Лекции.Орг
 

Категории:


Объективные признаки состава административного правонарушения: являются общественные отношения, урегулированные нормами права и охраняемые...


Агроценоз пшеничного поля: Рассмотрим агроценоз пшеничного поля. Его растительность составляют...


Назначение, устройство и порядок оборудования открытого сооружения для наблюдения на КНП командира МСВ

Критерии оценки знаний и умений на зачете



 

Учебным планом предусмотрено проведение обзорных и установочных занятий в период лабораторно-экзаменационной сессии. В конце каждого семестра студент сдает дифференцированный зачет.

Для получения зачета студент должен уметь:

а) Прочитать со словарем незнакомый текст на английском языке, содержащий изученный грамматический материал. Форма проверки понимания - устный или письменный перевод.

б) Прочитать без словаря текст, содержащий изученный грамматический материал и 5-8 незнакомых слов на 500-600 печатных знаков. Форма проверки понимания - передача содержания прочитанного на русском языке.

Таким образом, к зачету допускаются студенты, отработавшие материал практических занятий, сдавшие учебный материал по чтению за соответствующий курс и получившие положительную оценку по домашней контрольной работе.

До выполнения контрольного задания рекомендуется проработать следующие разделы по учебнику английского языка: 1. Порядок слов в английском предложении. 2. Простые времена действительного залога. 3. Страдательный залог. 4. Модальные глаголы. 5. Личные, указательные, притяжательные местоимения. 6. Сравнительная степень прилагательных и наречий. 7. Числительные. 8. Предлоги. 9. Герундий. 10. Инфинитив.

Для подготовки к дифференцированному зачету по дисциплине предлагаются примерные задания для самостоятельной работы и самопроверки.

 

 


Варианты контрольной работы

Вариант 1

1) Translate the text (Переведите текст).

 

WHAT IS ECONOMICS?

 

Economics (from the Greek "householdmanagement") is a social science that studies the production, distribution,trade and consumptionof goods and services.

Economics, which focuses on measurable variables, is broadly divided into two main branches:microeconomics, which deals with individual agents, such as households and businesses, and macroeconomics, which considers the economy as a whole, in which case it considers aggregate supply and demand for money, capital and commodities. Aspects receiving particular attention in economics are resource allocation,production,distribution, trade, and competition.

One of the things that people discover every day is that you cannot have everything. You are reminded of it every time you do shopping. Although you may see twenty or thirty items that you would really like to buy, you know that you will have to limit your selection to one or two. Everyone goes through life having to make choices.

Every business, even sports teams, must pick or choose from among the things they would like to have because they cannot have everything. Governments, too, cannot have everything. Every year the most important political debates concern questions about spending taxpayers' money.

Neither individuals nor societies can have all the things they would like to have. There simply is not enough of everything. Economists note that there is no limit to the amount or kinds of things that people want. There is, however, a limit to the resources, things used to produce goods and services, available to satisfy those needs. Once when the limit is reached, nothing else can be produced. In other words, when nation's resources (all its workers, factories, farms, etc.) are fully employed, the only way it will be able to increase the production of one thing will be by reducing the production of something else.

 

2) Поставьте 10 вопросов к тексту.

3) Составьте 10 предложений по теме: "Microeconomics"

4) Найдите в тексте предложения с глаголом to be, выпишите их и определите время.

5) Найдите в тексте предложения с модальными глаголами и выпишите их.

6) Разберите предложение по составу:

Aspects receiving particular attention in economics are resource allocation,production,distribution, trade, and competition.

Вариант 2

1) Translate the text (Переведите текст).

 

MICROECONOMICS VS. MACROECONOMICS

 

Economists have two ways of looking at economics and the economy. One is the macro approach, and the other is the micro. Macroeconomics is the study of the economy as a whole; microeconomics is the study of individual consumers and the business firm.

Macroeconomics examines questions such as how fast the economy is running; how much overall output is being generated; how much total income. It also seeks solutions to macro-economic problems such as how employment can be increased, and what can be done to increase the output of goods and services. Microeconomics examines cause-and-effect relationships that influence choices of indi­viduals, business firms and society.

It is concerned with things such as scarcity, choice and opportunity costs, and with production and consumption. Microeconomists to the study of prices and their relationship to units in the economy give principal emphasis.

 

FACTORS OF PRODUCTION

 

The resources that go into the creation of goods and services are called the factors of production. The factors of production include natural resources, human resources, capital and entrepreneurship. Each factor of production has a place in economic system, and each has a particular function. People who own or use a factor of production are expecting a “return or reward”. This generates income which, as it is spent, becomes a kind of fuel that drives the economy.

 

NATURAL RESOURCES OR “LAND”

 

Natural resources are the things provided by nature that go into the creation of goods and services. They include such things as minerals, wildlife and timber resources. Economists also use the term “land” when they speak of natural resources as a factor of production. The price paid for the use of land is called rent. Rent becomes income to the owner of the land.

 

HUMAN RESOURCES OR “LABOR”

 

Economists call the physical and mental effort that people put into the creation of goods and services labor. The price paid for the use of labor is called wages. Wages represent income to workers, who own their labor.

 

2) Поставьте 10 вопросов к тексту

3) Составьте 10 предложений по теме "Macroeconomics".

4) Найдите в тексте предложения с глаголом to be, выпишите их и определите время.

5) Найдите в тексте предложения с Present Indefinite Active Tense и выпишите их.

6) Разберите по составу предложение:

Economists call the physical and mental effort that people put into the creation of goods and services labor.

 

 

Вариант 3

1) Translate the text (Переведите текст).

PLANNED ECONOMIES

 

Planned economies are sometimes called “command economies” because the state commands the use of resources (such as labor and factories) that are used to produce goods and services, as it owns factories, land and natural resources. Planned economies are economies with a large amount of central planning and direction, when the government takes all the decisions; it decides production and consumption. Planning of this kind is obviously very difficult, very complicated to do, and the result is that there is no society, which is completely a command economy. The actual system employed varies from state to state, but command or planned economies have a number of common features.

Firstly, the state decides what the nation is to produce. It usually plans five years ahead. It is the intention of the planners that there should be enough goods and services.

Secondly, industries are asked to comply with these plans and each industry and factory is set a production target to meet. If each factory and farm meets its target, then the state will meet its targets as set out in the five-year plans. You could think of the factory and farm targets to be objectives, which, if met, allow the nation's overall aim to be reached.

A planned economy is simple to understand but not simple to operate.

A major problem faced by command or planned economies is that of deciding what to produce. Command economies tend to be slow when responding to changes in people's tastes and fashions. Planners are likely to under produce some items as they cannot predict changes in demand. Equally, some products, which consumers regard as obsolete and unattractive, may be overproduced.

Planners are afraid to produce goods and services unless they are sure substantial amounts will be purchased. This leads to delays and queues for some products.

 

2) Поставьте 10 вопросов к текстам.

3) Составьте 10 предложений по теме: "What is economics"

4) Найдите в текстах предложения с глаголом to be, выпишите их и определите время.

5) Найдите в текстах предложения с Passive Voice и выпишите их.

6) Разберите предложение по составу:

The actual system employed varies from state to state, but command or planned economies have a number of common features.

 

 

Вариант 4

1) Translate the text (Переведите текст).

MARKET ECONOMIES

In a true market economy, the government plays no role in the management of the economy; the government does not intervene in it. The system is based on private enterprise with private ownership of the means of production and private supplies of capital, which can be defined as surplus income available for investment in new business activities. Workers are paid wages by employers according to how skilled they are and how many firms wish to employ them. They spend their wages on the products and services they need. Consumers are willing to spend more on products and services, which are favoured. Firms producing these goods will make more profits and this will persuade more firms to produce these particular goods rather than less favoured ones.

Thus, we can see that in a market economy consumers decide what is to be produced. Consumers will be willing to pay high prices for products they particularly desire. Firms, which are privately owned, see the opportunity of increased profits and produce the new fashionable and favoured products.

Such a system is, at first view, very attractive. The economy adjusts automatically to meet changing demands. No planners have to be employed, which allows more resources to be available for production. Firms tend to be highly competitive in such an environment. New advanced products and low prices are good ways to increase sales and profits. Since all firms are privately owned they try to make the largest profits possible. In a free market individual people are free to pursue their own interests. They can become millionaires, for example. Suppose you invent a new kind of car. You want to make money out of it in your own interests. But when you have that car produced, you are in fact moving the production possibility frontier outwards. You actually make the society better-off by creating new jobs and opportunities, even though you become a millionaire in the process, and you do it without any government help or intervention.

 

2) Поставьте 10 вопросов к текстам.

3) Составьте 10 предложений по теме: "Planned economies"

4) Найдите в текстах предложения с глаголом to be, выпишите их и определите время.

5) Найдите в текстах предложения с модальными глаголами и выпишите их.

6) Разберите предложение по составу:

Firms producing these goods will make more profits and this will persuade more firms to produce these particular goods rather than less favoured ones.

 

Вариант 5

1) Translate the text (Переведите текст).

MIXED ECONOMIES

An economic system is the way in which a country uses its available resources to satisfy the demands of its inhabitants for goods and services. The more goods and services that can be produced from these limited resources, the higher the standard of living enjoyed by the country's citizens. Mixed economies is one of the main economic systems.

Command and market economies both have significant faults. Partly because of this, an intermediate system has developed, known as mixed economies.

A mixed economy contains elements of both market and planned economies. At one extreme, we have a command economy, which does not allow individuals to make economic decisions, at the other extreme we have a free market, where individuals exercise considerable economic freedom of choice without any government restrictions. Between these two extremes lies a mixed economy. In mixed economies some resources are controlled by the government whilst others are used in response to the demands of consumers.

Technically, all the economies of the world are mixed. Some countries are nearer to command economies, while others are closer to free market economies.

The aim of mixed economies is to avoid the disadvantages of both systems while enjoying the benefits that they both offer. Therefore, in a mixed economy the government and the private sector interact in solving economic problems. The state controls the share of the output through taxation and transfer payments and intervenes to supply essential items such as health, education and defense, while private firms produce cars, furniture, electrical items and similar, less essential products.

The UK is a country with mixed economy. Some services are provided by the state (for example, health care and defense) whilst a range of privately owned businesses offer other goods and services.

 

2) Поставьте 10 вопросов к текстам.

3) Составьте 10 предложений по теме: "Market economies"

4) Найдите в тексте предложения с глаголом to be, выпишите их и определите время.

5) Найдите в тексте предложения с Present Indefinite Active Tense и выпишите их.

6) Разберите предложение по составу:

The aim of mixed economies is to avoid the disadvantages of both systems while enjoying the benefits that they both offer.

 





Дата добавления: 2017-01-28; просмотров: 265 | Нарушение авторских прав


Рекомендуемый контект:


Похожая информация:

Поиск на сайте:


© 2015-2019 lektsii.org - Контакты - Последнее добавление

Ген: 0.01 с.