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Buttermilk (n) – сколотини




run through – пропускати

by the addition of – шляхом додавання

as far as I know – наскільки я знаю

the author stresses that – автор підкреслює, що

in fact – по суті, у дійсності

in the author’s opinion – на думку автора

 

 

Exercise 3. Learn the most useful and common words.

sufficiently – досить, достатньо

previously – попередньо, заздалегідь; раніше; колись

without – без

while – поки; в той час як; коли

 

INTERNATIONAL WORDS

Exercise 4. Read the following words and give their Ukrainian equivalents.

method ['meθəd] (n)

centrifugal [ˌsentrɪ'fjuːgəl] (adj)

pasteurize ['pæsʧəraɪz] (v)

result [rɪ'zʌlt] (v)

character ['kærəktə] (n)

homogenous [ˌhɔmə'ʤiːnɪəs] (adj)

neutralize ['njuːtrəlaɪz] (v)

product ['prɔdʌkt] (n)

 

GRAMMAR EXERCISES

Exercise 5. Read the following sentences and state the functions of –ed forms. Translate the sentences into the Ukrainian language.

1. To manufacture butter the cream is generally separated from the whole milk.

2. The starter consists of pasteurized skimmed milk previously curdled by the addition of lactic acid bacteria.

3. The granules of butter are drained of the remaining liquid.

4. When treated by the addition of a lactic acid bacteria sweet cream becomes sour.

5. They added the necessary amount of salt to the amount of water left in the butter.

 

Exercise 6. Read and translate the following sentences paying attention to the Passive Voice.

1. Butter can be made from the milk of sheep, goats, buffalo and other animals.

2. The cream is pasteurized, then treated by the addition of lactic acid bacteria.

3. The granules of butter are washed and salted, and worked into the finished homogenous product.

4. During the ripening process compounds are produced which give butters their characteristic flavours.

 

 

GENERAL COMPREHENSION EXERCISES

Exercise 7. Look through Text A. Find the answers to the following questions.

1. Whose milk is used for manufacturing butter?

2. What does starter consists of?

3. What taste has butter made from sweet cream?

 

Text A.

Butter manufacture

Butter can be made from the milk of sheep, goats, buffalo and other animals, but it is usually made from cow’s milk. The old-fashioned method was to allow the milk to stand for about a day and then place the cream, which had risen to the top, in earthen crocks, to be held there until sufficiently ripened or soured by the action of the lactic acid bacteria.

When the creamy method is used, the creamy is generally separated from the whole milk, while it is still sweet, by running it through centrifugal separators. It is pasteurized, then treated by the addition of a lactic acid starter. The starter consists of pasteurized skimmed milk previously curdled by the addition of pure cultures of lactic acid bacteria. Butter made from sweet cream, without the aid of a starter, is flat in flavour and lacking in aroma. Proper use of a good starter results in the butter, made from sweet cream, having a distinct character, good flavour and pleasant aroma.

The next step in the process is churning, which brings the fat globules into contact with each other so that unite into granules of butter. The granules are drained of the remaining liquid, which is the buttermilk. They are then washed and salted, and worked into the finished homogenous product.

 

VOCABULARY EXERCISES TO BE DONE AT HOME

Exercise 8. a) Do exercises 1,2,3 again.

b) Repeat the words in exercises 4 and memorize then.

 

Exercise 9. Translate the following word combinations in written form.

a) into Ukrainian

1. when the creamery method is used

2. by running the whole milk

3. through centrifugal separators

4. by the addition of a lactic acid starter

5. without the aid of a starter

6. in earthen crocks

7. to bring something into contact with

b) into English

1. застарілий метод

2. дозрівати

3. пастеризоване зняте молоко

4. масло, зроблене з вершків

5. несмачний

6. хороший смак і приємний запах

7. гранули висушуються

8. жирові кульки

9. згортатися

 

Exercise 10. Speak on butter manufacture according to the plan given below:

1. The old-fashioned method of butter manufacture.

2. The creamery method.

3. The steps in the process of butter manufacture.

 

INDIVIDUAL WORK.

COMPREHENSION, COMPOSITION, PRECIS WRITING.

 

Exercise 11. Read Text B attentively.

Text B.

Butter is the fat extracted from milk. Most of the butter is made from pasteurized cream to which a starter (a culture of bacteria) has been added. The main purpose of pasteurization is to reduce the number of microorganisms which might be pathogenic or produce undesirable flavour in the butter.

The amount of coloring matter to be added depend on the amount of natural colour in the cream. The amount of salt added varies with the amount of water left in the butter; the more water the more salt.

All butters contain a high percentage of vitamin A, the amount varying with the bread of cattle and the season of the year.

Exercise 12. Find in Text B English equivalents of the following Ukrainian word combinations:

1. витягнутий з

2. основна мета

3. знизити кількість мікроорганізмів

4. надавати небажаний смак

5. залежати від; варіюватися

 

Exercise 13. Read Text B again and give the title to the text.

Exercise 14. Finish the sentences according to the contents of Text B.

1. As far as I know butter is _________________________________________.

2. In fact the main purpose of _______________________________________.

3. The author stresses that the amount of coloring matter __________________.

4. In author’s opinion all butters _____________________________________.

 

Exercise 15. General Topics for Discussion and Composition (based on Text A and Text B)

- The Ingredients of Butter

- The Process of butter Manufacture

 

Unit VIII

VOCABULARY EXRCISES

WORDS TO REMEMBER

 

Exercise 1. a) Read the words aloud several times and memorize them.

b) Translate the following word combinations with the new words.





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