The burglar crossed the hall to the kitchen. Mum was making a
pot of tea, so he didn't go into the kitchen. The man went back across the hall and looked into the dining room.
No one was in there. He looked through all the drawers and found $ 300. But this wasn't enough. He came out
of the dining room and went upstairs. Tom was doing his homework in his bedroom and listening to his Walkman.
The burglar went past Tom's room. Sally was taking a shower and singing at the top of her lungs. He went
into the TV room. He opened everything but found nothing. Then he left the TV room, went back down the
stairs and into the kitchen. Mum was sitting in the living room with Dad. The burglar was very quiet! He found
$200 in an old teapot on the top shelf of the left kitchen cupboard. Then the man went out through the French
window in the dining room. It wasn't locked, so it was easy to get out. The police couldn't believe it! We never
heard the burglar!
1. My brother read to me an extract from the book which he had brought the day before. The main character of
the book is a young doctor who went to a distant village in Siberia. 2. The weather was very bad in October. 3.
When he came into the room, he saw a man sitting on the sofa. He at once remembered that it was the man he
had seen at the theatre the night before. 4. Yesterday I saw the film you are speaking about. 5. He took a taxi
and gave the address to the driver. 6. Tower Bridge is the first bridge over the Thames coming from the sea.
Built in 1894 it is a suspension bridge. The central portion of it can be opened to admit ships to the docks in this
part of the river. When a ship arrives, the traffic is stopped and the great bridge opens in the centre: its two
halves go up into the air and the ship passes through.
Once a Frenchman was travelling in Sweden. He stopped at a hotel in a little Swedish town. It was evening, the
man was tired, so he went to bed at once. In the morning he had breakfast in the hotel restaurant. After breakfast
he went for a walk. He walked along the streets of the town, visited a museum and some shops. Presently he
felt hungry and dropped into a cafe for lunch. He sat down at a table, called a waiter and ordered mushrooms.
But the Frenchman did not know Swedish and the waiter did not know French. Nobody in the cafe could speak
French. Then the Frenchman took a piece of paper and a pencil and drew the picture of a mushroom. The waiter
looked at the picture and left the room at once. Five minutes later he returned with an umbrella.
A guide was once showing a group of rich American tourists the places of interest in a little town in the south of
Italy. He took the tourists from place to place, but as the town was small, after a while the guide could not think
of anything that might be of interest to the Americans. "Tell us something unusual about the weather or the climate
of this place," said an American lady to the guide. "What can I tell her about our climate?" thought the
guide. Then he had an idea. "Well," he said, ""there is one unusual thing about our climate. One can easily notice
that the wind here always blows from the west." "Really?" said the lady in a surprised tone: "What an interesting
thing!" But another tourist said: "You must be wrong. Look! The wind is blowing from the east now." At
the first moment the guide did not know what to say. But he was a clever man and soon found a way out. "Oh,"
he said, "Is that so? Well, then it must be the west wind coming back."
The English king Richard the Lion Heart was a tall, strong man. He was very proud of his strength and liked to
show people how strong he was. Once, as he was riding on horseback in the countryside, his horse lost a shoe.
Luckily he was not far from a village and soon he found a blacksmith. "Give me a good horseshoe," he said to
the man. The blacksmith gave the king a horseshoe. Richard took it in his hand and broke it in two. "This
horseshoe is no good," he said, "give me a better one." The blacksmith did not say a word. He gave the king
another horseshoe, but Richard broke it, too. The blacksmith gave him a third shoe. This time Richard was satisfied
and ordered the blacksmith to shoe his horse. When the work was done, Richard offered the man a coin.
The blacksmith took the coin between his fingers and broke it in two. Now it was Richard's turn to be surprised.
He took a larger coin out of his pocket and handed it to the blacksmith. The man broke it, too, saying: "This
coin is no good, give me a better one". Richard smiled and gave the man a gold coin.
In the fifteenth century people knew only three continents: Europe, Asia and Africa. They knew nothing about
such a big continent as America, The man who discovered America was born in 1451 in Italy. His name was
Christopher Columbus. He became a sailor at an early age. Knowing that the Earth was round, he decided to
reach India sailing to the west. He tried to arrange an expedition, but did not have money, and nobody wanted to
help him. At last the king of Spain gave him money for the expedition. He set sail in 1492. The voyage was very
dangerous and difficult. On the 12th of October his ship reached land. When they landed, they saw strange trees
and flowers. Men and women with olive-coloured skins gathered around the sailors and looked at them with
great surprise. Columbus was sure that he had discovered a new way to India. Some time later another sailor
reached America. The name of the sailor was Amerigo Vespucci. He understood that it was a new continent.
1. He's looking for a plain shirt, but all the shirts are striped. 2. I'm looking for a pair of black pants. 3. She's
looking for a blouse. Polka-dot blouses are very popular this summer. 4. I bought a new hat yesterday. The shop
assistant said it was the latest style. 5. I want to ask you to accompany me to the shop. I must buy a dress. 6.
Where did you buy this overcoat? — I bought it at a big store in Nevsky Prospect on Tuesday. 7. My sister
bought a blue hat on Wednesday. The colour suits her very nicely as she has got blue eyes. 8.1 must buy a pair
of new gloves. 9. Where is
the shoe department? — It is on the third floor. 10. I think the coat is a little tight. 11. We came to a big store to
find out if we could have a suit made to order. 12. I don't like the hat you have chosen. The colour is not becoming
to you. 13. Here is the department of ready-made clothes. Let's go in and see if we can buy a nice pair
of trousers for you. 14. I am going to give him a tie as a birthday present.
Mr. Jones was a teacher of physics at school. He was fond of the experimental method in physics and often told
his pupils to use this method. One day Mr. Jones came to school on a new bicycle. The bicycle had a pair of
pneumatic tyres, which had just been invented, and none of the pupils had ever seen them. During a lesson the
teacher took the pupils into the school yard and showed them the new invention. "Now, children," he said,
"who can tell me what is inside this tyre that makes it so hard and yet so elastic?" The boys touched the tyres.
"Cotton wool," said one of them. "Steel springs," said another. "Oh no," said the teacher, "you are wrong."
Suddenly a little boy, who was standing beside the bicycle, cried out, looking very happy: "I know what it is!
There's wind inside." Mr. Jones smiled and said: "You are right: there's air inside. But how did you find it out?"
"Well, I used the experimental method," said the boy: "I stuck a nail into the tyre, and some wind came out of
it". For the first time in his life Mr. Jones did not like the use of the experimental method.
1. Everyone in our country knows Lomonosov, the founder of the first Russian university. 2. Ne-krasov, a famous
Russian poet, described the life of Russian peasants. 3. I don't want to miss the concert which will take
place at the Philharmonic on the 15th of April. 4. He graduated from the university six years ago. Now he is a
scientist. And though he is a young scientist, his name is well known. 5. My aunt is a teacher of physics. 6.
Yesterday I read a book by Dickens, a famous English writer. 7. I am sorry, I don't know the way to the nearest
cafe: I am a stranger here myself. 8. The town I was born in is on the Volga. 9. Who is the author of this book?
10. A quarter of an hour was left before the beginning of the concert. We entered the hall and saw a group of
pupils of our school. We joined them.
1. During the vacation I attended some interesting lectures. I remember two of the lectures best of all. They
were about Russian music. 2. I am sure he won't stay in town for the vacation. 3. Two weeks are left before the
end of the school year. The examinations are coming. On the first of June we shall take an examination in literature.
4, Today is my day off. I am going to spend the day in the country. 5. My brother brought a new book
yesterday. When I looked at the title, I was very glad: it was the book which I had wanted to get for a long time.
6. My sister is acquainted with the actor who played the leading part in the play you saw yesterday. 7. "What
river is the longest in Europe?" "Why, what a strange question to ask! Any schoolboy can tell you that it is the
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