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Read the sentences, match them with the functions

Modal verbs and their equivalents

Ex. 1 Complete the chart with your own examples

Notion verbs Modal verbs Auxiliary verbs Linking verbs


Modal Verbs of necessity ------ Modals verbs ------ Modal Verbs of possibility

The modal verbs of necessity

√лагол Present Past Future — перфектной формой
Must ƒолженствование Must -- -- --
To have to ¬ынужденна€ необходимость ввиду сложившихс€ обсто€тельств   Have/has to   Had to   Shall/will + have to   --
Ought to ћоральный долг, вежливое насто€ние   Ought to   --   -- ќбозначает действие, которое требовалось и должно было состо€тс€, но не состо€лась
Should Ќеобходимость, чье-либо субъективное мнение или совет   Should   --   --   “о же
Need ќтсутствие необходимости, нецелесообразность   Need   --   -- ќбозначает действие, в совершении которого не было необходимости, надобности
To be to Ќеобходимость предусмотренна€ планом   Am/is/are to   Was/were to   -- ќбозначает действие, которое должно было совершитьс€, но не совершилось

The modal verbs of possibility

√лагол Present Past Future
Can/ To be able to ¬ыражает реальную возможность, физическую или умственную способность Can Am/is/are + able to Could Was/were + able to   Shall/will + able to
May/ be allowed to ¬ыражает допущение возможности, разрешение совершить действие May Am/is/are + allowed Might Was/were + allowed Shall/will + be allowed


Modal verbs with Simple Infinitive and Perfect Infinitive

Simple Infinitive

Some corrections must be made in the program.

Perfect Infinitive

Some mistakes must have been made in the program.


This result may be extended to all the cases. This result may have been extended to all the cases.
The difficulty must be overcome. The difficulty must have been overcome.

1.Read a web page, find the modal verbs. Match them with their meanings Ц a. not necessary, b. necessary, c. not allowed/ not possible, d. allowed/ possible

Wacky Weddings. com

Do you want a wedding with a difference? HereТs a list of wacky weddings we can arrange. Click on a wedding for prices and more information.

1. Say СI doТ with tropical fish as your uninvited guests! You donТt have to be an expert diver but inexperienced coupes have to take lessons. A seaweed bouquet is included in the price.

2. Are you a fan of the СKing of Rock and RollТ? Then we think this is the wedding for you. You can get married outside the front gates of Graceland, his old mansion home. We have just one rule Ц the groom mustnТt dress up like him.

3. Get married on a river or in a quiet cave. You neednТt be experienced canoeists but you must be able to swim. Non-swimmers canТt choose this wedding.

4. Exchange rings 4.000 m above sea level Ц then ski down together after the ceremony! But you donТt have to Ц instead, you can ride down in a snowmobile or ski lift.

5. Skydive and parachute to the ceremony! You canТt do this without going on a course of skydiving lessons.

Read the sentences, match them with the functions

1. You have to collect the flowers before five oТclock Ц the shop closes at five. 2. You must wear a suit ant a tie. 3. Can you park the cars in the town car park, please?


a. request b. obligation c. strong obligation from the speaker


3.Listen to a conversation on the beach. Complete the gaps.


¾ Hey, look at that yacht.

¾ They must be seriously Е

¾ Yes. Do you recognize them? They could be Е

¾ Or they may have won the lottery! And look! ThereТs a girl swimming near them.

¾ She might know them.

¾ I donТt think so. SheТs a long way from the Е

¾ She may not realize that. She might be snorkeling.

¾ One thingТs for sure, she canТt be Е about swimming back. Or she might not know about the Е!

¾ Can you see that guy over there? HeТs horribly sunburnt!

¾ Wow! She must have been in the sun all day.

¾ Mm. he might have fallen Е

¾ Well, he canТt have put any sun cream on, thatТs for sure.


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