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The Geographical Position and The Political System of Great Britain



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ПРАКТИЧНЕ ЗАНЯТТЯ № 1

"Географічне розташування та політична система Великої Британії"

The Geographical Position of Great Britain

The Geographical Position and The Political System of Great Britain

The United Kingdom is a constitutional or parliamentary monarchy. It means that it has a monarch (either a queen or a king) as its Head of State but the monarch has very little power. The Queen (or King) reigns but she (he) doesn't rule. Parliament and the existent government have the power. Parliament and the monarch have different roles and they only meet together on symbolic occasions such as the coronation of a new monarch or the traditional annual opening of the Parliament.

The United Kingdom is very small comparing with the biggest countries of the world such as Russia, China or the USA. It occupies only 0.2 per cent of the world's surface and its total area is about 244,000 square kilometres. However there only 15 other countries with more people (there are about 57 million people in the UK now), and London is the world's seventh biggest city. Many foreigners say “English” and “England” when they mean “British” and “Britain”. This is very annoying for the 5 million Scotsmen, 2,8 million Welsh and 1,5 million Irishmen who are not certainly English but are all British.

The country whose official name is the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is made up of England (London), Wales (Cardiff), Scotland (Edinburgh) and Northern Ireland (Belfast) and is situated on the British Isles. This group of islands lies between the North Sea and the Atlantic Ocean and consists of two large islands, Great Britain and Ireland, and 550 smaller islands around them. It is separated from the continent of Europe by the English Channel, the narrowest part of which is called the Straight of Dover or Pas de Calais. In the west the UK is separated from Ireland by the Irish Sea and the North Channel. The seas around Britain are often rough and difficult to navigate during storms but they are full of fish and are extremely important for trade. Britain's main ports are London, Hull, Liverpool, Glasgow and some others. You will not find high mountains or large plains in Britain. Everything occupies very little place. The highest mountain, Ben Nevis, is in Scotland. In the centre of England is a range of hills called the Pennine Chain which is also known as the “backbone of England”. The Cambrian mountains in Wales and the Cambrian mountains in the Lake District in the north of England are not high but amazingly beautiful. The Cheviot Hills mark the boundary between England and Scotland, and physically Scotland is divided into three regions: the Highlands, the Central Lowlands and the Southern Uplands.

There are very many rivers in Great Britain but they are not very long. The longest river is the Severn in England, but the most famous is the Thames because it gave rise to the capital of the country ― London.

Great Britain is not very rich in mineral resources though there is oil in the North Sea, coal in Wales and in the north of England, tin and other non-ferrous metals in the south. The biggest cities of Britain are London, Birmingham, Manchester, Leeds, Liverpool, Glasgow and some others.

Grammar: PRESENT CONTINUOUS/PROGRESSIVE ACTIVE(тривалий час)

1. Дія, що відбувається в момент мовлення. E.g.: Please don't make so much noise, I'm studying.
2. Дія, що відбувається в певний період у теперішньому часі. E.g.: You're working hard today. I am going to school (in sb’s life).
3. Описання ситуації, яка поступово змінюється. E.g.: The population of the world is rising very fast. Is your English getting better?
4. Довготривала дія, яка не припиняється. E.g.: The earth is always moving. The sun is always shining. She is constantly thinking of you.
5. Запланована дія в найближчому майбутньому переважно з дієсловами руху arrive, leave, come, go, fly... (Future (personal) arrangements and plans) E.g.: I'm leaving/flying tomorrow. We are dining out on Saturday. He is taking his examination on Friday.
6. Повторювана дія у тепер. часі, що викликає у того, хто говорить, здивування чи роздратування (irritation). E.g.: He is always losing his keys.  
7. Майбутня тривала дія у підрядних реченнях умови і часу. E.g.: If I am sleeping when he comes, wake me up, please.

NB! Уживання Present Simple (Простого неозначеного часу):

1. Звичайна, повторювана, типова дія/характерна ознака, властивість підмета. E.g.: We live in Russia.
2. Зазначення загальновідомих фактів, простих істин. E.g.: The Earth goes round the Sun.  
3. Запланована дія в майбутньому відповідно до розкладу. E.g.: The next train leaves in an hour.  
4. Найближча дія в майбутньому. E.g.: What do we do now?
5. Дія, що відбувається в момент мовлення (замість Pr. Cont.), з дієсл., що не вжив. у часах групи Continuous. E.g.: I see a ship in the distance. I think it is wrong.
PRESENT CONTINUOUS/PROGRESSIVE ACTIVE
РОЗПОВІДНЕ СТВЕРДЖУВАЛЬНЕ РЕЧ.: TO BE (в PR.S.) + V-ing
I AMreading, we ARE reading, you AREreading, you ARE reading, s/he/it ISreading, they ARE reading.
→ Кінцева -Е опускається: write – writing, smoke – smoking. BUT!!! See – seeing.
→ Кінцева приголосна після короткої наголошеної голосної подвоюється:cut – cutting, begin – beginning, run – running, swim – swimming… NB! Open – opening, happen – happening.
→ Подвоєння кінцевої -L після короткої голосної:travel– travelling, control – controlling… ! Appeal – appealing, trouble – troubling, giggle – giggling…
→ Кінцева -Y не змінюється:fly – flying, dry – drying, cry – crying.
→ Пригол. + -IE + -ing → -Y + -ing:lie – lying, die– dying.
РОЗПОВІДНЕ ЗАПЕРЕЧНЕ РЕЧЕННЯ: TO BE (в PR.S.) + NOT + V-ing
I AM NOTreading, we ARE NOT reading, you ARE NOTreading, you ARE NOT reading, s/he/it IS NOTreading, they ARE NOT reading.
ПИТАЛЬНЕ РЕЧЕННЯ: TO BE (в PR.S.) + підмет + V-ing
AMI reading? ARE we reading? AREyou reading? ARE you reading? ISs/he/it reading? ARE they reading?
NB! Заперечне питальне речення: Areyou notreading?/Aren'tyou reading?
TIME EXPRESSIONS (обставини часу):(right) now, still, at the (present) moment, at this moment, at present, this minute, at 7 o’clock every day, from … till, while… Listen! Look!

Дієсл., які означають дію не як процес, а як дещо постійне, незмінне в часі (дієслова, які виражають розумовий стан, сприйняття, відчуття та деякі інші), не вживаються в Pr. Cont.:

1. Дієслова розумової діяльності (Brain work): Think, consider, know, believe, guess, imagine, realize, suppose, remember, recognize, understand, forget, forgive, remember, mind, notice, seem.
2. Дієслова відчуттів та емоційного стану (Feelings): love, like, dislike, hate, prefer, fear, envy, feel, doubt, hope, regret, wonder, appreciate.
3. Дієслова сприйняття (Senses): feel, hear, see, smell, taste, touch, sound.
4. Дієслова, що виражають стан абстрактні відносини (State): be, exist, concern, fit, suit, cost, mean, involve, deserve, care, weigh, owe, appear, miss.
5. Дієслова враження (Impression): astonish, impress, please, satisfy, surprise.
6. Дієслова володіння (Possession): belong, have, own, possess.
7. Дієслова волевиявлення і бажання (Wish): need, want, wish, desire, object, agree, refuse.
8. Дієслова вмісту (Contain): contain, consist of, include, depend on.
9. Дієслова, що вводять пряму мову (Introductory clauses for direct speech): answer, ask, reply, say.

Mixed Verbs

Дієслово Stative (State) Verbs (дієсл. стану) Не вживається в Present Continouos в значенні: Уживається в Present Continouos в значенні:
to hear "чути" She hears the music. (Non-Cont. Verb: She hears the music with her ears.) "отримувати звістку" She is hearing voices. (Normal Verb: She hears something others cannot hear. She is hearing voices in her mind.)
to see "бачити/розуміти" I see her. (Non-Cont. Verb: I see her with my eyes.) "дивитися, зустрічатися" I am seeing the doctor. (Normal Verb: I am visiting or consulting with a doctor/dentist/lawyer.) I am seeing her. (Normal Verb: I am having a relationship with her.) I am seeing her. (Normal Verb: I am having a relationship with her.)
to look "виглядати/здаватися на вигляд" Nancy looks tired. (Non-Cont. Verb: She seems tired.) "дивитися" Farah is looking at the pictures. (Normal Verb: She is looking with her eyes.)
to smell "пахнути" The coffee smells good. (Non-Cont. Verb: The coffee has a good smell.) "нюхати" I am smelling the flowers. (Normal Verb: I am sniffing the flowers to see what their smell is like.)
to taste "мати смак" The coffee tastes good. (Non-Cont. Verb: The coffee has a good taste.) "пробувати на смак" I am tasting the cake. (Normal Verb: I am trying the cake to see what it tastes like.)
to think "вважати/мати думку" He thinks the test is easy. (Non-Cont. Verb: He considers the test to be easy.) "розмірковувати/думати" She is thinking about the question. (Normal Verb: She is pondering the question, going over it in her mind.) What are you thinking about? (=What is going on in your mind?)
to have "мати" I have a dollar now. (Non-Cont. Verb: I possess a dollar.) "робити щось" NB! To have a bath (a shower), to have a nap, to have fun, to have breakfast (lunch, dinner, supper, tea), to have a music lesson, to have a pain, to have coffee: I'm having breakfast. She's having a bath. I am having fun now. (Normal Verb: I am experiencing fun now.)
to feel " здаватися, почуватися" The massage feels great. (Non-Cont. Verb: The massage has a pleasing feeling.) I don't feel well today. (Sometimes used as Non-Cont. Verb: I am a little sick.) "почуватися" I am not feeling well today. (Sometimes used as Normal Verb: I am a little sick.) NOTICE: The second meaning of "feel" is very flexible and there is no real difference in meaning between "I don't feel well today" and "I am not feeling well today."
to appear "здаватися" Donna appears confused. (Non-Cont. Verb: Donna seems confused.) "з’являтися" My favorite singer is appearing at the jazz club tonight. (Normal Verb: My favorite singer is giving a performance at the jazz club tonight.)
to miss "сумувати" John misses Sally. (Non-Cont. Verb: He is sad because she is not there.) "пропустити" Debbie is missing her favorite TV program. (Normal Verb: She is not there to see her favorite program.)
to weigh "важити" The table weighs a lot. (Non-Cont. Verb: The table is heavy.) "зважуватися" She is weighing herself. (Normal Verb: She is determining her weight.)
to be "бути" Joe is American. (Non-Cont. Verb: Joe is an American citizen.)   "поводитися як…, бути ніби…, поводитися не так, як зазвичай" Joe is being very American. (Normal Verb: Joe is behaving like a stereotypical American.) Joe is being very rude. (Normal Verb: Joe is behaving very rudely. Usually he is not rude.) Joe is being very formal. (Normal Verb: Joe is behaving very formally. Usually he is not formal.) NOTICE: Only rarely is "to be" used in a continuous form. This is most commonly done when a person is temporarily behaving badly or stereotypically. It can also be used when someone's behavior is noticeably different.

EXERCISES:





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