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»тоговый лексический тест

»вановский  афедра интенсивного изучени€

√осударственный английского €зыка

Ёнергетический  урс 4

”ниверситет ƒисциплина: английский €зык јспект: ƒеловой английский, ч.2.

—оставитель: ƒударева Ќ.ј.

»тоговый лексический тест

 

Chapter 1 (31 entries)

What is Economics?

 

acquire (land, business, reputation, knowledge, language, etc.)

acquired immune deficiency syndrome, AIDS

acquisition (second language acquisition, ~ of land)

allocate smth. to smb. or for smth. (resources, time, money)

alter (radically, dramatically, ~ beyond recognition)

alteration (minor, major ~), undergo ~s.

alternate, v. (periods, seasons ~)

alternative (ways, approaches, suggestions; medicine, therapies)

commodity (agricultural commodities, Commodity/Labor Exchange)

consumption (mass, domestic, industrial ~; conspicuous ~)

consume (goods, energy, time, time-consuming),

consumer (~ goods, ~ society)

enact (law, bill)

forego, forwent, forgone (earnings, income, lunch)

fundamental (change, difference, distinction, mistake, error, human rights)

hoard (food, clothes, supplies)

incentive (create, provide, give ~; financial, tax ~, strong, powerful ~)

intervention (military, medical ~)

intervene (in a dispute, a fight)

optimize (use of resources, expenses)

optimum (conditions)

promote (products, ideas, people, development, recycling, violence)

promotion (good prospects for ~)

promoter

(ir)relevant (documents, information, experience)

scarce (resource)

scarcity (of funds, employment opportunities)

favorable balance of trade

laissez faire

production cost, marginal cost of production

foregone earnings

 

 

Chapter 2 (31 entries)

Supply, Demand and Market Price

 

to be attuned to (peopleТs needs, youth culture)

concede to smb. on smth. (e.g. to terrorists, on privileges), concession (e.g. tax ~, travel ~ to pensioners)

conspicuous (e.g. ~consumption, success,failure)

constant

contemporary (music, art); most of his contemporaries (noun)

conventional (methods, wisdom, medicine); ~ war(without the use of nuclear weapons)

diminish (influence, importance; his enthusiasm ~ed)

equilibrium (to maintain, upset ~)

exert (~influence, pressure, control; ~oneself)

function (~as smth., ~ efficiently)

leisure (activities, facilities, opportunities), at (your) ~, ~wear, leisure class

margin (profit~); marginal (changes, improvements)

maximize/minimize (profits, benefits)

stifle (~innovations, business, democracy; ~ a smile)

tendency (to do smth., ~for smb. to do smth.)

potential (disaster, danger) Ц adj. To reach, realize your (full) ~.

rows and columns (in a table)

horizontal axis

vertical axis

demand curve slopes downward

supply curve slopes upward

intersect

intersection point

dot, dotted line

holding everything else constant

equilibrium and nonequilibrium prices

excess supply/ demand

overproduction

longterm unemployment

conspicuous consumption

 

Chapter 3 (33 entries)

The Entrepreneur in Market Economies

 

aggressive (behavior, policy Ц negative; personality, ~ treatment plan - positive)

coax (~smth.; ~ smb. into doing smth.)

deplete (food supply, forests)

discard (a plan, an idea)

dominate (the market, the league, the conversation)

exploit (workers, children: mineral wealth, opportunities)

incessant (flow of traffic, rain, crying); ~ly

liability, ~ insurance; to be liable for smth.

minimize (costs, damage)

offensive (language, behavior: ~ operations, weapons)

patron, patron-of-the-arts. This car park is for patrons only.

revamp (a plan, a company/ branch)

shuffle (responsibilities, people, cards)

skeptic (noun), skeptical (about smth.), skepticism (treat smb. with~)

speculate (on/about smth.), speculation (to stimulate, provoke, fuel ~; pure/mere ~i.e. completely wrong) speculative

stimulate (investment, production, economy, interest)

visionary (reformer, leadership), a visionary(noun)

pie graphs

circle graphs

speculative risks

pure risks

risk management

risk avoidance

risk reduction

risk assumption

risk transfer

liability insurance

property insurance

business interruption insurance

venture capitalists; business venture; joint venture

take a mortgage

State of the Union Address (by the USA President)

management address on the state of the company

 

 

Chapter 4 (21 entries)

Production and Marketing

 

accessories (car, kitchen, computer ~)

attribute smth. to smb. (success, difficulties, qualities)

component (essential, key, major, principal ~s)

defective (product, car brakes); design/production defects

fantasize about smth.

longevity (to promote health and ~)

perceive, perceived (quality, threat, advantage)

phenomenal (success, increase, growth)

reputation (earn, gain, enjoy a ~ as sth.; good/bad~), live up to oneТs ~

trade-off (sth. for/against sth.)

by tenfold (also: increased tenfold)

to participate in production decisions

performance, high performance technology, to be fired for poor ~, ~-related pay, ~ review/assessment

features (distinctive ~, safety ~)

reliability

conformance to smth.(~ to standards)

durability

serviceability

toll free Уhot linesФ

perceived quality

kit (emergency repair ~, first aid ~, mending~)

 

 

Chapter 5 (33 entries)

The Role of Labor in Business

 

absenteeism, absentee

adversary, adversarial (relations, system)

charge smb. with smth.; be in charge of; take charge of; to charge for (delivery, a service); to charge a fee, interest, rent.

falter (economy is faltering, her voice faltered)

foster (a sense of community, higher marale); ~family, parents, child

launch (a product, a new magazine)

regard, with ~to (=regarding, concerning smt.)

seniority (5 years ~)

turnover, annual ~ of $2 bln., ~rose/fell; staff/labor ~.

to air complaints/grievances

to break oneТs neck/back

competitive edge

company town

to deal a blow/a double blow

hot seat

a piece of the action

to pool resources

jobholdersТ meeting

peer review panel

Employee Involvement (EI) Program

ride exercise bicycles

day-care facilities

blue-chip (stock, company, investment)

declining performance

to be headquartered in

major fuel

(the only means of transporting) bulk freight

the plant prospered

customer base

reach crisis proportions

recession (economy/industry was in ~, to recede)

to dismiss (smb. from a job, the class was dismissed early)

close down unprofitable plants

 

Chapter 6 (34 entries)

The Role of Government in Market Economies

 

assurance (to lack ~, complete~, written ~)

on the brink of smth. or doing smth.

evade (taxes, responsibility, questions)

generate (jobs, energy, income)

inflation (~ rate, high/low, ~rises/falls)

prevail, prevailing (price, conditions, attitudes)

reimburse (costs, expenses, ~smb. for smth.)

sanctuary (animal, wildlife ~, to seek political ~)

sector

stable, stability, stabilize, stabilization

(in)solvency, (in)solvent

to be subject to (control, change)

teeter, ~on the brink of bankruptcy

trigger (a response, a reaction, sales increase, a depression)

coup dТetat

bankruptcy, to go bankrupt, to declare oneself bankrupt

the market would be УclearedФ

the broken line

government interference

lay off workers (end employment, esp. temporarily)

a sliding scale of payments

hourly wages/wages per hour

rent (pay ~, charge ~); to rent (a car, a flat/apartment)

rental (property, ~ agency)

revenues (tax ~, total ~)

value added tax

graduated/progressive income tax

sales tax

corporate taxes

tax deductions (receive ~), to be tax exempt

collect taxes, tax collector

before tax, after tax

to assign a weight

purchasing power

 

 

Chapter 7 (38 entries)

The Global Economy

 

keep smth. afloat

be beset by (criticism, money troubles))

calamitous, calamity

confront smb., smth.

confrontation with (police), violent ~, to avoid ~

default (on a payment, mortgage)

devalue (currency), devaluation

embrace (changes, a new concept/idea); ~ smb. (to hug)

innovate (ideas, methods, equipment), innovative (approach, manager)

innovations (technological ~, managerial~)

peril, to be in ~, perilous (a ~ journey)

prod smb. into doing smth.; to give smb. a prod (= to persuade, encourage)

rampant (growth, development); to ramp up (production) = to increase

retaliate against smb. for smth.. ~ by doing smth.; retaliation (for the arrest of terrorists)

retaliatory (measures, attacks)

retract (a statement)

retractable (fishing rod, a knife with a ~ blade)

stagnate, stagnant (economy, water, stagnation (in economy, in smbТs career)

stoke up (inflation, economy; fears, public unrest)

unemployment rate

rate of inflation

International Monetary Fund (IMF)

Less Developed Countries (LDCТs)

Gross National Product (GNP)

Gross Domestic Product (GDP)

austerity programs

average life expectancy

infant mortality rate

per (1000) live births

literacy rate

per capita

slump (in prices, profits, sales); economic ~

war-fare

well up

undersell

casual (atmosphere, interview, clothes; ~ and unskilled workforce)

casualties = killed or injured in an accident or military action (heavy ~)

DIY (~market), do- it- yourself, do-it-yourselfer

 

 

»спользованна€ литература

  1. Thomas Kral. Economic Considerations. English Trough Content: Applied Economics. English Language Programs Division, US Information Agency, Washington, D.C. 1996, 2006.
  2. Longman Exams Dictionary. Pearson/Longman. England, 2006.
  3. Macmillan English Dictionary for Advanced Learners. International Student Edition. Macmillan Publishers Limited. United Kingdom, 2006.


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