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Из четырех вариантов (А), (В), (С), (D) выберите единственно правильный:
1. There’s no doubt that computers have__________ our lives easier.
(A) done (C) become
(B) got (D) made
2. The journalist asked me___________ .
(A) what was my favourite pastime (C) what my favourite pastime was
(B) what is my favourite pastime (D) what my favourite pastime is
3. You’ll be here tomorrow,_________ ?
(A) isn’t it (C) will you
(B) won’t you (D) will you be
4. There was__________ to eat and drink after the party.
(A) Many (C) a lot
(B) lot of (D) lots of
5 that strange man sitting over there?
(A) Whose (C) Who’s
(B) Which (D) Who
6. A kangaroo has such strong legs___________ it can jump over a car.
(A) So (C) as
(B) so as (D) that
7. Is there__________ in the room?
(A) Somebody (C) anybody
(B) something (D) anywhere
8. The telephone was__________ by Alexander Graham Bell.
(A) Discovered (C) explored
(B) invented (D) studied
9. This programme__________ me a lot of money.
(A) Cost (C) had costed
(B) costed (D) was cost
10. It happened_________ our way home.
(A) In (C) for
(B) on (D) abou
(A) the weather (C) wether
(B) a weather (D) the wethers
Из четырех вариантов (А), (В), (С), (D) выберите единственно правильный:
1.1___________ Michael for ages.
(A) didn’t see (С) haven’t seen
(B) don’t see (D) saw not
2.1_________ get up very early now.
(A) must to (C) should to
(B) have to (D) ought
3. How much__________ to fly to New York?
(A) costs it (C) does cost
(B) it costs (D) does it cost
4. My brother Nick is very good__________ maths.
(A) for (C) about
(B) at ' (D) in
5. When did you discover that your car__________ ?
(A) was disappeared (C) had disappeared
(B) had been disappeared (D) disappearing
6. If he__________ hard, he’ll fail his final exams.
(A) doesn’t work (C) hadn’t worked
(B) won’t work (D) wouldn’t work
7. Have you heard the__________ news?
(A) Last (C) latest
(B) Previous (D) latter
8. Which of you__________ to go on an excursion?
(A) wants (C) does want
(B) want (D) do want
9. I’d like to know
(A) where is my diary (C) where my diary is
(B) where it is my diary (D) my diary is where
10. I’m very busy at the moment. I__________ for my English exam.
(A) am preparing (C) have been preparing
(B) prepare (D) am going prepare
для специальности 270802 «Строительство и эксплуатация зданий и сооружений».
A very important part of any structure is a wall. Walls may be constructed in different forms. The walls include windows and doors, heads and sills, stanchion casings and inner lining panels. The doors and windows provide for controlled passage of environmental factors and people through the wall line. The aluminum heads, sills and windows are fixed from inside the building. After this, the 900 mm and 1.800 mm wide exterior doors are installed. These doors are aluminum framed and pre-glazed or hardwood framed and glazing is done on site. All walls are also designed to provide resistance to passage of fire for some defined period of time, such as a one-hour wall. The function of resisting fire fulfills stanchions. The stanchions are enclosed in casings.
That’s why any engineer must know all methods of constructing walls for buildings. Of cause walls are made of various materials to serve several functions. The walls are divided into interior and exterior walls. The exterior walls protect the building interior from external environmental effects such as heat and cold, sunlight, ultraviolet radiation, rain, sound, while containing desirable interior environmental conditions. The exterior walls are made up of brick cladding, wall planks. The wall planks are designed to be weatherproof and to support the outer cladding. The wall planks and floor units are fixed only while the steel frame is being erected. The concrete floor units are capable of carrying a load of up to 5 kN/sq m.
Building materials are very important in the construction. But it is more important for any designer to select and adapt such building materials of construction that will give the most effective result by the most economical means. In this choice of materials for any work of constructions many factors must be considered by the civil engineer. These factors include availability, cost, physical properties of materials and others.
Practically, all buildings materials have their advantages and disadvantages. That’s why some materials are used most widely in building construction for the purpose of binding together masonry units. Among them are lime, gypsum and cement. Last material forms very important elements in all masonry structures, such as stone, a brick. Since the time of its introduction a gradual improvement of Portland cement quality has led to the elaboration of rapid hardening Portland cement, or «high early strength». Portland cement like other materials can be modified to suit a particular application. Later developments include low heat and sulphateresisting cements. The scope for such purpose - made cements has led to the development of an increasing variety such as high alumina cement, blast-furnace slag. They may be also white and coloured cements. Alumina cement has an extremelv high rate of strength increase. Portland blast-furnace cement has greater resistance to some forms of chemicals.
140102 «Теплоснабжение и теплотехническое оборудование»,
270839 «Монтаж и эксплуатация внутренних сантехническихустройств, кондиционирования воздуха и вентиляции»
Besides masonry, a brick work, any engineer must know about heating and ventilation. They are two branches of engineering which are very closely connected. Both they are treated as a dual subject. Heating is to prevent too rapid loss of heat from the body. The rate of heat lost from the body is controlled. Some old concepts of heating have been gradually changed since engineers obtained more precise knowledge about how the body loses heat. Insufficient attention was paid formerly to loss by radiation, which is the transmission of energy in the form of waves from a body to surrounding bodies at a temperature. The human being also loses heat by conduction (through his clothes) and convection, the latter by air currents not only past his skin or outside clothing surface but also by evaporation of moisture from his skin (respiration).
The determination of the capacity or size of the various components of the heating system is based on the fundamental concept that heat supplied to a space equals heat lost from the space. The most widely used system of heating is the central heating.
There are two most common systems of heating: hot water and steam. There the fuel is burned in one place, from which steam, hot water or warm air is distributed to adjacent and remote spaces to be heated. Both systems are widely used nowadays. A hot-water system consists of the boilers and a system of pipes connected to radiators suitably located in the rooms. The steel or copper pipes give hot water to radiators or convectors which give up their heat to the rooms. Then cooled water is returned to the boiler for reheating.
Recent efforts have resulted to completely conceal heating equipment in an arrangement. Hot water, steam, air, or electricity are circulated through distribution units embedded in the building construction. Panel heating is a method of introducing heat to rooms in which emitting surfaces are usually completely concealed in the floor, walls or ceiling. The heat is disseminated from such panels partly by radiation and partly by convection. Ceiling panels release the largest proportion of heat by radiation and floor panels release the smallest one. The proportion of heat disseminated by radiation and convection is also dependent to some extent upon panel-surface temperatures. Other factors must be considered by an engineer. They are a type of occupancy, furniture or equipment location, large glass areas, heat-storing capacity of building construction, room height, and possible change of wall partitions, climate, exposure, cost. Sometimes fuel is used for heating. They include coal, oil, manufactured and natural gas, wood. Nowadays gas fuel is being used on an increasing level.
But, to do comfortable atmosphere is to use heating and ventilation together. Heating and ventilation are concerned with providing a required atmospheric environment within a space to produce a desired temperature for maintaining comfort, health or efficiency of the beings. Nowadays air-conditioning is closely related to both heating and ventilation.
для специальности 270837 «Строительство эксплуатация городских путей сообщения»
The development of transport facilities was very important in the growth of the United States. The first travel routes were natural waterways. No surfaced roads existed until the 1790s, when the first turnpikes were built. Besides the overland roads, many canals were constructed between the late 18th century and 1850 to link navigable rivers and lakes in the eastern United States and in the Great Lakes region. Steam railways began to appear in the East in the 1820s. The first transcontinental railway was constructed between 1862 and 1869 by the Union Pacific and Central Pacific companies, both of which received large subsidies from the federal government. Transcontinental railways were the chief means of transport used by European settlers who populated the West in the latter part of the 19th century. The railways continued to expand until 1917, when their length reached a peak of about 407,000 km. Since then motor transport became a serious competitor to the railway both for passengers and freight.
Air transport began to compete with other modes of transport after World War I. Passenger service began to gain importance in 1920s, but not until the beginning of commercial jet craft after World War II did air transport become a leading mode of travel.
During the early 1990s railways annually handled about 37.5 per cent of the total freight traffic; trucks carried 26 per cent of the freight, and oil pipelines conveyed 20 per cent. Approximately 16 per cent was shipped on inland waterways. Although the freight handled by airlines amounted to only 0.4 per cent of the total, much of the cargo consisted of high-priority or high-value items.
Tunnelling is difficult, expensive and dangerous engineering work. Tunnels are built to provide direct automobile or railway routes through mountain ranges, under or over rivers. They can also provide underground channels for water, sewage or oil. Before the 19th century men had not acquired enough skill in engineering to carry out extensive tunnelling.
Tunnels, however, were known in ancient times. They were, for instance, driven mto the rock under the Pyramids of Egypt, and the Romans built one in Rome for their chief dram, parts of which still remain. One of the earliest tunnels known was made in Babylon. It passed under the Euphrates river, and was built of arched brickwork being 12 feet high and 15 feet wide.
Other ancient tunnels were built for water supply and for drainage. Modem tunnels are often very long and deep The Simplon Tunnel on the France-to-Italy railway, for example, is 12 miles long and in one place the peaks of the Alps rise over 6,000 feet above it. Some tunnels are over 50 feet in diameter. Many are circular in cross-section. Others are horseshoeshaped, with a level floor on which it is easy to lay permanent roads and railways.
для специальности 120714 «Земельно-имущественные отношения»
The planning process should be based on the cadastral survey of land resources. The present situation must be taken into consideration. The land use planner is to decide what needs should be changed and how the changes can be made. He is also to find out which is the best option and how far is the plan succeeded.
This progression of questions has led to the formulation of a guide to land use planning — the planning cycle.
Land use planning is implemented at the national, regional or local level. At the national level land use policy is balanced upon the competing demands for land among different sectors of the economy — food production, export crops, wildlife conservation, housing and public amenities, roads, industry.
National development plans and budget must be also taken into consideration as well as project identification and the allocation of resources for development. Sectoral agencies involved in land use must be coordinated. Legislation on .such subjects as land tenure, forest clearance and water rights should be worked out by all means.
Regional level includes such siting of new developments as settlements, forest plantations and irrigation schemes. The need for improved infrastructure such as water supply, roads and marketing facilities is one of the main problems of this cycle. The development of management guidelines for improved kinds of land use on each type of land is also necessary.
Land use planning is oriented to local conditions in terms of both method and content. Planning approaches often fail because global
models and implementation strategies are applied and taken over automatically and uncritically. But land use planning is not a standardized procedure which is uniform in its application world-wide. Its content is based on an initial regional or local situation analysis.
Local level provides the layout of drainage, irrigation and soil conservation work as well as the siting of specific crops on suitable lands.
On the basis of long-term investigations some principles of land use planning are presented.
Land use planning is a dialogue, creating the prerequisites for the successful negotiation and cooperation among stockholders.
The core task of land use planning consists of initiating a communication and cooperation process which “allows all participants to formulate their interests and objectives in the dialogue”. On the basis of sound decisions a sustainable form of land use is proposed “whereby the aims and interests of other participating group are taken into account to the greatest possible extent”.
Traditional rural societies have their own way of approaching problems and settling conflicts concerning land use. In the process of land use planning, such mechanisms have to be recognized, understood and taken into account.
Land use planning requires transparency. Therefore, free access to information for all participants is a prerequisite.
Land use planning is implementation-oriented. Land use planning has to consider how the negotiated decisions are to be implemented. Land use planning does not end with the land use plan.
The implementation of limited measures (e.g. the development of cultivation techniques which conserve land resources) plays an important role in increasing the trust of the people in the village as far as the planning process is concerned.
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