George Balanchine was a Russian ballet dancer and choreographer with the "Ballets Russes" of Sergei Diaghilev, and became one of the foremost choreographers of the 20th century. He co-founded the School of American Ballet, and started the tradition of seasonal performances of "The Nutcracker" since 1954.
He was born Georgi Melitonovich Balanchivadze on January 22, 1904, into a family of Russian-Georgian heritage, in St. Petersburg, Russia. His father, Meliton Balanchivadze, was a noted Georgian composer. In 1913 he was admitted in the ballet class of the Imperial Ballet School in St. Petersburg. In 1914 he made his stage debut with the Mariinsky Imperial Ballet as Cupid in "The Sleeping Beauty" ballet by Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky. In 1921 Balanchine graduated as a classic ballet dancer. He also studied piano and composition at the St. Petersburg Conservatory. From 1921-1924 he was a dancer with the State Academic Theatre of Opera and Ballet in Petrograd (St. Petersburg).
In 1924 he emigrated from Russia together with his first wife, ballerina Tamara Geva. That same year auditioned for and was hired as a dancer by impresario Sergei Diaghilev for his "Russian Ballet". A knee injury forced him to quit dancing, and Diaghilev employed him as a choreographer. That job made Balanchine famous. From 1924-1929 he created nine major ballets as well as choreographing smaller productions. He choreographed such ballets as "L'Enfant et les Sortileges" by Maurice Ravel, "Apollon Musagete" and "Le Chant du Rossignol" by Igor Stravinsky, in which he introduced then 14-year-old Alicia Markova.
After the death of Diaghilev, Balanchine had a few uncertain years. He played a cameo role as a dancer in Dark Red Roses (1930) with Lydia Lopokova, a former Diaghilev ballerina. After a brief stint with the Royal Danish Ballet in Copenhagen, Balanchine moved to Monte Carlo. There, from 1930-1933, he choreographed three ballets for "Ballets Russes de Monte Carlo", starring Tamara Toumanova. In 1933 he formed "Les Ballets" with Boris Kochno, Diaghilev's last private secretary, and made performances in London. There he was met the young American impresario Lincoln Kirstein, who invited him to start a ballet company in New York. Balanchine said, "Yes. But first, a school", and came to New York at the end of 1933. There he co-founded The School of American Ballet, which opened its doors on January 2, 1934. In 1935 he co-founded The American Ballet, which became the resident company of the Metropolitan Opera for a few years until their separation from the Opera in 1938.
For the Christmas of 1954, Balanchine staged "The Nutcracker" by Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky, and started the tradition of seasonal performances of this classic ballet. His choreography was re-created for the 1993 film version of the production, The Nutcracker (1993). Balanchine and New York City Ballet made a home in the New York State Theater building at Lincoln Center, designed by Philip Johnson, in 1964. The new home for Balanchine's ballet was commissioned and funded with the help of Lincoln Kirstein, who served as the general director of Balanchine's ballet company from 1933-1989. He died in New York on April 30, 1983, and was laid to rest in Oakland Cemetery, Sag Harbor, New York.
ѕриложение3: Tаблица неправильных глаголов.
|Infinitive (V1)||Past Simple (V2)||Past Participle(V3)||перевод|
|1 be||was/were||been||быть, находитьс€|
|18 learn||learnt||learnt||учить, узнавать|
|24 meet||met||met||встречать, знакомитьс€|
- Ѕурова «.». ”чебник английского €зыка дл€ гуманитарных специальностей вузов, ћ.: јйрис-пресс, 2006.
- Ћиберман Ќ. ». јнглийский €зык дл€ вузов искусств. ћ.: ¬ысш. шк. 1989.
- √олицынский ё. Ѕ. √рамматика: —борник упражнений. Ц 6-е изд., Ц —ѕб.: ј–ќ, 2010.