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Basalt, Marble, Dolomite, Chalk, Sandstone



a dark-green or black rock formed when hot liquid rock from a volcano becomes solid   a type of dark grey stone that breaks easily into flat thin pieces   a type of soft white stone; a white sedimentary rock consisting of nearly pure calcium carbonate
a hard smooth metamor-phic rock from the recry-stallization of a limestone; it is used for building and making statues; it is white with dark lines   a type of pale yellow stone used for building, made from sand that has become hard over many years   a type of white or grey stone containing calcium, used for building and making cement
a common, coarse-grained, light-colored, hard igneous rock that consists chiefly of quartz, microcline and mica, and is used in monuments and for building. a sedimentary rock; a limestone or marble rich in magnesium carbonate; it is used as an ornamental stone, a concrete aggregate   a chemical sedimentary rock; a colourless or white mineral sometimes tinted by impurities, found in beds as an evaporate; it is used as an ornamental material

 

Exercise 12. Almost all of the most famous buildings throughout the world are constructed or decorated with natural stones of some sort. It has long been a tradition to use rock in its many forms to build structures for a variety of uses.Coliseums, museums, grand castles, and many other structures were made using stone.

A) Some examples of the most beautiful stone constructions of the world are given below. First of all, match their names with the photographs and then with the texts below.

Exercise 15 In the text below Martin is giving information about people’s roles on a construction site and shows some people working on site. Choose the correct verb forms to complete this text.

‘ ... So, we have / are having around 100 people on site every day. Today, most people work/are working on the basic structure of the building. The people in green jackets over there are concrete finishers from DKI Cement, the cement supplier. On this project, they supervise / are supervising the unskilled labourers, who are all local people. Of course, there are always a lot of heavy equipment operators. They handle / are handling the cranes, the cement mixers, and so on. The drivers bring / are bringing in fresh loads of cement several times a day. Over there, painters paint/are painting the staircase, and the electricians repair/are repairing one of the generators.’

Exercise 16. Complete this conversation using the present continuous or present simple (with the future meaning) of the verbs in brackets.

A: Hi. What __________________ (you / to do) tomorrow? _______________ (you/to meet) the clients?

B: Yes, that’s right. They ______________ (to come) around nine o’clock because their airplane ____________ (to arrive) at 8.30. I_______________ (to give) a presentation first and then I _______________ (to take) them to the site.

A: How ________________ (you/to get) there? By car?

B: I usually _____________ (to go) by car,butthis timeI ___________ (to use) the minibus as there are seven people in the group.

A: What_____________ (you/to plan) to show them? The foundations?

B: Yes. And then we ________________ (to go) over to the storage area to look at the glass panels.

A: Where ________________ (you/to have) lunch? I might join you.

B: In the Italian restaurant opposite the construction site.

 

Exercise 17. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form.

1. Use of stone _________ (to depend) on the nature of the work, type of the structural element and its quality, availability and transportation cost. 2. They __________ (to transport) stone to the construction site at the moment. 3. The simplest and cheapest stonework _________ (to be) rubble. 4. Many stones _________ (to be) strong enough to provide monolithic supports. 5. The weight of stone usually _________ (to create) problems stability when loads push at an angle. 6. They _________ (to build) a unique stone bridge now. 7. The engineers _________ (to work) on the design at the moment. 8. Stone __________ (to be) strong and durable but it __________ (not/ to have) high tensile strength. 9. Natural stone __________ (to include) different rocks. 10. Look! They __________ (to pour) the mortar at the moment. 11. The cement __________ (to arrive) three times a day.

Writing

Exercise 18. Translate the sentences into English using active vocabulary.

1. Природний камінь є одним з найпопулярніших будівельних і обробних матеріалів. 2. З давніх часів природний камінь застосовували для спорудження прекрасних палаців і храмів, для створення скульптур і статуй, для виготовлення підвіконь, підлоги і інших елементів інтер'єру. 3. У сучасному світі природний камінь практично не використовують як основний будівельний матеріал, він служить як обробний або декоративний матеріал. 4. Природний камінь служить прекрасним матеріалом для виготовлення різних декоративних сходів, підлоги, облицювання і ін. 5. Існує дуже велика різноманітність природного каменю: мармур, травертин, доломіт, вапняк, туф, граніт і інші. 6. Граніт відмінно переносить постійні зміни вологості і температури та істотно не змінює своїх розмірів. 7. Багато храмів і палаців збереглись тому, що вони були збудовані з міцного природного каменю. 8. Граніт часто використовується для облицювання великих будівель. 9. Велика китайська стіна – це найбільша споруда на Землі, збудована з різних матеріалів: цегли, граніту і різних місцевих пород.

 

Speaking and writing

Exercise 19. Prepare a short report about one of the stones (rocks) and tell your classmates about it. Listen to other students’ reports and complete the table below.





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