§ 250.The participle may serve as adverbial modifier of a
verb. In this function it denotes a second action accompanying the
action of the predicate verb. In this case it is preceded by acon-
junction which lends it adverbial meaning such as time, conces-
sion, condition and comparison. The most commonly occurring of
the conjunctions are: when, till, until, once, as, if, unless,
though, as though, even if and even when.
The participle is not lexically dependent in this function — it
can be used after any verb.
e.g. She's a terror when roused.
Once arrivedat the quay alongside which lay the big transat-
lantic liner, the detective became brisk and alert.
Soames, privately, and as a businessman, had always so con-
ducted himself that if cornered,he need never tell a direct
He did not usually utter a word unless spoken to.
He had till Sunday evening to think it over; for even if post-
ednow the letter could not reach John till Monday.
Here the tram lines ended, so that men returning home could
doze in their seats until rousedby their journey's end.
"Does he know it?" said David Rubin, as though surprised.
The subject of the action expressed by the participle in the
above function is the same person or thing as denoted by the sub-
ject of the sentence.
Note 1. Notice the set phrase come to that ('кстати', 'уж если об этом зашла
e.g. "But who is to be the judge of a man's fitness or unfitness?""You'd have to
have a scientific man as judge. Come to that, Ithink you'd be a pretty good
Note 2. Some participles have actually come to be used as conjunctions.
e.g. Roger could be re-elected providedhe received the 290 votes from his own side.
§ 251.The participle may be part of an absolute construction. In
this case it has a subject of its own. The participle serves to indicate
aresultant state which is parallel to the action of the predicate verb.
Absolute constructions may be non-prepositional and preposi-
tional. In the latter case they are introduced by the preposition with.
The main function of the absolute construction with the parti-
ciple is to describe the appearance, behaviour or inner state of the
person denoted by the subject of the sentence. In other words, it
serves as an adverbial modifier of descriptive circumstances.This
function can be performed by absolute constructions, non-preposi-
tional (a) and prepositional (b).
e.g. a) In the library Diana, herface flushed,talked to a young
We sat silent, her eyes still fixed on mine.
She got up, the clothes foldedover her arm.
b) She stood with her arms folded,smoking, staring thought-
He sat with his knees partedturning his wrists vaguely.
I lay idly in a big chair, talking now and then, listening;
listening sometimes withmy eyes closed.
A peculiar feature of non-prepositional absolute constructions
with the participle is that sometimes the nouns in them are used
without any article.
e.g. She advanced two more strides and waited, head half turned.
The President listened to her, standing at the fire-place, head
Joel sat scrunched in a corner of the seat, elbow proppedon
window frame, chin cuppedin hand, trying hard to keep
Absolute constructions with the participle are usually found
in literary style.
Note. Notice the set phrase all things considered.
e.g. All things considered, there is little hope of their withdrawal.