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Task 1. Discuss with a partner. 1. Do you agree or disagree with the quotation above?




1. Do you agree or disagree with the quotation above?

2. What does the quantum mechanics study?

Task 2. Scan the text «Quantum Mechanics» and find the names of the scientists who formulated the quantum theory.

Quantum Mechanics

Quantum mechanics (QM – also known as quantum physics, or quantum theory) is a branch of physics dealing with physical phenomena at microscopic scales, where the action is on the order of the Planck constant. Quantum mechanics departs from classical mechanics primarily at the quantum realm of atomic and subatomic length scales. QM provides a mathematical description of much of the dual particle-like and wave-like behaviour and interactions of energy and matter.

In advanced topics of quantum mechanics, some of these behaviours are macroscopic and only emerge at extreme (i.e. very low or very high) energies or temperatures. The name quantum mechanics derives from the observation that some physical quantities can change only in discrete amounts (Latin quanta), and not in a continuous way. For example, the angular momentum of an electron bound to an atom or molecule is quantized. In the context of quantum mechanics, the wave–particle duality of energy and matter and the uncertainty principle provide a unified view of the behavior of photons, electrons, and other atomic-scale objects.

The mathematical formulations of quantum mechanics are abstract. A mathematical function called the wave function provides information about the probability amplitude of position, momentum, and other physical properties of a particle.

The earliest versions of quantum mechanics were formulated in the first decade of the 20th century. At around the same time, the atomic theory and the corpuscular theory of light (as updated by Einstein) first came to be widely accepted as the scientific fact; these latter theories can be viewed as quantum theories of matter and electromagnetic radiation, respectively. The early quantum theory was significantly reformulated in the mid-1920s by Werner Heisenberg, Max Born, Wolfgang Pauli and their collaborators, and the Copenhagen interpretation of Niels Bohr became widely accepted. By 1930, quantum mechanics had been further unified and formalized by the work of Paul Dirac and John von Neumann, with a greater emphasis placed on measurement in quantum mechanics, the statistical nature of our knowledge of reality, and philosophical speculation about the role of the observer. Quantum mechanics has since branched out into almost every aspect of the 20th century physics and other disciplines, such as quantum chemistry, quantum electronics, quantum optics, and quantum information science. Much 19th century physics has been re-evaluated as the «classical limit» of quantum mechanics, and its more advanced developments in terms of the quantum field theory, the string theory, and speculative quantum gravity theories. (From www.bbc.co.uk)





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