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B. Describe the pictures. Use the suggested phrases




С See if the travellers have acted sessibly. Support your idea.

a) give me a walking tour every time; you can't beat (hitch-) hiking; need you take so much luggage? b) to get to wild, un­inhabited places; to be hardly able to go on; to be nearly drowned in a swamp; unimaginable hardships; to overcome the obstacles; c) there was a turn in the weather, it was pour­ing; flashes of lightning, rolls of thunder, I wish I were in a railway carriage now!; d) to climb the steepest rocks; to face the danger of...; to get to places where no man's foot has ever stepped; e) to reach the top in safety, to be hardly able to be­lieve one's eyes; you could knock me down with a feather.

STUDIES OF WRITTEN ENGLISH

VIII

Different patterns of writing (see "Studies" in Unit One) seldom occur alone, more often they blend into one another, especially in letter writing.

Letteris a specific kind of written composition involving a concrete writer, message and a concrete reader. In many ways it is a free composition. A letter is in a sense, a theme, gov­erned by the same rules of writing that govern every other kind of composition. It must be clear, well organized, coher­ent. And it should be interesting.

But a letter is also governed by certain other laws, or con­ventions of usage, which the letter writer cannot ignore.

These are the parts of a letter: the heading, the inside ad­dress, the greeting, the body of the letter, the complimentary close, the signature.

For each of these parts usage has prescribed certain set forms depending on different types of letters — personal or business letters, informal or formal social notes.

The heading.The parts of a heading, written in the fol­lowing order, are the street, address, the name of a city or town (the name of the state in the U.S.A.), the date, е.g.

Vine Cottage Oxford Road Abingdon-on-Thames 13 May 19...

N о t e: In Great Britain very often the house is not numbered but has a "proper" name, like "Vine Cottage",

The inside address. In a business letter the inside ad­dress is the address of the person written to. In personal let­ter the inside address is usually omitted.

In a business letter it is always correct to use a personal title with the name of the person addressed. A business title should not precede the name. Correct personal titles are: Mr., Mrs., Miss, Dr., Professor, Messrs., е.g.

Dr. Т. С Howard

Superintendent of Schools

The Greeting.The following forms are correct for busi­ness and professional letters:

Gentlemen: Ladies:

Dear Sir: Dear Madam:

My dear Sir. My dear Madam:

Dear Mr. Warren: Dear Miss Howard:

In personal letters either a colon or a comma may be used after the greeting. A comma is considered less formal. In personal letters the range of greetings is unlimited and in­formal, like "My own Lovey-Dovey" of Judy's "Dear Daddy Long-Legs".

The Body of the Letter. A good letter should be clear, di­rect, coherent, dignified and courteous.

The Complimentary Close. Correct forms for business let­ters are:

Yours truly, Yours very truly, Very truly yours,

Respectfully yours, Faithfully yours. Sincerely yours,

Yours sincerely, Cordially yours.

The Signature. Some of the conventions should be ob­served: a) neither professional titles, nor academic degress should be used with a signature; b) an unmarried woman should sign herself as Miss Laura Blank, but she may place Miss in parentheses before her name if she feels that it is necessary for proper identification; c) a married woman or a widow signs her own name, not her married name. For ex­ample, Diana Holiday Brown is her own name; Mrs. George Brown is her married name,

Here is an example of a business letter:

Dear Miss Carnaby,

Allow me to enclose a contribution to your very deserv­ing Fund before it is finally wound up.

Yours very truly,

Hercule Poirot.

Assignments:






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