Агроценоз пшеничного поля: Рассмотрим агроценоз пшеничного поля. Его растительность составляют...

Архитектурное бюро: Доминантами формообразования служат здесь в равной мере как контекст...

Нейроглия (или проще глия, глиальные клетки): Структурная и функциональная единица нервной ткани и он состоит из тела...

Tell about the outstanding mathematician Sophia Kovalevskaya


Write a sentence from the words given.


Verb + Object + to Infinitive

The scientist commissioned his assistant to solve it.


Verb + to Infinitive

The teacher asked to prove the theorem.


1. in time. / them / reminded / to / the task / to complete / I.

2. to / persuaded / our / They / us / mind.

3. with / She / to / problem. / a / wanted / practical / start

4. about / us / answer / the world. / Physicists / questions / enables


Write a second sentence with the same meaning. Each time begin with the way shown.


5. “Do not try to do it on your own”, the teacher told his student.

The teacher warned …

6. “Nobody allowed you to interfere with my matter”, Kate said to her sister.

Kate reminded …

7. I told you that you should keep in touch with Mr. Brown.

I advised …

8. I was surprised that the plane was delayed. I did not expect…

Scientists joke

v What are Newton's laws of motion?

It's not only thick people who have trouble understanding Newton's laws. But although they appear complicated, they are actually very simple. However, first we must get to know four scientific terms:

Force: When you kick your sister in the shin, you are using force.

Mass: If she is fat she has lots of mass.

Inertia: Being fat, she will not be able to chase you. She has inertia.

Energy: Every time you kick her, molecules in the form of waves pass from your foot to her shin. This is energy. There can be lots of energy, like a nuclear bomb, or a tiny amount, like when one of your brain cells dies.

Newton's First Law If something is not moving it will stay where it is. Kick your sister in the shins. Go on, do it now. You will see that she reacts. Let's just think about what happened there. If you hadn't kicked her, she would have stayed where she was, probably sitting in front of the TV eating cakes. Hence, the first law is proved. Newton discovered this law when an apple fell on his head. To this day it is know as Newton's Apple Law.
Newton's Second Law Every action results in a small loss of energy. You know how when you do a lot of exercise, you run out of breath? Well, this is proof of Newton's second law. This may seem simple but it has terrible consequences for the universe. You see, if the universe runs out of energy soon, everyone in it, including you and your family, will just waste away into nothing! But don't worry too much — scientists don't think this will happen in your lifetime.

Unit 4 How to get a job?


4.1 Discuss in pairs the following questions and compare your answers with your groupmates:

1. Who and what influenced your choice of career?

2. What field of science are you interested in?

3. Do you have any work experience?

4. Is it possible to combine work and study?

5. Would you like to continue your education after graduating the University?

6. What are your special interests?

7. Do you prefer to work on your own or as a part of some team?


Read the following text. Divide the text into paragraphs and give the title each of them.

The Undergraduate Years.

Many students start thinking about the possibility of a career when their interest is ignited by a high-school or undergraduate teacher or some other role model. This is the time to start meeting and talking with scientists and engineers in fields that interest you. These early contacts can be crucial in helping you to navigate the terrain of science and engineering as you move through your career. The undergraduate years are probably your best chance. Finding a job takes work; finding the job that you wanttakes hard work. Many recent science and engineering graduates are lucky enough to move into desirable employment immediately. But it's common to spend months or even more than a year in the job search. When looking for a position, do not simply rely on the want ads in the scientific journals—although this is definitely the place to begin. Think more broadly. Meetings and conferences are a good way to explore your disciplineand to meet numerous people in your field and talk to them about employment—either for a postdoctoral position or a longer-term, ''real" job. You might also have the opportunity to demonstrate your research and communication skills (an excellent way is to present a poster or paper) and even to interview for positions. Your personality and natural abilities should match with the kind of performance required in various careers. Some of those skills are technical, such as the ability to operate or design complex equipment. Others allow you to apply your technical skills: the ability to reason, to spot interesting problems, to formulate hypotheses, to test those hypotheses. These allied skills acquiredin graduate school are more powerful than many students recognise and can be applied to many other kinds of jobs and careers. A potential employer will assume that as a scientist or engineer, you have advanced technical skills. But some of them, including the analytic and problem-solving abilities that are central to what you do as a researcher, might remain invisible unless you are able to display them. That is, unless you also have such survival skills as communication.


4.3 Read the following words and phrases. Mind the reading rules:

survival, to acquire, hypothesis, desirable, immediately, to navigate, engineering, scientist, career, common, to require, to advance.


4.4 Find the Russian equivalents to the following:

to be ignited, crucial,undergraduate teacher, employment, to assume, skill, to be lucky, to reason, to spot,opportunity.


4.5 Find the pair of synonyms:

1. decisive a) desirable

2. to investigate b) to reason

3. to notice c) to rely on

4. attractive d) crucial

5. to examine e) to reason

6. to trust f) to explore

7. expertness g) to spot

8. to think logically h) to navigate


4.6. Find the sentences with these words and word – combinations in the text and translate them:

1. crucial 5. technical skills

2. desirable employment 6. assume

3. allied 7. the job search

4. survival 8. a longer – term job


4.7 Answer the following questions:

1. When do students begin thinking about their future career?

2. What contact can help you understand what to choose?

3. How much time can it take you to find a job

4. What are the ways of the job searching?

5. What should match with your personality and natural abilities?

6. What are technical skills?


4.8 Read and translate the dialogues. Pay attention to the italicised words and word – combinations. Act in pairs.


Dialogue I

Secretary: Good morning, MST agency.

Applicant: Good morning, I’m calling on your advertisementpublished in “Times” on Tuesday. I want to apply for a position of a computer programmer.

Secretary: Yes, sir. We are looking for a computer programmer. You may come tomorrow and bring your resumeand application.

Applicant: Thank you. Good bye.

Secretary: Good bye.


Dialogue II

Employer: Good morning Mr. Evance.

Applicant: Good morning Mr. Kidman. I want to apply for a position of a computer programmer.

Employer: What are your qualifications in this field?

Applicant: I have a bachelor’s degree in computer science. I graduated from London College this year.

Employer: Do you have any work experience?

Applicant: Not in this field, but I’ve worked as a programmer assistant in sales department for six months.

Employer: Have you got any referencesfrom your previous job?

Applicant: Unfortunately not.

Employer: Well, I think we may take on experimental period for one month. You’ll start on 200 dollars. The hours are from 9 to 5.30 with an hour for lunch. Any questions?

Applicant: What will my responsibilities be?

Employer: You’ll be responsible for our network security. You’ll also have to install some specific programs.

Applicant: When do you want me to start sir?

Employer: In a week, if it suits you.

Applicant: Yes, of course. Thank you. Good bye.

Employer: Good bye.


Dialogue III

Applicant: Good morning, Mr. Hill.

Employer: Good morning, Mr. Brown. Please, fill in the application form.

Applicant: Here you are.

Employer: Thank you. Tell me, how long were you in your last job?

Applicant: Two years.

Employer: Why did you leave?

Applicant: I worked in a branch office and I was made redundant, when the office was closed.

Employer: We need an experiencedengineer with your qualification.

Applicant: What will my job involve?

Employer: You’ll be in charge of manufacturing process. You’ll deal with complaints.

Applicant: Will I have to meet clients and attend meetings?

Employer: Yes, sure. First, your salary will be 300 dollars. You’ll also have a fortnight holiday pay.

Applicant: What about sick pay?

Employer: Certainly.

Applicant: What about travels?

Employer: Sometimes. Mostly to Birmingam for one week.

Applicant: It suits me.

Employer: When can you start?

Applicant: Next week. Thank you. Good bye.

Employer: Good bye.


Dialogue IV.

Jack:Hello, Dave! Haven’t seen you for ages.

Dave:Fine, thank you,Jack. How are you? You look great.

Jack:I’m O’K. I’ve heard you were fired.

Dave:Yes. The salary wasn’t fair and it was a nine- to- five job. You

know, it’s boring and it’s not for me.

Jack:So, how do you earn for living now?

Dave:Well, actually, I’m a freelance now. I work as a translator for some companies now. They send me some texts by e-mail and I translate them. What about you?

Jack:The company went bankrupt last year and I was made redundant. I applied for some jobs but nothing so far. I tried our old boy networkbut you see … . I moonlight sometimes for my friends. But I hope to find something.

Dave:By the way, I know that MVI is looking for a position of an engineer. Here is their telephone.

Jack:Thank you. I’ll call today.

Dave:Good luck. Bye.



4.9 Match the words in column A with the words in column B:

1. jobbing a) зарабатывать

2. self-employed б) зарплата служащих

3. to earn c) работать на компанию

4. salary d) рано уйти на пенсию

5. wages e) получить повышение по службе

6. to be on flexi-time f) зарплата рабочих

7. to work in g) работать на себя

8. to work for h) случайная работа

9. to take early retirement i) работать по гибкому


10. to be promoted J) работать в


4.10 Explain the meanings of these words in English:

jobs for the boys, job-sharing, hunt for jobs, ghost-writing, workaholic, whiz kid, temp.

4.11 Match the verbs on the left with the nouns or phrases on the right. Use each word once only:

1.to be made a) for

2.to do b) jobs

3.to apply for c) redundant

4.to hunt for d) overtime

5.to be on e) for a living

6.to be responsible f) of

7.to work g) shiftwork

8.to earn h) maternity leave

9.to be in charge i) a job


4.12 Make up your own sentences using these words:

Networking, jobs for the boys, job-sharing, hunt for jobs, headhunting, jobbing, ghost-writing, workaholic, whiz kid, self-employed, temp, to earn, salary, wages, to do shiftwork, to be on flexi-time, to work overtime, to work in, to work for, to be fired, to be on maternity leave, to take early retirement, to be promoted.


4.13 Complete the dialogues in English:

- Hi, Alice. What on earth are you doing here? Как дела?

- I’m fine. Thank you. And you?

- Всё хорошо. Меня недавно повысили. Я теперь менеджер отдела продаж.

- Здорово! Что входит в твои обязанности?

- I deal with any complaints. I also advise clients. I’ve heard you’re fired.

- Да, я бросила работу. Я поступила в колледж на вечерние курсы. Через два года я буду консультантом по работе.

- You’re right. All needs a fresh challenge. You know, Jack resigned from his company.

- Да, он решил уйти, так как больничный и отпуск не оплачивался. По-моему, он собирается организовать свою фирму.

- Замечательно. Удачи.

- See you.


4.14 Fill in the blanks with the corresponding words (from the list below):

Twenty years ago a 20 years old Jane … in a local telephone company. First she was a trainee for three months and she also went on. She was an industrious and in two years she … and in three years she was … by her boss. Then she moved another town and she … from the company. She sent her … to some companies and was asked to come for. She got … in a small advertising company. It was … for her. She liked her job and now she … this company.

to own, an interview, to resign, a part – time job, training courses, to promote, resume, a fresh challenge, to get a good pay rise, to apply for a job

4.15 Fill in the gaps with an appropriate word:

1. When the company went bankrupt he became … (employment, employed, unemployed).

2. Your written (applied, applicant, application) will be considered tomorrow.

3. He was sent to (trainee, training, trained) courses.

4. He’ll be offered a good pay (rise, rising).

5. I want to become a good (mathematics, mathematician, mathematical).

6. We need an (experience, experienced, experiencing)programmer with your qualification.

7. You’ll be (respond, responsibility, responsible) for our contacts with foreign partners.

8. I hope that next year I’ll be (promotion, promoted, promote) by my boss.

4.16 Say what you think has happened:

1. He’s very lazy and irresponsible that’s why his boss fired him …

2. He’s just graduated the University and he’s trying to find a job … .

3. In a week she’s going to become our supervisor … .

4. She isn’t working out. She is looking after her 2 month baby … .

5. She spends all her time in the office … .

6. I’ve caught a cold and can’t come today … .

4.17 Choose the right word:

job – position – occupation

“job” – anything that one has to do, task, duty;

“position” – a person’s relative place, as in society; rank, status

“occupation” – that which chiefly engages one’s time; one’s trade

“work” – an uncountable noun, not used with an indefinite article e.g. I have work.

1. He was unemployed doing only odd … .

2. Knitting is useful … for long winter evenings.

3. My sister occupies an important … in the Department of Health.

4. The police called to the company to find out his … at the moment.

5. He had a hard … painting the car.


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